Editing Hydrogeology of Ethiopia

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The key natural groundwater quality issues are:
 
The key natural groundwater quality issues are:
  
;'''Fluoride'''.  
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;'''Fluoride'''. Fluoride has long been a recognised health concern in Ethiopia. Concentrations of fluoride in groundwater that are higher than the WHO guideline value of 1.5 mg/l have been found across Ethiopia, but are concentrated in the Rift Valley, linked to the volcanic geology. Groundwater fluoride values of greater than 10 mg/l have been found in some areas ([http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/id/eprint/516312/1/Ethiopia.pdf Smedley 2001]). As a result of the long-term use of high-fluoride drinking water, both dental and skeletal fluorosis are known to occur in populations from the Rift Valley. However, more research is needed on the links between geology, hydrogeology, fluoride concentrations and fluorosis in order to target interventions.
  
Fluoride has long been a recognised health concern in Ethiopia. Concentrations of fluoride in groundwater that are higher than the WHO guideline value of 1.5 mg/l have been found across Ethiopia, but are concentrated in the Rift Valley, linked to the volcanic geology. Groundwater fluoride values of greater than 10 mg/l have been found in some areas ([http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/id/eprint/516312/1/Ethiopia.pdf Smedley 2001]). As a result of the long-term use of high-fluoride drinking water, both dental and skeletal fluorosis are known to occur in populations from the Rift Valley. However, more research is needed on the links between geology, hydrogeology, fluoride concentrations and fluorosis in order to target interventions.
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;'''Salinity'''. High values of total dissolved salts in volcanic aquifers in the Rift Valley are linked to the influence of geothermal waters. Increased salinity in many groundwaters in sedimentary aquifers in the south, southeast and northeast of the country, is linked to the dissolution of evaporite minerals.  
 
 
;'''Salinity'''.  
 
 
 
High values of total dissolved salts in volcanic aquifers in the Rift Valley are linked to the influence of geothermal waters. Increased salinity in many groundwaters in sedimentary aquifers in the south, southeast and northeast of the country, is linked to the dissolution of evaporite minerals.  
 
  
 
Key references for more information on groundwater quality in Ethiopia are:
 
Key references for more information on groundwater quality in Ethiopia are:

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