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[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Ghana
 
[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Ghana
  
[[File:CC-BY-SA_logo_88x31.png | frame | This work is licensed under a [https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License]]]
 
  
Farmers are known to be living in the area of present day Ghana were farmers by the 5th century BC, and by the 9th century AD the then Ghana Empire was a major power, and included parts of modern Senegal, Mauritania and Mali. After the 10th century, the empire came under Almovarid rule, and was later incorporated into Sahelian empires such as the Mali Empire. From the 16th century much of the area was brought under the governance of the Ashanti Empire. Many European powers contested the area for trading rights from the 15th century, and modern-day Ghana fell under British colonial rule from the late 19th century. After Ghana gained independence in 1957, the country saw a series of alternating military and civilian governments, and was often affected by economic instability. Since 1992, when multi-party system politics was restored, Ghana has enjoyed relative political stability, and has seen growing economic prosperity.  
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After Ghana gained independence from British colonial rule 1957, the country saw a series of alternating military and civilian governments, and was often affected by economic instability. Since 1992, when multi-party system politics was restored, Ghana has enjoyed relative political stability, and has seen growing economic prosperity.  
  
Ghana is a middle income country, with services accounting for around half of GDP, followed by manufacturing, extractive industries (including oil, discovered offshore in 2007; and gold, diamonds and a wide range of precious and industrial minerals). Agriculture is also important, particularly cocoa, of which Ghana is one of the world’s largest producers.
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Ghana is now a middle income country, with services accounting for around half of GDP, followed by manufacturing, extractive industries (including oil, discovered offshore in 2007; and gold, diamonds and a wide range of precious and industrial minerals). Agriculture is also important, particularly cocoa, of which Ghana is one of the world’s largest producers.
  
 
Ghana has major surface water resources in Lake Volta and its tributary rivers, but away from these groundwater is a key resource, particularly in dry seasons and in the drier north. Overall some 40% of households depend on groundwater, and this rises to 60% in rural areas. In the drier north, urban areas also depend primarily on groundwater. Rural areas, particularly in the north of the country, still lag behind in water supply infrastructure.  
 
Ghana has major surface water resources in Lake Volta and its tributary rivers, but away from these groundwater is a key resource, particularly in dry seasons and in the drier north. Overall some 40% of households depend on groundwater, and this rises to 60% in rural areas. In the drier north, urban areas also depend primarily on groundwater. Rural areas, particularly in the north of the country, still lag behind in water supply infrastructure.  
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|Freshwater withdrawal as % of total renewable water resources ||1.747 || || || ||  
 
|Freshwater withdrawal as % of total renewable water resources ||1.747 || || || ||  
 
|-
 
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|Total renewable groundwater (Million cubic metres/year) ||  || || ||26,300 ||
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|Renewable groundwater resources (Million cubic metres/year) || No data || No data || No data || No data || No data
|-
 
|Exploitable: Regular renewable groundwater (Million cubic metres/year) || No data || No data || No data || No data || No data
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Groundwater produced internally (Million cubic metres/year) || || ||  ||26,300 ||  
 
|Groundwater produced internally (Million cubic metres/year) || || ||  ||26,300 ||  
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The geology map on this page shows a simplified version of the geology at a national scale (see the [[Geology | geology resource page]] for more details).   
 
The geology map on this page shows a simplified version of the geology at a national scale (see the [[Geology | geology resource page]] for more details).   
 
[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html '''Download a GIS shapefile of the Ghana geology and hydrogeology map'''].
 
  
 
Other, larger scale, geological maps are available in printed format: see the Key Geology References section below for more details.
 
Other, larger scale, geological maps are available in printed format: see the Key Geology References section below for more details.
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[[ File:Ghana_Geology3.png | center | thumb| 400px | Geology of Ghana at 1:5 million scale. Developed from USGS map (Persits et al. 2002). For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geology | geology resource page]]. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html Download a GIS shapefile of the Ghana geology and hydrogeology map].]]
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[[ File:Ghana_Geology2.png | center | thumb| 500px | Geology of Ghana at 1:5 million scale. Developed from USGS map (Persits et al. 2002). For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geology | geology resource page]]]]
 
   
 
   
  
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The hydrogeology map on this page shows a simplified version of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the [[Hydrogeology Map | hydrogeology map]] resource page for more details).  
 
The hydrogeology map on this page shows a simplified version of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the [[Hydrogeology Map | hydrogeology map]] resource page for more details).  
 
[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html '''Download a GIS shapefile of the Ghana geology and hydrogeology map'''].
 
  
 
Other hydrogeological maps at different scales and in different formats have been produced; some are listed in the key hydrogeology references section below.  
 
Other hydrogeological maps at different scales and in different formats have been produced; some are listed in the key hydrogeology references section below.  
  
  
[[File:Ghana_Hydrogeology3.png | center | thumb| 400px| Hydrogeology of Ghana at 1:5million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | hydrogeology map]] resource page. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html Download a GIS shapefile of the Ghana geology and hydrogeology map].]]
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[[File:Ghana_Hydrogeology2.png | center | thumb| 500px| Hydrogeology of Ghana at 1:5million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Hydrogeology Map | hydrogeology map]] resource page]]
  
  
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==References==
 
==References==
  
Many of the references below, and others relating to the hydrogeology of Ghana, can be found in the [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=listResults&title_search=&author_search=&category_search=&country_search=GH&placeboolean=AND&singlecountry=1 Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].
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Many of the references below, and others relating to the hydrogeology of Ghana, can be found in the [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/searchResults.cfm?title_search=&author_search=&category_search=&country_search=GH&placeboolean=AND&singlecountry=1 Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].
  
 
===Key Geology References===
 
===Key Geology References===
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===Key Hydrogeology References===
 
===Key Hydrogeology References===
  
Agyekum WA and Dapaah-Siakwan S. 2008. The Occurrence of Groundwater in Northeastern Ghana. In: Adelana and MacDonald (eds), Applied Groundwater Studies in Africa: IAH Selected Papers on Hydrogeology 13.
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Adelana SMA and MacDonald AM (Eds). 2008. Applied Groundwater Studies in AfricaIAH Selected Papers.  British Geological Survey, Wallingford, UK.  CRS Press, Taylor and Francis Press.  
  
 
Awuni JA and Akuriba MA. 2013. [http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02508060.2013.819454 Small pumps and the poor: a field survey in the Upper East Region of Ghana]. Water International, 38:4, 449-464, DOI: 10.1080/02508060.2013.819454  
 
Awuni JA and Akuriba MA. 2013. [http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02508060.2013.819454 Small pumps and the poor: a field survey in the Upper East Region of Ghana]. Water International, 38:4, 449-464, DOI: 10.1080/02508060.2013.819454  
  
Barry B, Kortatsi B, Forkuor G, Gumma M, Namara RE, Rebelo LM, vandenBerg J and Laube W. 2010. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA600028 Shallow groundwater in the Atankwidi Catchment of the White Volta Basin: current status and future sustainability]. International Water Management Institute.  
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Barry B, Kortatsi B, Forkuor G, Gumma M, Namara RE, Rebelo LM, vandenBerg J and Laube W. 2010. [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/fulldetails.cfm?id=AGLA600028 Shallow groundwater in the Atankwidi Catchment of the White Volta Basin: current status and future sustainability]. International Water Management Institute.  
  
 
British Geological Survey/WaterAid. [http://www.wateraid.org/~/media/Publications/groundwater-quality-information-ghana.pdf Groundwater Quality: Ghana]. Leaflet
 
British Geological Survey/WaterAid. [http://www.wateraid.org/~/media/Publications/groundwater-quality-information-ghana.pdf Groundwater Quality: Ghana]. Leaflet
 
Carrier MA, Lefebre R, Racicot J and Asare EB. 2008. [https://wedc-knowledge.lboro.ac.uk/resources/conference/33/Carrier_MA_GHA.pdf Northern Ghana Hydrogeological Assessment Project]. Paper presented at 33rd WEDC International Conferences, Accra, Ghana, 2008.
 
 
Carrier MA, Lefebre R and Asare E. 2011. [https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Hydrogeological-Assessment-Project-of-the-Northern-Carrier-Lefebvre/9399cfb2afc3f033c1c92ce4267a2509c41bf22c Hydrogeological Assessment Project of the Northern Regions of Ghana (HAP) : final technical report : Water Resources Database Development]. Project Report.
 
  
 
CSIR-Water Research Institute. 1996.  Hydrogeological Map of Ghana on Regional Basis.
 
CSIR-Water Research Institute. 1996.  Hydrogeological Map of Ghana on Regional Basis.
  
Dapaah-Siakwan S and Gyau-Boakye P. 2000.  Hydrogeologic Framework and borehole yields in Ghana.  Hydrogeology Journal 8, pp 405-416
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Dapaah-Siakwan S and Gyau-Boakye P. 2000.  Hydrogeologic Framework and borehole yields in Ghana.  Hydrogeology Journal (2000), Vol. 8, pp 405-416
  
 
Evans AEV, Giordano M, Clayton T (Eds.). 2012. [https://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/137100/2/127.pdf  Investing in agricultural water management to benefit smallholder farmers in Ghana]. AgWater Solutions Project country
 
Evans AEV, Giordano M, Clayton T (Eds.). 2012. [https://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/137100/2/127.pdf  Investing in agricultural water management to benefit smallholder farmers in Ghana]. AgWater Solutions Project country
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Gyau-Boakye P and Dapaah-Siakwan S. 2000. Groundwater as Source of Rural Water Supply in Ghana, Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Vol. 5, Nos. 1 & 2, pp 77-86, 2000.
 
Gyau-Boakye P and Dapaah-Siakwan S. 2000. Groundwater as Source of Rural Water Supply in Ghana, Journal of Applied Science and Technology, Vol. 5, Nos. 1 & 2, pp 77-86, 2000.
 
Gyau-Boakye P, Kankam-Yeboah K, Darko PK, Dapaah-Siakwan S, and Duah AA. 2008. Groundwater as a Vital Resource for Rural Development: An Example from Ghana. In: Adelana and MacDonald (eds), Applied Groundwater Studies in Africa: IAH Selected Papers on Hydrogeology 13.
 
  
 
Gumma MK and Pavelic P. 2013. [https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10661-012-2810-y  Mapping of groundwater potential zones across Ghana using remote sensing, geographic information systems, and spatial modelling]. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 185(4), 3561-3579.  
 
Gumma MK and Pavelic P. 2013. [https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10661-012-2810-y  Mapping of groundwater potential zones across Ghana using remote sensing, geographic information systems, and spatial modelling]. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 185(4), 3561-3579.  
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Obuobie E and Barry B. 2010. [http://gw-africa.iwmi.org/Data/Sites/24/media/pdf/2008_agr_305_year_2_progress_report-narrative-final.pdf  Groundwater in sub-Saharan Africa: Implications for food security and livelihoods. Ghana Country Status on Groundwater]. Final report.
 
Obuobie E and Barry B. 2010. [http://gw-africa.iwmi.org/Data/Sites/24/media/pdf/2008_agr_305_year_2_progress_report-narrative-final.pdf  Groundwater in sub-Saharan Africa: Implications for food security and livelihoods. Ghana Country Status on Groundwater]. Final report.
  
Obubie E and Barry B. 2012. Ghana. Chapter in P Pavelic, M Giordano, B Keraita, T Rao, and V Ramesh (Eds.), [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA600020 Groundwater availability and use in Sub-Saharan Africa: a review of 15 countries]; Ch. 4, pp.43-64. Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI), doi: 10.5337/2012.213
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Obubie E and Barry B. 2012. Ghana. Chapter in P Pavelic, M Giordano, B Keraita, T Rao, and V Ramesh (Eds.), [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/fulldetails.cfm?id=AGLA600020 Groundwater availability and use in Sub-Saharan Africa: a review of 15 countries]; Ch. 4, pp.43-64. Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI), doi: 10.5337/2012.213
  
 
Obuobie E, Ofori D, Kwaku Agodzo S and Okrah C. 2013. [http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02508060.2013.814212 Groundwater potential for dry-season irrigation in north-eastern Ghana]. Water International, 38:4, 433-448, DOI: 10.1080/02508060.2013.814212  
 
Obuobie E, Ofori D, Kwaku Agodzo S and Okrah C. 2013. [http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02508060.2013.814212 Groundwater potential for dry-season irrigation in north-eastern Ghana]. Water International, 38:4, 433-448, DOI: 10.1080/02508060.2013.814212  
  
Ó Dochartaigh BÉ, Davies J, Beamish D and MacDonald AM. 2011. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA000028 UNICEF IWASH Project, Northern Region, Ghana: An Adapted Training Manual for Groundwater Development]. British Geological Survey Report OR/11/047.  
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Ó Dochartaigh BÉ, Davies J, Beamish D and MacDonald AM. 2011. [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/fulldetails.cfm?id=AGLA000028 UNICEF IWASH Project, Northern Region, Ghana: An Adapted Training Manual for Groundwater Development]. British Geological Survey Report OR/11/047.  
  
 
Regassa E, Namara LH, Owusu Sarpong E, De Fraiture C and Owusu D. 2012. [https://www.agriknowledge.org/downloads/c821gj80x Adoption of water lifting technologies for agricultural production in Ghana: implications for investments in smallholder irrigation system].  AgWater Solutions Project Case Study IWMI Ghana September 2012  
 
Regassa E, Namara LH, Owusu Sarpong E, De Fraiture C and Owusu D. 2012. [https://www.agriknowledge.org/downloads/c821gj80x Adoption of water lifting technologies for agricultural production in Ghana: implications for investments in smallholder irrigation system].  AgWater Solutions Project Case Study IWMI Ghana September 2012  
  
 
Survey Department of Ghana. 1967. Hydrogeological Map of Ghana. An older version of this can be viewed online at [http://www.bgr.de/app/fishy/whymis/index.php?&type=country&id=GHA WHYMAP]
 
Survey Department of Ghana. 1967. Hydrogeological Map of Ghana. An older version of this can be viewed online at [http://www.bgr.de/app/fishy/whymis/index.php?&type=country&id=GHA WHYMAP]
 
Water Resources Commission. 2013. [http://www.wrc-gh.org/projects-and-programmes/hap-projects/ Hydrogeological Assessment of the Northern Region of Ghana Project (HAP)]. Webpage, Water Resources Commission, Ghana.
 
 
 
Return to the index pages:
 
[[Overview of Africa Groundwater Atlas | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]]
 
 
  
  

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