Editing Hydrogeology of Gambia

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The Republic of the Gambia is the smallest mainland African country. By the 14th century, most of what is now Gambia was part of the Mali empire. From the 15th century, many European powers established trading posts in the Senegambia area, which included the Malinke and Wolof kingdoms and was also inhabited by the pastoral nomadic Fulani who are found throughout West Africa. Portuguese traders were followed by colonial rule from first Britain, then France, then Britain again from the late 16th century. The Gambia won independence in 1965, and saw relatively stable government until an attempted coup in 1981, in the aftermath of which the Gambia and Senegal formed the Senegambia Confederation in 1982. The Gambia withdrew from the confederation in 1989. Another military uprising in 1994 saw the first change in president since independence, with a full return to democratic elections in 2001. The second president was ousted in elections in 2017. Gambia left the Commonwealth in 2013 and applied to return in 2018.  
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The Republic of the Gambia is the smallest mainland African country, bordering the Gambia River with a coastline on the Atlantic Ocean but otherwise surrounded by Senegal. By the 14th century, most of what is now Gambia was part of the Mali empire. From the 15th century, many European powers established trading posts in the Senegambia area, which included the Malinke and Wolof kingdoms and was also inhabited by the pastoral nomadic Fulani who are found throughout West Africa. Portuguese traders were followed by colonial rule from first Britain, then France, then Britain again from the late 16th century. The Gambia won independence in 1965, and saw relatively stable government until an attempted coup in 1981, in the aftermath of which the Gambia and Senegal formed the Senegambia Confederation in 1982. The Gambia withdrew from the confederation in 1989. Another military uprising in 1994 saw the first change in president since independence, with a full return to democratic elections in 2001. The second president was ousted in elections in 2017. Gambia left the Commonwealth in 2013 and applied to return in 2018.  
  
 
The Arab and then transatlantic slave trades were dominant economic activities from the 10th to the 19th centuries. Today, agriculture accounts for around 30% of GDP and employs about 70% of the labour force, with groundnuts for export a particularly important crop, although rice has been promoted in an attempt to diversify the agricultural economy. Manufacturing is largely based on agriculture, including groundnut processing. The port of Banjul is important in the export and re-export of agricultural products. Services, particularly tourism, account for about 60% of GDP: the tourism sector is largely built around the ecology and wildlife of the Gambia River floodplain.  
 
The Arab and then transatlantic slave trades were dominant economic activities from the 10th to the 19th centuries. Today, agriculture accounts for around 30% of GDP and employs about 70% of the labour force, with groundnuts for export a particularly important crop, although rice has been promoted in an attempt to diversify the agricultural economy. Manufacturing is largely based on agriculture, including groundnut processing. The port of Banjul is important in the export and re-export of agricultural products. Services, particularly tourism, account for about 60% of GDP: the tourism sector is largely built around the ecology and wildlife of the Gambia River floodplain.  
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{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
|-
 
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|Capital city || Banjul
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|Estimated Population in 2013* || 1,849,285
 
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|Region || West Africa
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|Rural Population (% of total)* || 42%
 
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|Border countries || Senegal
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|Total Surface Area* || 10,120 sq km
 
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|Total surface area* || 11,300 km<sup>2</sup>  ( 1,130,000 ha)
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|Agricultural Land (% of total area)* || 60%
 
|-
 
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|Total population (2015)* ||  
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|Capital City || Banjul
 
|-
 
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|Rural population (2015)* || 816,000 (41%)
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|Region || West Africa
 
|-
 
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|Urban population (2015)* || 1,175,000 (59%)
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|Border Countries || Senegal
 
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|UN Human Development Index (HDI) [highest = 1] (2014)*|| 0.4406
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|Annual Freshwater Withdrawal (2013)* || 91 Million cubic metres
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|-
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|Annual Freshwater Withdrawal for Agriculture* || 43%
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|Annual Freshwater Withdrawal for Domestic Use* || 37%
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|-
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|Annual Freshwater Withdrawal for Industry* || 19%
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|-
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|Rural Population with Access to Improved Water Source* ||84%
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|-
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|Urban Population with Access to Improved Water Source* || 94%
 
|}
 
|}
  
<nowiki>*</nowiki> Source: [http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/data/query/index.html?lang=en FAO Aquastat]
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<nowiki>*</nowiki> Source: World Bank
 
 
  
  

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