Editing Hydrogeology of Kenya

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===Groundwater quantity===
 
===Groundwater quantity===
  
The total potential groundwater resource (storage) in Kenya is estimated to be 619 million m³ (Pavelic et al. 2012).  The total groundwater abstraction rate in in 2012 was estimated at 7.21 million m³/year, and the total safe abstraction rate (annually recharged) in Kenya is estimated to be 193 million m³/year (Ministry of Water Development 1992,  Pavelic et al. 2012).
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The groundwater potential of Kenya is estimated to be 619 million m³ (Pavelic et al. 2012).  The total groundwater abstraction rate in Kenya in 2012 was estimated at 7.21 million m³/year.  Total safe abstraction rate in Kenya is estimated to be 193 million m³/year (Ministry of Water Development 1992,  Pavelic et al. 2012).
  
 
Some aquifers are identified as being overabstracted with associated problems of water level decline and sometimes water quality deterioration, in particular the Nairobi volcanic aquifer.  
 
Some aquifers are identified as being overabstracted with associated problems of water level decline and sometimes water quality deterioration, in particular the Nairobi volcanic aquifer.  
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=== Groundwater use===
 
=== Groundwater use===
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It is reported that although groundwater exploitation has considerable potential for boosting water supplies in Kenya, its use is limited by poor water quality, overexploitation, saline intrusion along the coastal areas, and inadequate knowledge of the occurrence of the resource (Mumma et al. 2011). Nevertheless, many areas of Kenya are reliant on groundwater sources for domestic, commercial and industrial needs, including the coastal zone which is almost entirely dependent on groundwater. Other areas include Mombasa and Malindi (which depend on the Baricho wellfield); Kwale (dependent on the Tiwi wellfield); and Wajir (dependent on the Merti aquifer); as well as Naivasha, Nakuru, Mandera, and Lodwar (Mumma et al. 2011).
  
Many parts of Kenya rely on groundwater, either directly from privately owned or communal boreholes, or via piped supplies from groundwater wellfields. Groundwater from communal boreholes or hand dug wells supplies most of the rural population. Groundwater is used locally for mining, e.g. the Gongoni well field used for the Base Titanium mining company. The Daadab refugee camp depends on groundwater abstracted from the Merti aquifer. Most irrigation in Kenya is supplied by surface water, but groundwater supplies a small proportion of irrigation water.
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Groundwater is used locally for mining, e.g. the Gongoni well field used for the Base Titanium mining company.
 
 
It is reported that although groundwater exploitation has considerable potential for boosting water supplies in Kenya, its use is limited by poor water quality, overexploitation, saline intrusion along the coastal areas, and inadequate knowledge of the occurrence of the resource (Mumma et al. 2011). Nevertheless, many areas of Kenya are reliant on groundwater sources for domestic, commercial and industrial needs, including the coastal zone which is almost entirely dependent on groundwater. Other areas include Mombasa and Malindi (which depend on the Baricho wellfield); Kwale (dependent on the Tiwi wellfield); and Wajir (dependent on the Merti aquifer); as well as Naivasha, Nakuru, Mandera, and Lodwar (Mumma et al. 2011).  
 
  
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The Daadab refugee camp depends on groundwater abstracted from the Merti aquifer.
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=== Groundwater management===
 
=== Groundwater management===
  
 
====Legislation and regulation====
 
====Legislation and regulation====
  
Water resources legislation in Kenya has gone through many changes in recent decades. After independence in 1964, the government defined water as a national good and began developing rural water supply schemes through local government councils, with support from international donors. Ambitious development of water schemes during the 1970s slowed at the start of the 1980s due to government budget constraints, and Kenya saw successive periods of centralisation and decentralisation of water supply management, with mixed success. Major changes in the water sector were seen following the Water Act of 2002, and in 2010 Kenya’s new constitution enshrined water and sanitation as a human right.
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Water resources legislation in Kenya has gone through many changes in recent years. The most recent legislation is the 2016 Water Act. The 2030 Water Resources Group have produced a useful note describing the [https://www.2030wrg.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/Understanding-the-Kenyan-Water-Act-2016.pdf essentials of the Water Act 2016]. This Act created the [https://www.wra.go.ke/ Water Resources Authority] (WRA) from the former Water Resources Management Authority (WRMA). The objective of the WRA is to regulate the management and use of water resources. The WRA is responsible for:  
 
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* Regulation: sustainably and equitably allocate water resources among competing needs, including planning and issuing water abstraction permits, and setting and collecting permit and water user fees.
The most recent water legislation was the 2016 Water Act, which recognises groundwater as a key resource and emphasises the need for groundwater protection. The 2030 Water Resources Group produced a useful note describing the [https://www.2030wrg.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/Understanding-the-Kenyan-Water-Act-2016.pdf essentials of the Water Act 2016]. The Act created the [https://www.wra.go.ke/ Water Resources Authority] (WRA) from the former Water Resources Management Authority (WRMA). The objective of the WRA is to regulate the management and use of water resources. The WRA is responsible for:  
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* Water resource protection: controlling pollution and improving water quality in Kenya's water bodies, including integrating land use activities and human activities into WRA Water Quality control programs.
 
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* Information collection and dissemination: collecting, analysing, storing and dissemination information on water resources. This includes water borehole data, including borehole logs and test pumping data.
* Water regulation: to sustainably and equitably allocate water resources among competing needs, such as planning and issuing water abstraction permits, including permits for new water boreholes, and setting and collecting permit and water user fees.
 
* Water resource protection: to control pollution and improving water quality in Kenya's water bodies, including integrating land use activities and human activities into WRA Water Quality control programs.
 
* Information collection and dissemination: collecting, analysing, storing and dissemination information on water resources. This includes a requirement for borehole logs and test pumping data for all new water boreholes to be collected by borehole drillers/developers and returned to the WRA.
 
 
* Climate change adaptation: WRA has specific responsibilities relating to the control of water resources in disasters that have been brought about by climate change effects.
 
* Climate change adaptation: WRA has specific responsibilities relating to the control of water resources in disasters that have been brought about by climate change effects.
  

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