Difference between revisions of "Hydrogeology of Guinea"
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| [[File:.png | center | thumb| 500px | Geology of Guinea at 1:5 million scale. Based on map described by Persits et al. 2002/Furon and Lombard 1964. For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geology | geology resource page]]]]
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Revision as of 11:33, 12 September 2018
This page has limited information and needs to be updated. If you have more information on the hydrogeology of Guinea, please get in touch!
Present-day Guinea was on the periphery of the ancient Ghana, Mali, Songhai and Fulani empires between the 7th and 19th centuries, and its coastal zone was subject to the slave trade from the 16th century. It became a French colony in the 1890s, and the present-day national boundaries date from negotiations between France, Britain, Portugal and Liberia in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Since independence in 1958 as the Republic of Guinea, the country has experienced periodic armed conflict, attempted and actual coups, civil and political unrest and contested elections. From the late 1980s, Guinea received a large influx of refugees as a result of wars in neighbouring Sierra Leone and Liberia, exacerbating internal tensions. The 2014 Ebola outbreak also affected Guinea significantly.
Guinea’s economy is dependent on agriculture and mineral production. The agricultural sector, which employs 80% of the labour force, is diverse, reflecting the diverse geography, with cattle herding and cultivation of savanna crops in highland areas, and commercial crops including fruit, coffee, groundnuts and palm oil in lowland areas. Rice is the main food crop grown for domestic consumption. Forest products, mainly timber, are also important economically. The country has potentially vast mineral resources, particularly bauxite, gold and diamonds, and mineral exports comprise the bulk of export revenue, particularly bauxite, but the sector has not been fully developed, linked to poor infrastructure, continuing political instability and corruption. The 2014 Ebola outbreak was another serious crisis that diverted resources towards basic humanitarian needs. There is large hydroelectric power potential, with the sources of three major rivers - the Gambia, the Senegal and the Niger - in Guinea. Fishing and manufacturing are also important industries.
Most of Guinea receives high but seasonal rainfall, and the country’s overall water resources are abundant. However, away from the major rivers, dry season surface water resources are scarce. Much of the population relies on groundwater for domestic water supplies, in rural and poorer urban areas.
Dr Kirsty Upton and Brighid Ó Dochartaigh, British Geological Survey, UK
Dr Imogen Bellwood-Howard, Institute of Development Studies, UK
Please cite this page as: Upton, K, Ó Dochartaigh, B É and Bellwood-Howard, I. 2018.
Bibliographic reference: Upton, K. & Ó Dochartaigh, B.É. 2016. Africa Groundwater Atlas: Hydrogeology of Guinea. British Geological Survey. Accessed [date you accessed the information]. http://earthwise.bgs.ac.uk/index.php/Hydrogeology_of_Guinea
Terms and conditions
|Border countries||Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, Mali, Cote d'Ivoire, Liberia, Sierra Leone|
|Total surface area*||245,860 km2 (24,586,000 ha)|
|Total population (2015)*||12,609,000|
|Rural population (2015)*||8,020,000 (64%)|
|Urban population (2015)*||4,589,000 (76%)|
|UN Human Development Index (HDI) [highest = 1] (2014)*||0.4113|
* Source: FAO Aquastat
More information on average rainfall and temperature for each of the climate zones in Guinea can be seen at the Guinea climate page.
These maps and graphs were developed from the CRU TS 3.21 dataset produced by the Climatic Research Unit at the University of East Anglia, UK. For more information see the climate resource page.
|Rural population with access to safe drinking water (%)||67.4|
|Urban population with access to safe drinking water (%)||92.7|
|Population affected by water related disease||No data||No data||No data||No data||No data||No data|
|Total internal renewable water resources (cubic metres/inhabitant/year)||17,924|
|Total exploitable water resources (Million cubic metres/year)||204,000|
|Freshwater withdrawal as % of total renewable water resources||0.2448|
|Renewable groundwater resources (Million cubic metres/year)||38,000|
|Groundwater produced internally (Million cubic metres/year)||38,000|
|Fresh groundwater withdrawal (primary and secondary) (Million cubic metres/year) disease||No data||No data||No data||No data||No data||No data|
|Groundwater: entering the country (total) (Million cubic metres/year)||No data||No data||No data||No data||No data||No data|
|Groundwater: leaving the country to other countries (total) (Million cubic metres/year)||No data||No data||No data||No data||No data||No data|
|Industrial water withdrawal (all water sources) (Million cubic metres/year)||56.2|
|Municipal water withdrawal (all water sources) (Million cubic metres/year)||224.8|
|Agricultural water withdrawal (all water sources) (Million cubic metres/year)||292.9|
|Irrigation water withdrawal (all water sources) 1 (Million cubic metres/year)||292.9|
|Irrigation water requirement (all water sources) 1 (Million cubic metres/year)||70.5|
|Area of permanent crops (ha)||700,000|
|Cultivated land (arable and permanent crops) (ha)||3,800,000|
|Total area of country cultivated (%)||15.46|
|Area equipped for irrigation by groundwater (ha)||460|
|Area equipped for irrigation by mixed surface water and groundwater (ha) disease||No data||No data||No data||No data||No data||No data|
These statistics are sourced from FAO Aquastat. They are the most recent available information in the Aquastat database. More information on the derivation and interpretation of these statistics can be seen on the FAO Aquastat website.
Further water and related statistics can be accessed at the Aquastat Main Database.
1 More information on irrigation water use and requirement statistics
The geology map shows a simplified version of the geology at a national scale. More information is available in the report UN (1988) (see References section, below).
|Dominantly Metasedimentary: Upper Proterozoic|
|Basement: Archaean-Lower Proterozoic|
The hydrogeology map below shows a simplified version of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the hydrogeology map resource page for more details).
More information on the hydrogeology of Guinea is available in the report United Nations (1988) (see References section, below).
The country has recently adopted programmes for improving water services: the National Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Programme (NDWSSP) and the National Strategy for Development of Public Water Services in Rural and Semi-Urban Areas (SNDSPE). These programmes aim to address the current situation where local authorities have low capacity to implement their responsibility for water service projects in rural and semi-urban areas; and water services are largely being developed in a fragmented project-based way (African Development Bank Group 2013).
There is a central database with information on more than 16,000 water points - mainly boreholes - based on data from different projects that were supervised by the national water authority, but the data are not all well organised. It does, however, include more than 1000 borehole geological logs that are easy to access.
For further information about transboundary aquifers, please see the Transboundary aquifers resources page.
References with more information on the geology and hydrogeology of Guinea can be accessed through the Africa Groundwater Literature Archive.
African Development Bank Group. 2013. Institutional support for the national water point management service (SNAPE), Republic of Guinea. OWAS Department, December 2013.
United Nations. 1988. Groundwater in North and West Africa: Guinea. United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development and Economic Commission for Africa, Natural Resources/Water Series No. 18.