Editing Hydrogeology of Ghana

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===Groundwater Status===
 
===Groundwater Status===
  
Available data from past studies indicate that groundwater abstracted from boreholes in Ghana is generally of good chemical and microbiological quality and thus suitable for domestic (including drinking), agricultural and industrial uses. However, there are particular problems with the quality of groundwater in certain places. These problems include:  
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Available data from past studies indicate that groundwater abstracted from boreholes in Ghana is generally of good chemical and microbiological quality and thus suitable for domestic (including drinking), agricultural and industrial uses. However, there are particular problems with the quality of groundwater in certain locations. These problems include:  
  
 
* low pH (3.5-6.0) waters, found mostly in the forest zones of southern Ghana;  
 
* low pH (3.5-6.0) waters, found mostly in the forest zones of southern Ghana;  
* high concentrations of iron in many places throughout the country;  
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* high concentration of iron in many places throughout the country;  
* high natural concentrations of manganese and fluoride, mostly in the north, including the Upper East and Northern regions; and  
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* high natural concentrations of manganese and fluoride, mostly in the north of the country; and  
* high levels of mineralisation, with total dissolved solids (TDS) in the range of 2000 up to more than 14,000 mg/l in some coastal aquifers, largely due to high salt (sodium chloride) from sea water intrusion (Kortatsi 1994).  
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* high mineralisation with TDS in the range of 2000-14,584 mg/l in some coastal aquifers (Kortatsi 1994).  
  
Many of these groundwater quality problems are natural in origin. A key process is geochemical weathering of the bedrock under particular hydrogeological and hydrochemical conditions, which can lead to high fluoride, iron and manganese, among other elements. Local hydrogeological conditions can also cause naturally low pH levels. Others are caused or worsened by human activity. Sea water intrusion is often related to over-abstraction of groundwater in coastal aquifers. There are also some isolated reports of high groundwater nitrate concentrations, thought to be linked to the increasing use of artificial fertiliser by farmers, although there may also be a link between increased nitrate concentrations and local contamination by
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These problems are generally attributed to geochemical weathering of the bedrock, anthropogenic activities, and to sea water intrusion in the case of high concentration of sodium chloride in coastal aquifers. There are also some isolated instances of high nitrate concentrations, thought to be linked to the increasing use of artificial fertiliser by farmers, although there may also be a link between increased nitrate concentrations and local contamination by
 
human and/or animal waste.
 
human and/or animal waste.
  

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