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[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]]  >> Hydrogeology of Madagascar  
 
[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]]  >> Hydrogeology of Madagascar  
  
  '''Lire cette page en français: [[Hydrogéologie de Madagascar | Hydrogéologie de Madagascar]]''' [[File: flag_of_france.png  | 50px]]
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[[File:CC-BY-SA_logo_88x31.png | frame | This work is licensed under a [https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License]]]
 
 
 
 
Madagascar, an island nation off East Africa, has seen waves of settlers from southeast Asia, Africa and Arabia for at least possibly the past 2000 years, with many groups settling and some establishing trade posts. The population today is mostly Malagasy. Different groups of Malagasy people coexisted until the Merina people consolidated made it into a single kingdom in the 19th century. Many French settlers arrived in this period. The monarchy ended in 1897 when the island was fully colonised by France, from which it became independent in 1960. Since independence, Madagascar has seen many constitutional changes, most recently a coup in 2009, and new democratic elections in 2013.  
 
Madagascar, an island nation off East Africa, has seen waves of settlers from southeast Asia, Africa and Arabia for at least possibly the past 2000 years, with many groups settling and some establishing trade posts. The population today is mostly Malagasy. Different groups of Malagasy people coexisted until the Merina people consolidated made it into a single kingdom in the 19th century. Many French settlers arrived in this period. The monarchy ended in 1897 when the island was fully colonised by France, from which it became independent in 1960. Since independence, Madagascar has seen many constitutional changes, most recently a coup in 2009, and new democratic elections in 2013.  
  
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===Geography===
 
===Geography===
  
Madagascar has an area of 592,000 km<sup>2</sup>, stretches 1600 km from north to south, and has a maximum width of 600 km from west to east. It lies 300 km east of the east African coast, in the intertropical zone.
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Madagascar has an area of 592,000 km2; is 1600 km from north to south, and has a maximum width of 600 km from west to east. It lies 300 km east of the east African coast, in the intertropical zone.
  
 
There are two main geomorphological regions in Madagascar:
 
There are two main geomorphological regions in Madagascar:
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|Freshwater withdrawal as % of total renewable water resources || || || ||4.024 || ||
 
|Freshwater withdrawal as % of total renewable water resources || || || ||4.024 || ||
 
|-
 
|-
|Total renewable groundwater (Million cubic metres/year) ||  || || || ||55,000 ||
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|Renewable groundwater resources (Million cubic metres/year) || No data || No data || No data || No data || No data || No data
|-
 
|Exploitable: Regular renewable groundwater (Million cubic metres/year) || No data || No data || No data || No data || No data || No data
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Groundwater produced internally (Million cubic metres/year) || || ||  || ||55,000 ||
 
|Groundwater produced internally (Million cubic metres/year) || || ||  || ||55,000 ||
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<sup>1</sup> More information on [http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/water_use_agr/index.stm irrigation water use and requirement statistics]
 
<sup>1</sup> More information on [http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/water_use_agr/index.stm irrigation water use and requirement statistics]
 +
  
 
==Geology==
 
==Geology==
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The geology map on this page shows a simplified version of the geology at a national scale (see the [[Geology | Geology resource page]] for more details).  
 
The geology map on this page shows a simplified version of the geology at a national scale (see the [[Geology | Geology resource page]] for more details).  
 
[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html '''Download a GIS shapefile of the Madagascar geology and hydrogeology map'''].
 
 
   
 
   
 
A higher resolution geological map of Madagascar is the '''Carte géologique de Madagascar, echelle 1:1,000,000'''. Scanned versions of this map in 3 tiles are available at the Bibliothèque et Archives Universitaires Cartotheque: [http://biblio.univ-antananarivo.mg/cartotheque/detail.php?id=341 Feuille du Nord], [http://biblio.univ-antananarivo.mg/cartotheque/detail.php?id=433 Feuille du Centre] et [http://biblio.univ-antananarivo.mg/cartotheque/detail.php?id=432  Feuille du Sud].  
 
A higher resolution geological map of Madagascar is the '''Carte géologique de Madagascar, echelle 1:1,000,000'''. Scanned versions of this map in 3 tiles are available at the Bibliothèque et Archives Universitaires Cartotheque: [http://biblio.univ-antananarivo.mg/cartotheque/detail.php?id=341 Feuille du Nord], [http://biblio.univ-antananarivo.mg/cartotheque/detail.php?id=433 Feuille du Centre] et [http://biblio.univ-antananarivo.mg/cartotheque/detail.php?id=432  Feuille du Sud].  
  
More detailed information on the geology of Madagascar, with particular relevance to hydrogeology, is available in the following reports: [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060013 UN (1989)]; Rakotondrainibe (2006) and BRGM (1968).
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More detailed information on the geology of Madagascar, with particular relevance to hydrogeology, is available in the following reports: [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/fulldetails.cfm?id=AGLA060013 UN (1989)]; Rakotondrainibe (2006) and BRGM (1968).
 +
 
  
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{|
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|-
 +
|
  
[[File:Madagascar_Geology4.png | center | thumb| 400px | Geology of Madagascar at 1:5 million scale. Based on map described by Persits et al. 2002/Furon and Lombard 1964. For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geology | geology resource page]]. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html Download a GIS shapefile of the Madagascar geology and hydrogeology map].]]
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 +
| [[File:Madagascar_Geology.png | center | thumb| 500px | Geology of Madagascar at 1:5 million scale. Developed from USGS map (Persits et al. 2002). For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geology | geology resource page]].]]
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|}
  
  
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* the Western Basin, which extends almost the whole length of the island;  
 
* the Western Basin, which extends almost the whole length of the island;  
 
* the Diego-Suarez Basin in the extreme north;  
 
* the Diego-Suarez Basin in the extreme north;  
* the East Coast (Côte Est) Basin; and  
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* the East Coast (Cote Est) Basin; and  
 
* the South Basin  
 
* the South Basin  
  
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||Consolidated sedimentary
 
||Consolidated sedimentary
 
|-
 
|-
!colspan="4"|Côte-Est Basin
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!colspan="4"|Cote-Est Basin
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Quaternary
 
|Quaternary
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This section provides a summary of the hydrogeology of the main aquifers in Madagascar.
 
This section provides a summary of the hydrogeology of the main aquifers in Madagascar.
 
   
 
   
The hydrogeology map below is an overview of aquifer type and productivity of the main aquifers, at a scale of 1:5,000,000 (see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | Hydrogeology map resource page]] for more details).  
+
The hydrogeology map below is an overview of aquifer type and productivity of the main aquifers, at a scale of 1:5,000,000 (see the [[Hydrogeology Map | Hydrogeology map resource page]] for more details).  
  
[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html '''Download a GIS shapefile of the Madagascar geology and hydrogeology map'''].
+
A higher resolution hydrogeological map of Madagascar is available as part of the SADC hydrogeological map, at a scale of 1:2,500,000. It is available to view through the [https://ggis.un-igrac.org/ggis-viewer/viewer/sadcgip/public/default SADC Groundwater Information Portal]. More information on the map is in the [https://www.un-igrac.org/file/1239/download?token=9db4evoo SADC Hydrogeological Map and Atlas Brochure] (2010).  
  
A higher resolution hydrogeological map of Madagascar is available as part of the SADC hydrogeological map, at a scale of 1:2,500,000. It is available to view through the [https://ggis.un-igrac.org/ggis-viewer/viewer/sadcgip/public/default SADC Groundwater Information Portal]. More information on the map is in the [https://www.un-igrac.org/file/1239/download?token=9db4evoo SADC Hydrogeological Map and Atlas Brochure] (2010).  
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More detailed information on the hydrogeology of Madagascar can be found in the following reports: [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/fulldetails.cfm?id=AGLA060013 UN (1989)] and Rakotondrainibe (2006).
  
More detailed information on the hydrogeology of Madagascar can be found in the following reports: [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060013 UN (1989)] and Rakotondrainibe (2006).
 
  
  
[[File:Madagascar_Hydrogeology4.png | center | thumb| 400px | Map of hydrogeology (aquifer type and productivity) of  Madagascar at 1:5 million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | Hydrogeology map]] resource page. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html Download a GIS shapefile of the Madagascar geology and hydrogeology map].]].
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[[File:Madagascar_Hydrogeology.png]] [[File: Hydrogeology_Key.png | 500x195px]]
  
  
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====Unconsolidated Sedimentary====
 
====Unconsolidated Sedimentary====
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
|Aquifers||Basin||Aquifer productivity||General description||Water quality  
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|Aquifers||Basin||General description||Water quality  
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Alluvium; Sand dunes (ancient to recent); Beach sand. Quaternary and Tertiary (Neogene)
 
| Alluvium; Sand dunes (ancient to recent); Beach sand. Quaternary and Tertiary (Neogene)
||Western; Diego-Suarez; Côte-Est  
+
||Western; Diego-Suarez; Cote-Est  
||Variable: Low-Moderate to Very High
 
 
||Alluvium forms a local but often high yielding aquifer in many river valleys, both in the Highlands Precambrian zone and in the sedimentary basins. Alluvium overlies the older rocks, and is typically up to 25 m thick. Borehole yields of 10 to 30 l/sec have been recorded – e.g. in the Ampotaka-Menarandra and Ademaka areas. However, many lower yields of between < 1 and 10 l/s are also recorded. There are records of permeability values of between 40 and 450 m/day and transmissivity values of between 40 and over 2000 m2/day (UN 1988).
 
||Alluvium forms a local but often high yielding aquifer in many river valleys, both in the Highlands Precambrian zone and in the sedimentary basins. Alluvium overlies the older rocks, and is typically up to 25 m thick. Borehole yields of 10 to 30 l/sec have been recorded – e.g. in the Ampotaka-Menarandra and Ademaka areas. However, many lower yields of between < 1 and 10 l/s are also recorded. There are records of permeability values of between 40 and 450 m/day and transmissivity values of between 40 and over 2000 m2/day (UN 1988).
  
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|}
 
|}
  
==== Sedimentary – Dominantly Fracture Flow====
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====Consolidated Sedimentary - Mixed Intergranular/Fracture Flow====
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
|Aquifers||Basin||Aquifer productivity||General description||Water quality  
+
|Aquifers||Basin||General description||Water quality
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Tertiary (Eocene)
 
|Tertiary (Eocene)
 
||Western; Diego-Suarez
 
||Western; Diego-Suarez
||High to Very High
 
 
||Eocene limestones can form highly productive aquifers. Some of the limestones are karstic, including in the Diego-Suarez basin. Borehole yields are often tens of litres per second; permeability values of 130 to 860 m/day, and transmissivity values of 725 to 6000 m<sup>2</sup>/day, such as in Majunga town, or in parts of the Morondava basin (in the Western basin) (UN 1988).  
 
||Eocene limestones can form highly productive aquifers. Some of the limestones are karstic, including in the Diego-Suarez basin. Borehole yields are often tens of litres per second; permeability values of 130 to 860 m/day, and transmissivity values of 725 to 6000 m<sup>2</sup>/day, such as in Majunga town, or in parts of the Morondava basin (in the Western basin) (UN 1988).  
  
 
Eocene sandstones in the Morondava (Western) basin can also form highly productive aquifers, with recorded borehole yields of 4 to 20 l/s, sometimes artesian.
 
Eocene sandstones in the Morondava (Western) basin can also form highly productive aquifers, with recorded borehole yields of 4 to 20 l/s, sometimes artesian.
 
||The groundwater is usually of Ca-Mg type.
 
||The groundwater is usually of Ca-Mg type.
 +
|}
 +
 +
==== Sedimentary – Dominantly Fracture Flow====
 +
{| class = "wikitable"
 +
|Aquifers||Basin||General description||Water quality
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Various sandstone formations. Cretaceous  
 
|Various sandstone formations. Cretaceous  
||Western; Diego-Suarez; Côte-Est
+
||Western; Diego-Suarez; Cote-Est
||High to Very High
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||In the Western Basin, Upper Cretaceous sandstones in the Majunga basin recorded a high yield of 35 l/s and artesian water levels from a 128 m deep borehole. A 165 m deep borehole in the Morondava basin recorded a permeability of 40 m/day and a transmissivity of 1500 m2/day (UN 1988). Middle Cretaceous sandstones in the Majunga and Morondava basins (Western Basin) have recorded borehole yields of 4 to 67 l/s, but usually between 14 and 23 l/s. These boreholes were between 22 and 500 m deep and many were artesian. In the Toliary area of the Western Basin, Cretaceous aquifers of mixed sandstone, limestone and basalt are tapped by boreholes between 50 and 150 m deep, with specific capacity values between 1 and 14 l/sec/m (Rakotondraibe 2006).
||In the Western Basin, Upper Cretaceous sandstones in the Majunga basin recorded a very high yield of 35 l/s and artesian water levels from a 128 m deep borehole. A 165 m deep borehole in the Morondava basin recorded a permeability of 40 m/day and a transmissivity of 1500 m<sup>2</sup>/day (UN 1988). Middle Cretaceous sandstones in the Majunga and Morondava basins (Western Basin) have recorded borehole yields of 4 to 67 l/s, but usually between 14 and 23 l/s. These boreholes were between 22 and 500 m deep and many were artesian. In the Toliary area of the Western Basin, Cretaceous aquifers of mixed sandstone, limestone and basalt are tapped by boreholes between 50 and 150 m deep, with specific capacity values between 1 and 14 l/sec/m (Rakotondraibe 2006).
 
  
In the Côte-Est Basin, Cretaceous sandstones can form confined aquifers, tapped by boreholes up to 40 m deep, with specific capacity values of 0.18 l/sec/m (Rakotondraibe 2006).
+
In the Cote-Est Basin, Cretaceous sandstones can form confined aquifers, tapped by boreholes up to 40 m deep, with specific capacity values of 0.18 l/sec/m (Rakotondraibe 2006).
 
||High iron concentrations are common.  
 
||High iron concentrations are common.  
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Middle and Upper Jurassic carbonate and sandstone aquifers  
 
|Middle and Upper Jurassic carbonate and sandstone aquifers  
 
||Western; Diego-Suarez
 
||Western; Diego-Suarez
||Low-Moderate to High
 
 
|| Can be unconfined or confined, sometimes artesian.  
 
|| Can be unconfined or confined, sometimes artesian.  
  
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||Relatively low levels of mineralisation
 
||Relatively low levels of mineralisation
 
|-
 
|-
|Karoo system (including Isalo). Carboniferous to Middle Jurassic
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|Karoo system (including Isolo). Carboniferous to Middle Jurassic
 
||Western; Diego-Suarez
 
||Western; Diego-Suarez
||Low/Moderate to High
 
 
||Can be unconfined or confined, sometimes artesian.  
 
||Can be unconfined or confined, sometimes artesian.  
  
 
A 168 m deep borehole at Bezaha in the Toliary (Western) basin recorded a very large yield of 208 l/s and artesian water levels. However, more normally the aquifer may be less productive. A 120 m deep borehole at Antsohihy in the Majunga basin recorded a very small yield of 0.19 l/s (UN 1988). More typical borehole yields may be around 0.5 l/s in the Morondava and Mahajanga (Western Basin) and Antsiranana (Diego-Suarez Basin) areas, with yields of 6 l/s recorded in the Toliary area (Western Basin) (Rakotondrainibe 2006).
 
A 168 m deep borehole at Bezaha in the Toliary (Western) basin recorded a very large yield of 208 l/s and artesian water levels. However, more normally the aquifer may be less productive. A 120 m deep borehole at Antsohihy in the Majunga basin recorded a very small yield of 0.19 l/s (UN 1988). More typical borehole yields may be around 0.5 l/s in the Morondava and Mahajanga (Western Basin) and Antsiranana (Diego-Suarez Basin) areas, with yields of 6 l/s recorded in the Toliary area (Western Basin) (Rakotondrainibe 2006).
 
||Relatively low levels of mineralisation.  
 
||Relatively low levels of mineralisation.  
|}
 
 
====Volcanic====
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
|Aquifers||Basin||Aquifer productivity||General description||Water quality
 
|-
 
|Basalt. Tertiary-Quaternary
 
||Diego-Suarez; Highlands
 
||Moderate to High
 
||Basalts in the Antsiranana area in the north form fractured aquifers, usually unconfined. Borehole yields are likely to depend on the local distribution of fractures, but maximum borehole yields are recorded of 7 l/s (Rakotondrainibe 2006), and the basalts can support very large springs.
 
 
Basalts in the Highlands province can show intergranular flow. Available evidence suggests they're usually unconfined, with shallow depth to groundwater (2-3 m), a typical aquifer thickness less than 20 m, and estimated specific capacity values of 2 to 5 l/sec/m (Rakotondrainibe 2006).
 
||Groundwater quality is typically low in mineralisation, but occasionally can be brackish to salty.
 
|-
 
|Basalt. Cretaceous
 
||Western, South, Côte-Est
 
||Low to Moderate
 
||Little is known of the groundwater potential of the Cretaceous volcanic rocks, particularly because they crop out only in remote, relatively unpopulated regions. Where they have been drilled, some have proved to be unfractured and effectively impermeable (e.g. on the Radama islands and in the Boeny region in the northwest); but some have proved to be fractured and relatively productive (e.g. in the central west region).
 
||
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
 
====Basement - weathered / fractured aquifer====
 
====Basement - weathered / fractured aquifer====
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
|Aquifers||Basin||Aquifer productivity||General description||Water quality  
+
|Aquifers||Basin||General description||Water quality  
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Crystalline basement: metamorphic and igneous magmatic (intrusive) rocks. Precambrian  
 
|Crystalline basement: metamorphic and igneous magmatic (intrusive) rocks. Precambrian  
 
||Highlands
 
||Highlands
||Low to Low-Moderate
+
||These rocks form a local, low productivity aquifer where weathering and fracturing of the rocks has increased their permeability and storage capacity. The typical thickness of the weathered aquifer is less than 20 m, and the aquifer is usually unconfined. Typical specific yield values are 0.8 to 1.4 l/sec/m (Rakotondrainibe 2006).
||These rocks form a local, low productivity aquifer where weathering and fracturing of the rocks has increased their permeability and storage capacity. The typical thickness of the weathered aquifer is less than 20 m, and the aquifer is usually unconfined. Typical specific capacity values are 0.8 to 1.4 l/sec/m (Rakotondrainibe 2006).
 
 
||The water quality is typically low in mineralisation, but occasionally can be brackish to salty
 
||The water quality is typically low in mineralisation, but occasionally can be brackish to salty
 
|}
 
|}
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===Groundwater use===
 
===Groundwater use===
  
Groundwater supports much of the rural population, including from shallow boreholes or wells in altered/weathered basement aquifers and alluvial aquifers in the high plateaux, and alluvial or sand aquifers in the coastal regions. Small scale irrigation of rice fields is done in alluvial valleys between the hills in the high plateaus.  
+
Groundwater supports much of the rural population, including from shallow boreholes or wells in alluvial aquifers in the high plateaus, and alluvial or sand aquifers in the coastal regions. Small scale irrigation of rice fields is done in alluvial valleys between the hills in the high plateaus.  
  
 
Agricultural use of groundwater includes for cattle farming in the Majunga, Morondava and Tulear regions.  
 
Agricultural use of groundwater includes for cattle farming in the Majunga, Morondava and Tulear regions.  
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In the 1980s, the study and evaluation of groundwater was the responsibility of the Hydrogeology Division (Energy Service, Department of Mines and Energy, Ministry of Industry and Trade).  
 
In the 1980s, the study and evaluation of groundwater was the responsibility of the Hydrogeology Division (Energy Service, Department of Mines and Energy, Ministry of Industry and Trade).  
  
A review of water point data in 2009 reported that more than 3,000 water boreholes across Madagascar were recorded in a database. Geological logs for these boreholes are not available.
+
A review of water point data in 2009 reported that more than 3,000 water boreholes across Madagascar were recorded in a database. Geological logs for these boreholes are not available.  
  
 
==Groundwater Projects==
 
==Groundwater Projects==
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The following references provide more information on the geology and hydrogeology of Madagascar.
 
The following references provide more information on the geology and hydrogeology of Madagascar.
  
These, and others, can be accessed through the [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=listResults&title_search=&author_search=&category_search=&country_search=MG&placeboolean=AND&singlecountry=11 Africa Groundwater Literature Archive]
+
These, and others, can be accessed through the [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/searchResults.cfm?title_search=&author_search=&category_search=&country_search=MG&placeboolean=AND&singlecountry=11 Africa Groundwater Literature Archive]
  
 
'''Online resources'''
 
'''Online resources'''
  
[https://www.un-igrac.org/special-project/sadc-groundwater-information-portal-gip SADC Groundwater Information Portal] hosted by [https://www.un-igrac.org/ IGRAC].
+
[https://ggis.un-igrac.org/ggis-viewer/viewer/sadcgip/public/default SADC Groundwater Information Portal]
 
 
 
[http://www.sadc.int/themes/natural-resources/water/ General information on surface water and groundwater resources in SADC]
 
[http://www.sadc.int/themes/natural-resources/water/ General information on surface water and groundwater resources in SADC]
  
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'''Reports and other documents'''
 
'''Reports and other documents'''
  
BGS. 2002. [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=MG4036 Groundwater quality: Madagascar]  
+
BGS. 2002. [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/downloads/start.cfm?id=1282 Groundwater quality: Madagascar]  
  
 
BRGM. 1968. Etude des ressources aquifers souterraines a Madagascar. Report 69-RME-004 par BRGM et Organisation des Nations Unies.   
 
BRGM. 1968. Etude des ressources aquifers souterraines a Madagascar. Report 69-RME-004 par BRGM et Organisation des Nations Unies.   
 
Davies J. 2009. [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA200118 Hydrogeological mapping of north-central Madagascar using limited data]. Groundwater conference, Cape Town, South Africa, 16-18 Nov 2009.
 
  
 
Guyot L. 2002. Reconnaissance hydrogeologique pour l'alimentation en eau d'une plaine littorale en milieu semi-aride: Sud Ouest de Madagascar. These de Doctorat, Universite de Nantes
 
Guyot L. 2002. Reconnaissance hydrogeologique pour l'alimentation en eau d'une plaine littorale en milieu semi-aride: Sud Ouest de Madagascar. These de Doctorat, Universite de Nantes
  
Monteleone M. 2015. Madagascar: contribution à la comprehension de l'hydrogeologie de la Plaine de Morondava. These de Master en Hydrogeologie et Geothermie, Universite de Neuchatel
+
Monteleone M. 2015. Madagascar: contribution a la comprehension d l'hydrogeologie de la Plaine de Morondava. These de Master en Hydrogeologie et Geothermie, Universite de Neuchatel
  
Rakotondrainibe J H. 2006. Synthese de la geologie et de l’hydrogeologie de Madagascar.  
+
Rakotondrainibe J H. 2006. Synthese de la geologie et de l’hydrgeologie de Madagascar.  
  
 
Service Geologique de Madagascar. 1964. [http://biblio.univ-antananarivo.mg/cartotheque/detail.php?id=341 Madagascar Carte Geologique: Echelle au 1:1,000,000: Feuille du Nord]  
 
Service Geologique de Madagascar. 1964. [http://biblio.univ-antananarivo.mg/cartotheque/detail.php?id=341 Madagascar Carte Geologique: Echelle au 1:1,000,000: Feuille du Nord]  
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Service Geologique de Madagascar. 1964. [http://biblio.univ-antananarivo.mg/cartotheque/detail.php?id=432 Madagascar Carte Geologique: Echelle au 1:1,000,000: Feuille du Sud]
 
Service Geologique de Madagascar. 1964. [http://biblio.univ-antananarivo.mg/cartotheque/detail.php?id=432 Madagascar Carte Geologique: Echelle au 1:1,000,000: Feuille du Sud]
  
United Nations. 1989. [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060013 Groundwater in Eastern, Central and Southern Africa: Madagascar]. United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development.
+
United Nations. 1989. [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/fulldetails.cfm?id=AGLA060013 Groundwater in Eastern, Central and Southern Africa: Madagascar]. United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development.
 
 
  
Return to the index pages:
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==Return to the index pages==
[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]]   
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[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]]  >> Hydrogeology of Madagascar
  
  

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