Editing Hydrogeology of Guinea Bissau

Jump to navigation Jump to search

Warning: You are not logged in. Your IP address will be publicly visible if you make any edits. If you log in or create an account, your edits will be attributed to your username, along with other benefits.

The edit can be undone. Please check the comparison below to verify that this is what you want to do, and then save the changes below to finish undoing the edit.

This page supports semantic in-text annotations (e.g. "[[Is specified as::World Heritage Site]]") to build structured and queryable content provided by Semantic MediaWiki. For a comprehensive description on how to use annotations or the #ask parser function, please have a look at the getting started, in-text annotation, or inline queries help pages.

Latest revision Your text
Line 1: Line 1:
 
[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]]  >> Hydrogeology of Guinea Bissau
 
[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]]  >> Hydrogeology of Guinea Bissau
  
 +
'''This page is being updated - please check back soon for more information'''
  
  Do you have more information on hydrogeology of Guinea Bissau? Please get in touch.
+
'''Do you have more information on hydrogeology of Guinea Bissau? Please get in touch.'''
  
 +
Present-day Guinea Bissau was once part of the Gabu kingdom and the ancient Mali empire. From the 15th century, the coast became a centre of slave trading by Portuguese merchants, which, as well as inland areas, became fully colonised by the Portuguese in the 19th century. An armed rebellion against colonial rule from the 1950s led to independence in 1974. The rebels were allied to an extent with independence fighters from another Portuguese colony, Cape Verde, although the two countries never unified. Since independence, Guinea Bissau has experienced constant political change, with a succession of coups.
  
[[File:CC-BY-SA_logo_88x31.png | frame | This work is licensed under a [https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License]]]
+
Guinea Bissau adopted the CFA currency in 1997. There is some potential for mineral exploitation and possibly offshore hydrocarbon exploitation, but their development has been impeded by political instability and armed conflict. The economy remains dominated by agriculture and fishing, with cashew nuts and groundnuts the most important export crops. GDP and HDI remain some of the lowest world-wide. Illegal drug trafficking is significant, with the country used as a transit point for drugs between South America and Europe.  
  
Present-day Guinea Bissau was historically part of the Mali empire from the 13th to 17th centuries, and later part of the Gabu (or Kaabu) kingdom from the 16th to 19th centuries. From the 15th century, the coast became a focus of slave trading by Portuguese merchants, and the coast and inland areas were fully colonised by the Portuguese in the 19th century. An armed rebellion against colonial rule from the 1950s led to independence in 1974 as a republic. Since independence, Guinea Bissau has experienced ongoing political instability. Initially, government was highly centralised, with multi-party governance established in 1991. However, since independence no president has successfully served a full five-year term, and there has been a succession of military coups.
+
A tropical country with high but seasonal rainfall, Guinea Bissau has relatively abundant seasonal surface water resources, but dry season water supplies are largely sourced from groundwater.  
 
 
Guinea Bissau adopted the CFA currency in 1997. There is some potential for mineral exploitation and possibly offshore hydrocarbon exploitation, but development has been impeded by political instability and armed conflict. The economy remains dominated by agriculture and fishing, with cashew nuts and groundnuts the most important export crops. GDP and HDI (human development index) are some of the lowest world-wide. Illegal drug trafficking is significant, with the country used as a transit point for drugs between South America and Europe.
 
 
 
Guinea Bissau has relatively abundant seasonal surface water resources, as a tropical country with high (but seasonal) rainfall, but dry season water supplies are largely sourced from groundwater.  
 
  
  
Line 78: Line 76:
 
|
 
|
 
The larger rivers in Guinea Bissau include the Corubal and the Geba rivers, which rise in neighbouring Senegal or Guinea. Smaller coastal rivers include the Cacheu, Mansoa, Geba-Corubal, Grande de Buba, Tombali, Cumbidja and Cacine rivers.  
 
The larger rivers in Guinea Bissau include the Corubal and the Geba rivers, which rise in neighbouring Senegal or Guinea. Smaller coastal rivers include the Cacheu, Mansoa, Geba-Corubal, Grande de Buba, Tombali, Cumbidja and Cacine rivers.  
 
  
 
| [[File:Guinea-Bissau_Hydrology.png | frame | Major surface water features of Guinea Bissau. Map developed from World Wildlife Fund HydroSHEDS; Digital Chart of the World drainage; and FAO Inland Water Bodies. For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Surface water | surface water resource page]]]]  
 
| [[File:Guinea-Bissau_Hydrology.png | frame | Major surface water features of Guinea Bissau. Map developed from World Wildlife Fund HydroSHEDS; Digital Chart of the World drainage; and FAO Inland Water Bodies. For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Surface water | surface water resource page]]]]  
Line 117: Line 114:
 
|Freshwater withdrawal as % of total renewable water resources || || 0.5573|| || || ||
 
|Freshwater withdrawal as % of total renewable water resources || || 0.5573|| || || ||
 
|-
 
|-
|Total renewable groundwater (Million cubic metres/year) ||  || || || ||14,000 ||
+
|Renewable groundwater resources (Million cubic metres/year) || || ||  ||350 || ||
|-
 
|Exploitable: Regular renewable groundwater (Million cubic metres/year) || || ||  ||350 || ||
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Groundwater produced internally (Million cubic metres/year) || || ||  || ||14,000 ||
 
|Groundwater produced internally (Million cubic metres/year) || || ||  || ||14,000 ||
Line 155: Line 150:
  
 
<sup>1</sup> More information on [http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/water_use_agr/index.stm irrigation water use and requirement statistics]
 
<sup>1</sup> More information on [http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/water_use_agr/index.stm irrigation water use and requirement statistics]
 +
  
 
==Geology==
 
==Geology==
Line 162: Line 158:
 
A more detailed geology map of Guinea Bissau is available to view and interrogate online at the [http://geoportal.lneg.pt/geoportal/mapas/index.html?mapa=CartaGuine '''Visualizador de Mapas geoPortal'''] (published 2014). This map was created by the Uidade de Informacao Geocientifica of the Portugese National Laboratory of Energy and Geology ([http://www.lneg.pt/Default.aspx LNEG)].  
 
A more detailed geology map of Guinea Bissau is available to view and interrogate online at the [http://geoportal.lneg.pt/geoportal/mapas/index.html?mapa=CartaGuine '''Visualizador de Mapas geoPortal'''] (published 2014). This map was created by the Uidade de Informacao Geocientifica of the Portugese National Laboratory of Energy and Geology ([http://www.lneg.pt/Default.aspx LNEG)].  
  
This report provides more information on the Geology of Guinea Bissau: [http://repositorio.lneg.pt/handle/10400.9/1227?locale=en '''Geologia da Guiné-Bissau'''] (Alves 2010).  
+
This report provides more information on the Geology of Guinea Bissau ([http://repositorio.lneg.pt/handle/10400.9/1227?locale=en Geologia da Guiné-Bissau]) (Alves 2010).  
  
  
[[File:Guinea-Bissau_Geology3.png | center | thumb| 500px | Geology of Guinea Bissau at 1:5 million scale. Based on map described by Persits et al. 2002/Furon and Lombard 1964. For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geology | geology resource page]].]]
+
[[File:Guinea-Bissau_Geology2.png | center | thumb| 500px | Geology of Guinea Bissau at 1:5 million scale. Based on map described by Persits et al. 2002/Furon and Lombard 1964. For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geology | geology resource page]].]]
 
   
 
   
  
Line 174: Line 170:
 
Guinea-Bissau lies between the Fouta Djallon massif, of uncertain Palaeozoic age, and the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Senegal basin (UN 1988). It can be roughly divided into two geological units:  
 
Guinea-Bissau lies between the Fouta Djallon massif, of uncertain Palaeozoic age, and the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Senegal basin (UN 1988). It can be roughly divided into two geological units:  
  
* an eastern zone with predominantly clastic sedimentary Paleozoic rocks, and some Precambrian rocks; and
+
* an eastern zone with predominantly clastic sedimentary Paleozoic rocks, and some carbonates of Silurian age; and some Precambrian rocks; and
* a western zone with mainly Cenozoic sediments of Cretaceous to Tertiary age, mainly of marine origin (University of Guelph).
+
* a western zone with mainly late Mesozoic to Cenozoic sediments. The Cretaceous to Cenozoic sediments are mainly of marine origin (University of Guelph).
 
 
There is Quaternary alluvium infill in many valleys, and marine/coastal Quaternary unconsolidated sediments on coastal plains.
 
 
 
A buried sequence of Mesozoic sedimentary rocks is thought to rest on the Palaeozoic sequence, the equivalent of the 'intercalated continental' series known in Senegal. These do not crop out at the surface in Guinea Bissau, and so are not shown on the geology map. Little is known of these rocks in Guinea Bissau, as they are buried at depths of over 800 m (UN 1988). They are thought to include schists with some sandstone and limestone intercalations in the northeast, and a dominantly continental series of schists with intercalations of fine sandstone in the centre of the country. This series is 120 m thick at Safim and 330 m thick at S. Domingos (UN 1988).
 
  
  
Line 189: Line 181:
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Quaternary
 
|Quaternary
||Coastal sediments, including beach sands; river and coastal alluvium. Including sands, silts, and clays. These often overlie similar lagoonal-coastal Oligocene-Miocene sediments (see below).
+
||Coastal sediments, including beach sands; river and coastal alluvium. Including sands, silts, and clays.
 
|-
 
|-
!colspan="4"|Tertiary to Upper Cretaceous sedimentary  
+
!colspan="4"|Upper Cretaceous - Tertiary sedimentary  
 
|-
 
|-
|Tertiary (Palaeocene-Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene); Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)
+
|Maastrichtian, Palaeocene-Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene
||A sequence of largely marine, coastal or lagoonal sedimentary rocks, including limestones, marls, clays, silts, sands and phosphates. Most are of Tertiary age. A strip of Cretaceous rocks of Maastrichtian age lie along the eastern boundary of this western zone.
+
||A sequence of largely marine sedimentary rocks, including limestones, marls, clays, silts, sands and phosphates. Drilling investigations have proved a ~5m thick phosphate layer in the Palaeocene-Eocene sequence, with 25-50m of overlying sediments.  
 
 
The Palaeocene-Eocene sequence is dominantly marine, formed of sandy marl-limestone formations with dolomitic intercalations (UN 1988).
 
 
 
The Oligocene-Miocene 'continental terminal' series comprises Oligocene lagoonal fine grained, clayey sandstones at the base, overlain by Miocene marine limestone-marls that are sometimes sandy (UN 1988).
 
 
 
The Cretaceous series is very thick (1360 m at S. Domingos and 600 m at Safim). The base of the sequence consists of schists with some limestone-dolomitic intercalations, overlain by dark shales with some sand, and terminating at the top in a thick sandstone layer of Maastrichtian (top Cretaceous) age (UN 1988). This top sandstone is up to 490 m thick in the northwest (S. Domingos) and 540 m in the west (Cangongue) (UN 1988).
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
!colspan="4"|Igneous  
 
!colspan="4"|Igneous  
Line 210: Line 196:
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Devonian
 
|Devonian
||Shales and sandstones over a large area in the east of the country, forming a northwest/southeast syncline.  
+
||Shales and sandstones over a large area in the east of the country, forming a northwest/southeast syncline. The base of the series consists of the sandstones of Lower Devonian age in the Cusselinta-Saltinho area, which are mostly well consolidated micaceous and feldspathic sandstones. Overlying this is the Upper Devonian Bafata Group, comprising argillaceous schists with intercalactions of fine grained quartz sandstone.  
 
 
At the base of the series are Lower Devonian sandstones, seend in the Cusselinta-Saltinho area. These are mostly well-consolidated micaceous and feldspathic sandstones.  
 
 
 
Overlying this is the Middle to Upper Devonian Bafata Group, comprising argillaceous schists with intercalactions of fine grained quartz sandstone.  
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Silurian
 
|Silurian
||The Buba Group: mostly sandstones with some organic rich/carbonaceous black shales. Drilling in the southeast of the country showed very compact black, carbonaceous schists with fine grained sandstone intercalations, and some doloritic layers. In the northeast, schists interbedded with dolerite were seen, with varying indications of metamorphism, and fine grained, clay-rich sandstones at the top at the transition to the overlying Devonian rocks.  
+
||Rocks of the Buba Group, including sandstones with some organic rich/carbonaceous black shales. Drilling in the southeast of the country showed very compact black, carbonaceous schists with fine grained sandstone intercalations, and some doloritic layers. In the northeast, schists interbedded with dolerite were seen, with varying indications of metamorphism, and fine grained, clay-rich sandstones at the top at the transition to the overlying Devonian rocks.  
 
|-
 
|-
|Ordovician and Cambrian
+
|Cambrian-Ordovician
 
||Sandstones, shales, conglomerates and rare limestones. These are found in the northeast of the country, overlying older Neoproterozoic metamorphic rocks.  
 
||Sandstones, shales, conglomerates and rare limestones. These are found in the northeast of the country, overlying older Neoproterozoic metamorphic rocks.  
 
The Ordovician rocks distinguished on the geology map are dominated by the Canjufa-Canjadude series of quartz-arenites. The other dominant Ordovician series is the Gabu sandstone series, thought to be mostly steeply dipping at up to 50 degrees. At its base is a white, coarse grained sandstone unit up to 170 m thick, overlain by less compact, sandier strata of considerable thickness, and then by a fine grained sandstone unit that is 10-30 m thick (UN 1988).
 
 
 
Cambrian rocks are dominated by fine grained sandstones and shales, including shales of Pirada and Canquelifa, schist-sandstones of Cantari, and the younger Caium sandstones of Upper Cambrian age.
 
Cambrian rocks are dominated by fine grained sandstones and shales, including shales of Pirada and Canquelifa, schist-sandstones of Cantari, and the younger Caium sandstones of Upper Cambrian age.
 +
Ordovician rocks are dominated by the Gabu sandstone series, which is thought to be mostly steeply dipping at up to 50 degrees. At its base is a white, coarse grained sandstone unit up to 170 m thick, overlain by less compact, sandier strata of considerable thickness, and then by a fine grained sandstone unit that is 10-30 m thick (UN 1988).
 
|-
 
|-
!colspan="4"|Precambrian (Neoproterozoic) metamorphic complex
+
!colspan="4"|Precambrian metamorphic complex
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Neoproterozoic  
 
|Neoproterozoic  
||A volcanic and metasedimentary complex, including schists, quartzites and metavolcanic rocks. There are few outcrops - these mostly in the far north-east - as they generally lie below fairly thick younger geological formations.  
+
||A volcanic and metasedimentary complex, including schists, quartzites and metavolcanic rocks. There are few outcrops of these rocks, as they generally lie below fairly thick younger geological formations.  
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}
Line 237: Line 217:
 
The hydrogeology map below shows a simplified version of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the [[Hydrogeology Map | hydrogeology map]] resource page for more details).  
 
The hydrogeology map below shows a simplified version of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the [[Hydrogeology Map | hydrogeology map]] resource page for more details).  
  
More information on the hydrogeology of Guinea Bissau is in the report [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060039 United Nations (1988)] (see References section, below).  
+
A little more information on the hydrogeology of Guinea Bissau can be found in the report [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060039 United Nations (1988)] (see References section, below).  
 
 
[[File:Guinea-Bissau_Hydrogeology3.png| center | thumb| 500px | Hydrogeology of Guinea Bissau at 1:5 million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | hydrogeology map]] resource page]]
 
 
 
'''Summary'''
 
  
There is relatively little information on hydrogeology and groundwater potential of the aquifers in Guinea Bissau. The UN report of 1988 describes information from some groundwater reconnaissance projects before 1988.
+
[[File:Guinea-Bissau_Hydrogeology2.png| center | thumb| 500px | Hydrogeology of Guinea Bissau at 1:5 million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Hydrogeology Map | hydrogeology map]] resource page]]
  
In the eastern part of the country, the Basement and Palaeozoic Sedimentary (Fracture flow) rocks typically have low permeability and form small and discontinuous aquifers, which are controlled by the distribution, nature and degree of fracturing and weathering. Boreholes must be sited and drilled with great care to locate them in the most productive zones.
 
 
In the west of the country, the Cretaceous-Tertiary-Quaternary sequence forms more continuous aquifers. The three main aquifers are:
 
* Maastrichtian sands
 
* Palaocene-Eocene (limestone)-Oligocene (sand), and
 
* Quaternary sand and laterite.
 
 
In general, although rainfall is high, evapotranspiration is also high, which may limit the amount of recharge available to aquifers, particularly in the eastern zone. Runoff recharge to the Mesozoic aquifers from adjacent higher ground of the Palaeozoic zones is thought to be significant (UN 1988), although much of the groundwater abstracted from the deeper Mesozoic aquifers may be of fossil origin (UN 1988).
 
  
 
====Unconsolidated====
 
====Unconsolidated====
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
|Aquifer||Aquifer Productivity||Description
+
|Aquifer||Description
 
|-
 
|-
|Quaternary to Tertiary
+
|Quaternary (to Tertiary)
||Low to Moderate Productivity
+
||
||Mostly coastal/marine sands, with small banks of Tertiary (Miocene) limestone. Laterite is found over most of the central and western regions. These aquifers are usually unconfined and provide low storage and low borehole yields, although yields can vary from place to place and from season to season (UN 1988). Thicker and coarser grained sediments may form locally higher productivity aquifers.
 
 
 
Groundwater is subject to pollution and is often highly mineralised.
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
 
====Sedimentary - Mixed Intergranular and Fracture flow====
 
====Sedimentary - Mixed Intergranular and Fracture flow====
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
|Aquifer||Aquifer Productivity||Description
+
|Aquifer||Description
 
|-
 
|-
|Tertiary (Palaeocene-Eocene-Oligocene)
+
|
||Low to High (Variable) Productivity
+
||
||These marine sands, sandstones, and limestones form an important aquifer, which is buried below ~175-200 m, depending on the area. There are no major low permeability beds in the sequence, and so the whole unit behaves as a single aquifer, which is confirmed by groundwater levels (piezometry) and groundwater chemistry. The sands and sandstones are likely to be dominated by intergranular flow, and the limestones by fracture flow.
 
 
 
The aquifer has been explored by a number of deep boreholes for groundwater reconnaissance and exploitation (UN 1988). The upper surface of the aquifer was proved at depths of ~180 m at S. Domingos and Cagongue, where it is between 275 m and 315 m thick.
 
 
 
The aquifer is typically confined, with deeper piezometric levels than the underlying Maastrichtian aquifer, indicating that there is no hydraulic connection between the two. However, there are different water levels in the sand-sandstone and the limestone formations.
 
 
 
The aquifer typically has low to moderate yields. Only the uppermost sand-sandstone Oligocene formations, if they are thick enough, have relatively uniform permeability and provide high storage capacity and yields. The lower limestone series have more variable permeability, both vertically and laterally. However, the very wide lateral extent of the aquifer gives it  high potential overall.
 
 
 
The highest mineral content (1000 ppm) is seen in the northwest coastal zone. Sulphate concentrations and hardness are higher than in the Maastrichtian aquifer (UN 1988).
 
|-
 
|Cretaceous
 
||Low to High (Variable) Productivity
 
||The main Cretaceous aquifer is the thick sandstone bed of Maastrichtian age, at the top of the Cretaceous sequence, which is an aquifer of major importance in Guinea Bissau. It has been explored and exploited most intensively and at shallowest depths close to its outcrop zone in central and southern regions, and by a number of deeper boreholes 200-260 m deep on the island of Bissau and at Farim (UN 1988). The aquifer productivity declines in the direction of the Silurian rocks, because they become shallower and change from poorly consolidated sand to a more compact, well consolidated sandstone that has lower permeability (UN 1988).
 
 
 
Test pumping indicated the following aquifer properties:
 
* Permeability of 0.1 m/d in clay-rich sandstones in the extreme south of the aquifer, with low specific yields of 0.2 to 0.3 l/sec/m.
 
* Permeability of 10 m/d in fine to coarse grained sands in the centre-south of the aquifer (Buba-Empada-Catio).
 
* Permeability of 1 m/d to the north of this area, where there are layers of clay and fine sand in the aquifer sequence.
 
Very high yields have been recorded of 15-25 l/s, and rarely up to 40 l/s (UN 1988).
 
 
 
The aquifer is largely confined, except at rare points where it crops out. Artesian heads occur across much of the centre and west of the country, but not in the southern part of the coastal zone. Artesian heads at Farim and Mansoa were measured at +6m and +7m. Close to the sea and estuaries, groundwater heads are affected by tides. The main direction of groundwater flow appears to be towards the northwest and west (UN 1988).
 
 
 
The groundwater is mainly of bicarbonate and calcium sulphate type, with relatively low sulphate and relatively soft. In the centre of the country it tends to have a low mineral content (<500 ppm) but up to 1500 ppm in the south (Bolama) (UN 1988). Occasional instances of saline intrusion were identified, such as as Bedanda (4000 ppm of chlorides) (UN 1988).
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
 
====Igneous====
 
====Igneous====
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
|Aquifer||Aquifer Productivity||Description
+
|Aquifer||Description
 
|-
 
|-
|Mesozoic Igneous Intrusive rocks
+
|
||Unknown
+
||
||Very little is known of the aquifer characteristics of these rocks. They are likely to be crystalline with very low intergranular porosity and permeability, so that groundwater potential will depend largely on the degree and type of  weathering and/or fracturing in the rocks. Groundwater is likely to be present mainly in the uppermost few tens of metres. Overall aquifer productivity is likely to be low.
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
====Sedimentary - Fracture flow (Palaeozoic aquifers)====
+
====Sedimentary - Fracture flow====
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
|Aquifer||Aquifer Productivity||Description
+
|Aquifer||Description
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Devonian
 
|Devonian
||Low Productivity
 
 
||Drilling into these rocks at shallow depths to about 20 m in the Nhabijocs plain (Bombadinca) showed them to be well consolidated with low permeability and to form a poor aquifer.  
 
||Drilling into these rocks at shallow depths to about 20 m in the Nhabijocs plain (Bombadinca) showed them to be well consolidated with low permeability and to form a poor aquifer.  
|-
 
 
|Silurian  
 
|Silurian  
||Low Productivity
 
 
||The Buba Group has been explored by drilling water boreholes in a number of places at Buba, Guilege, Gadamael and Sangonha in the northeast and southeast of the country. The dominantly fine grained, sometimes clay-rich sandstones, black carbonaceous shales and intercalations of dolerite, sometimes metamorphosed, all have low permeability and formed very poor aquifers.  
 
||The Buba Group has been explored by drilling water boreholes in a number of places at Buba, Guilege, Gadamael and Sangonha in the northeast and southeast of the country. The dominantly fine grained, sometimes clay-rich sandstones, black carbonaceous shales and intercalations of dolerite, sometimes metamorphosed, all have low permeability and formed very poor aquifers.  
|-
 
 
|Cambro-Ordovician
 
|Cambro-Ordovician
||Generally Low, occasionally Moderate Productivity
 
 
||The Cambrian rocks, dominated by fine grained, well consolidated sandstones and shales, generally form very poor aquifers. Small local aquifers can be found in shallow weathered zones, and particularly in sandstones, which typically have slightly higher permeability.
 
||The Cambrian rocks, dominated by fine grained, well consolidated sandstones and shales, generally form very poor aquifers. Small local aquifers can be found in shallow weathered zones, and particularly in sandstones, which typically have slightly higher permeability.
 
Little is known of the groundwater potential of the Ordovician sandstones, although drilling in the Canjadude region showed the sandstone to be compacted, with low permeability, and unproductive.
 
Little is known of the groundwater potential of the Ordovician sandstones, although drilling in the Canjadude region showed the sandstone to be compacted, with low permeability, and unproductive.
Line 325: Line 261:
 
====Basement====
 
====Basement====
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
|Aquifer||Aquifer Productivity||Description
+
|Aquifer||Description
 
|-
 
|-
|Precambrian (Neoproterozoic)
+
|
||Low to Moderate Productivity
+
||
||Crystalline basement rocks have virtually no intergranular porosity and permeability, and groundwater flow and storage is entirely dependent on the nature and degree of weathering and/or fracturing of the rock. A typical pattern in basement rocks is 'pockets' of weathering forming weathered basins, typically a few tens of metres deep and a few tens or hundreds metres across, in which there is enhanced permeability and groundwater storage potential. Typically, these kind of weathered basins have enough permeability and groundwater storage capacity to supply a borehole hand pump supply.
 
 
|}
 
|}
 +
 +
  
 
==Groundwater use and management==
 
==Groundwater use and management==
Line 336: Line 273:
 
===Groundwater use===
 
===Groundwater use===
  
Groundwater is the main source of rural water supply for drinking water in the dry season. Traditional groundwater abstraction supplies are largely from hand dug wells, water holes in low lying areas (called bolanhas), and artesian springs. Newer abstractions include improved dug wells, often equipped with a rope and bucket system; improved dug and drilled wells equipped with a handpump; and drilled wells equipped with wind or solar pumps (Visscher and van der Werff 1995). More detail on groundwater use practices, in rural and urban areas, can be found in a report by  [https://www.ircwash.org/resources/towards-sustainable-water-supply-eight-years-experience-guinea-bissau Visscher and van der Werff (1995)].  
+
Groundwater is the main source of rural water supply in the dry season, for drinking water and small scale (garden) irrigation.  
  
Groundwater is also used for small scale (garden) irrigation, traditionally via shallow, hand dug wells. Groundwater is not used much for large scale commercial irrigation, although in at least one area - Granja de Pessub - drilled boreholes up to 300 m deep are used for irrigation ([http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/countries_regions/GNB/ Aquastat]).
+
Traditional small scale irrigation typically uses groundwater from shallow, hand dug wells. Groundwater is not used much for large scale commercial irrigation, although in at least one area - Granja de Pessub - drilled boreholes up to 300 m deep are used for irrigation ([http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/countries_regions/GNB/ Aquastat]).
  
 
===Groundwater management===
 
===Groundwater management===
  
The Directorate General of Water Resources (Direccion Geral de Recurson Hidricos / DGRH), within the Ministry of Energy, Industry and Natural Resources (MEIRN), is the main responsible body for water supply and sanitation.  
+
The main agencies involved in water management in Guinea Bissau are (http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/countries_regions/GNB/ Aquastat):  
 
 
Other state agencies with responsibilities for water resources include:  
 
  
* The Ministry of Public Health, which provides a link between water, hygiene and sanitation
+
* the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Hunting and Livestock, through the Directorate of Rural Engineering Services (DSER), which deals with the developments use and management of water for agricultural use.  
* The Public Enterprise for Electricity and Water Supply (EAGB), which manages water supply utilities of the capital, Bissau.
+
* the Directorate General of Water Resources of the State Secretariat for Industry, Natural Resources and the Environment (SEIRNA)
* The Directorate General of Energy (DGE), which manages water supply in several semi-urban centres.
 
 
* the Council Interministerial for Water Resources (CIMA) and the Water Technical Committee, which exist to harmonise water management activities between different sectors and to drive water policies.  
 
* the Council Interministerial for Water Resources (CIMA) and the Water Technical Committee, which exist to harmonise water management activities between different sectors and to drive water policies.  
* the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Hunting and Livestock, through the Directorate of Rural Engineering Services (DSER), which deals with the development, use and management of water for agricultural use.
 
  
 
At a local level, the operation of water infrastructure is largely managed by the beneficiaries themselves through associations or management committees, in collaboration with the DSER, extension services, NGOs and other relevant authorities.
 
At a local level, the operation of water infrastructure is largely managed by the beneficiaries themselves through associations or management committees, in collaboration with the DSER, extension services, NGOs and other relevant authorities.
  
More information on the history of groundwater management from independence to 1995 can be found in a report by Visscher and van der Werff [https://www.ircwash.org/resources/towards-sustainable-water-supply-eight-years-experience-guinea-bissau (1995)]. 
+
====Groundwater policy====
 
 
A number of international agencies have provided support for groundwater management in Guinea Bissau.  The IRC worked from 1987 to 1995 on a project to support the sustainability of newly installed groundwater points in the south of the country, and the institutional development of of the DGRH (Visscher and van der Werff 1995).
 
  
The UNDP carried out projects identifying pressure on groundwater resources and supporting the development of a groundwater database (2009) and a report (2012).  
+
The Water Code, 1992, established the general regime for the management, use and conservation of water resources, and determines the institutional framework. It recognises that water is a public good whose development and management must be planned. Use rights are granted by the State, taking into account the productivity of water, the respect of pre-existing rights and the protection of the environment. The State is responsible for the conservation and protection of the water environment both qualitatively and quantitatively. Customary water law is enforced and respected at the local level by rural people.
  
Since 2012, UNICEF has been providing support for updating the national groundwater point/borehole databases (eg [https://www.researchgate.net/publication/327917281_GROUNDWATER_DATABASE_FOR_SUSTAINABLE_WATER_DEVELOPMENT_IN_GUINEA_BISSAU Fussi et al. 2018]) and specific projects around identifying suitable areas for manual drilling (eg [https://upgro.files.wordpress.com/2015/09/t224_fussi-presentation-iah2.pdf Fussi et al. 2017a] and [https://wedc-knowledge.lboro.ac.uk/resources/conference/40/Fussi-2760.pdf Fussi et al. 2017b]).
 
 
====Groundwater legislation====
 
 
Groundwater legislation falls under the Water Code, 1992. This establishes the general regime for the management, use and conservation of water resources, and determines the institutional framework. It recognises that water is a public good whose development and management must be planned. Use rights are granted by the State, taking into account the productivity of water, the respect of pre-existing rights and the protection of the environment. The State is responsible for the conservation and protection of the water environment both qualitatively and quantitatively. Customary water law is enforced and respected at the local level by rural people.
 
 
====Groundwater data====
 
 
A '''national database''' stores groundwater data, including information on borehole drilling logs, groundwater levels and groundwater chemistry. This database is held by the national water authority, the DGRH. Its development has been supported by UNICEF, including systemising the database design and operation and updating it with new information (eg [https://www.researchgate.net/publication/327917281_GROUNDWATER_DATABASE_FOR_SUSTAINABLE_WATER_DEVELOPMENT_IN_GUINEA_BISSAU Fussi et al. 2018]). Information from the database, including groundwater levels and quality, can be viewed in an online  [https://portal.mwater.co/#/dashboards/9c20165c8763489b85baf898bda1dca3?share=2bb0050028d540298277e50208717545 '''MWater portal'''].
 
 
In 2018, there were 4300 registered boreholes in the database, but some boreholes have more information available than others. For example, only 20% of these had borehole logs available, and those logs that are available are not standardised and not always complete. Work is ongoing to improve the amount and quality of groundwater information in this database, between government agencies, UNICEF, drilling companies and researchers from Milano Bicocca and Padova universities in Italy ( eg [https://www.researchgate.net/publication/327917281_GROUNDWATER_DATABASE_FOR_SUSTAINABLE_WATER_DEVELOPMENT_IN_GUINEA_BISSAU Fussi et al. 2018]).
 
 
[[File:GB-BhPortal.png | center | thumb| 500px | [https://portal.mwater.co/#/dashboards/9c20165c8763489b85baf898bda1dca3?share=2bb0050028d540298277e50208717545 MWater portal] showing outputs from groundwater borehole database for Guinea Bissau.]]
 
  
 
===Transboundary aquifers===
 
===Transboundary aquifers===
  
Guinea Bissau shares the Senegalo-Mauritanian Basin aquifer (of Upper Cretaceous to Tertiary age) with the Gambia, Mauritania and Senegal. With an area of ​​approximately 350,000 km<sup>2</sup>, this aquifer basin is the largest in the Atlantic margin of North-West Africa. More information on this aquifer can be found in the report [https://www.iaea.org/sites/default/files/raf7011_senegalo-mauritanian_basin.pdf Travi et al. (2017)] (and see also this presentation: [https://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/env/water/meetings/2019/6-7_Roundtable_Versoix/6.1_Presentation_AIEA_Travi.pdf IAEA (2019)]. In early 2019, the four countries involved held [https://www.unece.org/info/media/news/environment/2019/the-gambia-guinea-bissau-mauritania-and-senegal-initiate-a-discussion-for-joint-management-of-a-shared-aquifer/doc.html initial discussions] to exchange knowledge and towards collaboration on management of this transboundary groundwater resource.
+
For further information about transboundary aquifers, please see the [[Transboundary aquifers | Transboundary aquifers resources page]].
 
 
For further general information about transboundary aquifers, please see the [[Transboundary aquifers | Transboundary aquifers resources page]].
 
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
Line 386: Line 302:
 
Alves PH. 2010. [http://repositorio.lneg.pt/handle/10400.9/1227?locale=en Geologia da Guinée-Bissau]. X Congresso de Geoquimica dos Paises de Lingua Portuguesa, XVI Semana de Geoquimica. LNEG – Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia / IICT – Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical  
 
Alves PH. 2010. [http://repositorio.lneg.pt/handle/10400.9/1227?locale=en Geologia da Guinée-Bissau]. X Congresso de Geoquimica dos Paises de Lingua Portuguesa, XVI Semana de Geoquimica. LNEG – Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia / IICT – Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical  
  
IAEA. 2019. [https://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/env/water/meetings/2019/6-7_Roundtable_Versoix/6.1_Presentation_AIEA_Travi.pdf Hydrogeological, hydrochemical and isotopic assessment of the common groundwater management challenge of the Senegalo-Mauritanian transboundary Basin]. Presentation, output of the Transboundary Aquifers reports of the Sahel region: IAEA RAF7011 Project Integrated and Sustainable Management of Shared Aquifer Systems and Basins of the Sahel Region.
+
Fussi F, Asplund F, Fumagalli L, Caruba M, Rotiroti M and Bonomi T. 2017. [https://upgro.files.wordpress.com/2015/09/t224_fussi-presentation-iah2.pdf Characterization of shallow aquifer in Guinea Bissau to support the promotion of manual drilling at country level]. Presentation at 44th IAH Congress, 25-29 Sept 2017.   
 
 
FAO Aquastat. 2005. [http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/countries_regions/GNB/GNB-CP_fra.pdf Guinée-Bissau].
 
 
 
Fussi FA, Asplund F, Marcolla A, Rotiroti M, Sousa R, Fumagalli L and Bonomi T. 2018. [https://www.researchgate.net/publication/327917281_GROUNDWATER_DATABASE_FOR_SUSTAINABLE_WATER_DEVELOPMENT_IN_GUINEA_BISSAU Groundwater database for sustainable water development in Guinea Bissau]. Presentation at 45th IAH Conference, Daejeon (Korea), September 2018.
 
 
 
Fussi F, Asplund F, Fumagalli L, Caruba M, Rotiroti M and Bonomi T. 2017a. [https://upgro.files.wordpress.com/2015/09/t224_fussi-presentation-iah2.pdf Characterization of shallow aquifer in Guinea Bissau to support the promotion of manual drilling at country level]. Presentation at 44th IAH Congress, 25-29 Sept 2017.   
 
 
 
Fussi F, Asplund F, Caruba M, Fumagalli L, Rotiroti M and Bonomi T. 2017a. [https://wedc-knowledge.lboro.ac.uk/resources/conference/40/Fussi-2760.pdf Promotion of manual drilling in Guinea Bissau: mapping suitable zones and estimating the potential]. Presentation at 40th WEDC International Conference, Loughborough, UK, 2017, Paper 2760.
 
 
 
Schlüter T. 2006. [http://www.geokniga.org/bookfiles/geokniga-geological-atlas-africa.pdf Geological Atlas of Africa]. Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York.
 
 
 
Travi Y, Fall MD, Fall NKS, Hmeyade BL and Bacar SH. 2017. [https://www.iaea.org/sites/default/files/raf7011_senegalo-mauritanian_basin.pdf Senegalo-Mauritanian Basin: Integrated and Sustainable Management of Shared Aquifer Systems and Basins of the Sahel Region]. Report RAF/7/011. Reproduced by the IAEA, Vienna, Austria, 2017.
 
  
 
University of Guelph. [http://www.uoguelph.ca/~geology/rocks_for_crops/30guinea_bissau.PDF Rocks for Crops].
 
University of Guelph. [http://www.uoguelph.ca/~geology/rocks_for_crops/30guinea_bissau.PDF Rocks for Crops].
Line 406: Line 310:
 
United Nations. 1988. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060039 Groundwater in North and West Africa: Guinea-Bissau]. United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development and Economic Commission for Africa.
 
United Nations. 1988. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060039 Groundwater in North and West Africa: Guinea-Bissau]. United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development and Economic Commission for Africa.
  
Visscher JT and and van der Werff K. 1995. [https://www.ircwash.org/resources/towards-sustainable-water-supply-eight-years-experience-guinea-bissau Towards sustainable water supply : eight years of experience from Guinea-Bissau]. IRC Report No. 1-E, 60pp. The Hague, Netherlands. 
+
==Return to the index pages==
 
 
Return to the index pages:
 
 
[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]]  >> Hydrogeology of Guinea Bissau  
 
[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]]  >> Hydrogeology of Guinea Bissau  
  

Please note that all contributions to Earthwise may be edited, altered, or removed by other contributors. If you do not want your writing to be edited mercilessly, then do not submit it here.
You are also promising us that you wrote this yourself, or copied it from a public domain or similar free resource (see Earthwise:Copyrights for details). Do not submit copyrighted work without permission!

Cancel Editing help (opens in new window)

  [] · [[]] · [[|]] · {{}} · · “” ‘’ «» ‹› „“ ‚‘ · ~ | ° &nbsp; · ± × ÷ ² ³ ½ · §
[[Category:]] · [[:File:]] · <code></code> · <syntaxhighlight></syntaxhighlight> · <includeonly></includeonly> · <noinclude></noinclude> · #REDIRECT[[]] · <translate></translate> · <languages/> · ==References== · {{reflist}} · ==Footnote== · {{reflist|group=note}} · <ref group=note> · __notoc__ · {{DEFAULTSORT:}} <div class="someclass noprint"></div> {{clear}} <br>