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[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Malawi
 
[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Malawi
  
[[File:CC-BY-SA_logo_88x31.png | frame | This work is licensed under a [https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License]]]
 
  
Malawi is one of the smallest countries in Africa, bordered entirely by other countries and to the east by Lake Malawi, which makes up about a third of Malawi’s area. In prehistory, it was home to small populations of hunter-gatherers before Bantu peoples settled around the 10th century. By 1500 AD the area formed part of the Kingdom of Maravi. The region was subject to the Arab slave trade, which reached a maximum in the 19th century, and in the late 19th century came under British colonial rule. After independence in 1964 as a republic, Malawi saw one-party state politics until 1994. Since then, Malawi has seen multi-party government, with occasional political and civil unrest.  
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Malawi is one of the smallest countries in Africa, bordered entirely by other countries and to the east by Lake Malawi, which makes up about a third of Malawi’s area. After independence in 1964 the country saw one-party state politics until 1994. Since then, Malawi has seen multi-party government, with occasional political and civil unrest.  
  
 
Malawi’s economy is based on agriculture, which accounts for over a third of GDP and 90% of export revenues. Agricultural exports are dominated by tobacco, tea and sugar, mostly from large commercial farms. Market liberalisation in the 1990s saw more smallholder farmers enter agricultural markets. Smallholder, mostly rainfed, agricultural production, particularly of maize, is a majority livelihood activity. In recent years Malawi has granted licenses for hydrocarbon exploration in the East African Rift Valley, including Lake Malawi, but to date there are no proven hydrocarbon reserves.
 
Malawi’s economy is based on agriculture, which accounts for over a third of GDP and 90% of export revenues. Agricultural exports are dominated by tobacco, tea and sugar, mostly from large commercial farms. Market liberalisation in the 1990s saw more smallholder farmers enter agricultural markets. Smallholder, mostly rainfed, agricultural production, particularly of maize, is a majority livelihood activity. In recent years Malawi has granted licenses for hydrocarbon exploration in the East African Rift Valley, including Lake Malawi, but to date there are no proven hydrocarbon reserves.
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The next largest lake in Malawi is Lake Chilwa, which forms an internal drainage basin and mainly drains the northern uplands. Rivers flowing into the Chilwa basin tend to be ephemeral in their lower courses, losing water to permeable valley alluvial deposits.  
 
The next largest lake in Malawi is Lake Chilwa, which forms an internal drainage basin and mainly drains the northern uplands. Rivers flowing into the Chilwa basin tend to be ephemeral in their lower courses, losing water to permeable valley alluvial deposits.  
 
For water management purposes, Malawi is divided into 17 water resource areas (WRAs) based on river basins. Some WRAs consist of one river basin and others are composed of several small river basins. WRAs are divided into water resource units (WRUs). In 2014, 139 stations hydrological monitoring stations were reported as operational, including 136 Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Water stations and 3 Water Board stations. Another 164 stations were reported as non-operational in 2014 (Republic of Malawi, 2014).
 
 
More information is available in the [http://open_jicareport.jica.go.jp/pdf/12184537_01.pdf National Water Master Plan] (Republic of Malawi, 2014).
 
 
  
 
{|
 
{|
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|Urban population with access to safe drinking water (%) || || ||  || ||95.7
 
|Urban population with access to safe drinking water (%) || || ||  || ||95.7
 
|-
 
|-
|Population affected by water related disease || No data || No data || No data  || No data || No data
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|Population affected by water related disease (per 1000 inhabitants) || No data || No data || No data  || No data || No data
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Total internal renewable water resources (cubic metres/inhabitant/year) || || ||  ||937.6 ||  
 
|Total internal renewable water resources (cubic metres/inhabitant/year) || || ||  ||937.6 ||  
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|Freshwater withdrawal as % of total renewable water resources || || ||7.853 || ||  
 
|Freshwater withdrawal as % of total renewable water resources || || ||7.853 || ||  
 
|-
 
|-
|Total renewable groundwater (Million cubic metres/year) ||  || || || ||2,500 ||
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|Renewable groundwater resources (Million cubic metres/year) || No data || No data || No data  || No data || No data
|-
 
|Exploitable: Regular renewable groundwater (Million cubic metres/year) || No data || No data || No data  || No data || No data
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Groundwater produced internally (Million cubic metres/year) || || ||  ||2,500 ||  
 
|Groundwater produced internally (Million cubic metres/year) || || ||  ||2,500 ||  
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The geology map on this page shows a simplified version of the geology at a national scale (see the [[Geology | Geology resource page]] for more details).  
 
The geology map on this page shows a simplified version of the geology at a national scale (see the [[Geology | Geology resource page]] for more details).  
  
[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html '''Download a GIS shapefile of the Malawi geology and hydrogeology map'''].
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[[File:Malawi_Geology2.png | center | thumb| 500px | Geology of Malawi at 1:5 million scale. Developed from USGS map (Persits et al. 2002). For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geology | geology resource page]].]]
 
 
[[File:Malawi_Geology3.png | center | thumb| 400px | Geology of Malawi at 1:5 million scale. Developed from USGS map (Persits et al. 2002). For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geology | geology resource page]]. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html Download a GIS shapefile of the Malawi geology and hydrogeology map].]]
 
  
 
===Summary===
 
===Summary===
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The hydrogeology map on this page shows a simplified overview of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the [[Hydrogeology Map | Hydrogeology map resource page]] for more details).
 
The hydrogeology map on this page shows a simplified overview of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the [[Hydrogeology Map | Hydrogeology map resource page]] for more details).
 
[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html '''Download a GIS shapefile of the Malawi geology and hydrogeology map'''].
 
  
 
Malawi is also covered by the SADC hydrogeological map and atlas (2010), available through the [https://ggis.un-igrac.org/ggis-viewer/viewer/sadcgip/public/default SADC Groundwater Information Portal].
 
Malawi is also covered by the SADC hydrogeological map and atlas (2010), available through the [https://ggis.un-igrac.org/ggis-viewer/viewer/sadcgip/public/default SADC Groundwater Information Portal].
  
[[File:Malawi_Hydrogeology3.png | center | thumb| 400px | Hydrogeology of Malawi at 1:5 million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Hydrogeology Map | Hydrogeology map]] resource page. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html Download a GIS shapefile of the Malawi geology and hydrogeology map].]].
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[[File:Malawi_Hydrogeology2.png | center | thumb| 500px | Hydrogeology of Malawi at 1:5 million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Hydrogeology Map | Hydrogeology map]] resource page]].
  
 
===Summary===
 
===Summary===
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==Groundwater Status==
 
==Groundwater Status==
  
There is a lack of information about the quantitative status of groundwater across Malawi, because there is relatively little groundwater level monitoring.  
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The natural quality of groundwater in Malawi is highly dependent on aquifer lithology, and is highly variable spatially. Nationally, groundwater is generally suitable for drinking (Chavula 2012). Groundwater in alluvial aquifers is generally more mineralised than that in basement aquifers, and a number of boreholes in alluvial aquifers have been abandoned due to high salinity (Chavula 2012). Chemical parameters that are elevated in different areas include fluoride, sulphate, iron, chloride and nitrate. Fluoride concentrations of more than 1.5 mg/l are common in groundwater in alluvial aquifers in the Salima/Nkhotakota and Karonga lakeshore areas (Chavula 2012).
  
The natural quality of groundwater across much Malawi is thought to be generally suitable for drinking (Chavula 2012). However, groundwater chemistry is highly dependent on aquifer lithology (rock type and mineralogy), and so it is highly variable spatially.  Groundwater in alluvial aquifers is generally more mineralised than that in basement aquifers, and a number of boreholes in alluvial aquifers have been abandoned due to high salinity (Chavula 2012). Chemical parameters that are elevated in different areas include fluoride, sulphate, iron, chloride and nitrate. Fluoride concentrations of more than 1.5 mg/l are common in groundwater in alluvial aquifers in the Salima/Nkhotakota and Karonga lakeshore areas (Chavula 2012). Generally, groundwater from boreholes is of better microbiological quality than groundwater from dug wells, which tend to be more vulnerable to contamination (Chavula 2012). Research on shallow wells in southern Malawi in 2008 and in northern Malawi in 2013 showed unacceptably high levels of microbiological contaminants in shallow wells (Msilimba and Wanda 2013, Pritchard et al. 2008). General overviews of groundwater quality in Malawi can be seen in Bath (1980), BGS (2004), and Water Department/UNDP (1986) (see hydrogeology reference list, below).
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Generally, groundwater from boreholes is of better microbiological quality than groundwater from dug wells, which tend to be more vulnerable to contamination (Chavula 2012). Research on shallow wells in southern Malawi in 2008 and in northern Malawi in 2013 showed unacceptably high levels of microbiological contaminants in shallow wells (Msilimba and Wanda 2013, Pritchard et al. 2008).
  
The revised National Water Master Plan (Republic of Malawi 2014) states that the priority for consumptive water use is for domestic water, irrigation and livestock. There is little information or knowledge about environmental water flows or how groundwater supports environmental flows, or any guidelines for estimating them. Potential interactions between river flows and groundwater are only investigated occasionally on a case by case basis, if there are known problems. The revised Water Master Plan recommends strengthening investigation and monitoring of these issues and the development of guidelines.
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Overviews of groundwater quality in Malawi can be seen in Bath (1980), BGS (2004), and Water Department/UNDP (1986) (see hydrogeology reference list, below).
  
==Groundwater use, management, monitoring and development==
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==Groundwater use and management==
  
 
=== Groundwater use===
 
=== Groundwater use===
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Boreholes fitted with hand pumps are standard for rural groundwater supplies. The use of motorised pumps is widespread, particularly by farmers; and treadle pumps are becoming more widely used. Recent droughts may have contributed to changing preferences for boreholes rather than hand-dug wells.  
 
Boreholes fitted with hand pumps are standard for rural groundwater supplies. The use of motorised pumps is widespread, particularly by farmers; and treadle pumps are becoming more widely used. Recent droughts may have contributed to changing preferences for boreholes rather than hand-dug wells.  
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=== Groundwater management===
 
=== Groundwater management===
 
The [http://open_jicareport.jica.go.jp/pdf/12184537_01.pdf '''National Water Resources Master Plan'''] (Republic of Malawi, 2014 - see References, below) describes in detail the institutions and activities related to water management in Malawi. Here is a summary, with particular relevance to groundwater:
 
  
 
The Water Resources Act of 1969 was replaced by the Water Resources Act of 2013. Part of the new Act was to establish the National Water Resources Authority. Since 2013, there has been ongoing development and reorganisation within government agencies concerning how groundwater, and other water, resources are managed.  
 
The Water Resources Act of 1969 was replaced by the Water Resources Act of 2013. Part of the new Act was to establish the National Water Resources Authority. Since 2013, there has been ongoing development and reorganisation within government agencies concerning how groundwater, and other water, resources are managed.  
  
The Ministry responsible for water resource affairs, including groundwater, is currently the Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Water Development. Within the Ministry, the Departments of Water Resources and Water Supply are responsible for groundwater development policy. The Department of Water Resources currently has three sections: the Groundwater Division, Surface Water Division, and Water Quality section. Formerly, the Water Resources Board formed a fourth section within the Ministry, but under the Water Resources Act of 2013 this has now been replaced by the National Water Resources Authority (NWRA), an autonomous government sponsored body. The NWRA have taken over the roles of the former Water Resources Board, and will eventually assume other roles carried out currently by the other sections of the Water Resources Department. The responsibilities of the NWRA include (but are not limited to) the following:  
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The Ministry responsible for water resource affairs, including groundwater, is currently the Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Water Development. Within this Ministry, the Departments of Water Resources and Water Supply are responsible for groundwater development policy. The Department of Water Resources currently has three sections: the Groundwater Division, Surface Water Division, and Water Quality section. Formerly, the Water Resources Board formed a fourth section within the Ministry, but under the Water Resources Act of 2013 this has now been replaced by the National Water Resources Authority (NWRA), an autonomous government sponsored body. The NWRA have taken over the roles of the former Water Resources Board, and will eventually assume other roles carried out currently by the other sections of the Water Resources Department. The responsibilities of the NWRA include (but are not limited to) the following:  
  
 
- developing principles, guidelines and procedures for the allocation of water resources;
 
- developing principles, guidelines and procedures for the allocation of water resources;
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- coordinating the preparation and implementation of a water action plan.
 
- coordinating the preparation and implementation of a water action plan.
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The Groundwater Division of the Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Water Development formerly is currently responsible for groundwater management, including management of groundwater data, and assisting with assessment of groundwater abstraction applications; while the responsibility for operating and maintaining boreholes lies with the Water Supply department (Chavula 2012).  
 
The Groundwater Division of the Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Water Development formerly is currently responsible for groundwater management, including management of groundwater data, and assisting with assessment of groundwater abstraction applications; while the responsibility for operating and maintaining boreholes lies with the Water Supply department (Chavula 2012).  
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The NWRA works alongside the Shire River Basin Management Board, which is a pilot board created under a World Bank project, the Shire River Basin Management Programme. Ultimately, the aim is that the NWRA will oversee river basin / catchment management authorities or boards across the country, based on the major river basins.  
 
The NWRA works alongside the Shire River Basin Management Board, which is a pilot board created under a World Bank project, the Shire River Basin Management Programme. Ultimately, the aim is that the NWRA will oversee river basin / catchment management authorities or boards across the country, based on the major river basins.  
  
===Groundwater development===
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In much of the country, the practical development of groundwater resources is currently dominantly carried out by NGOs, the donor community and the private sector, in collaboration with the NWRA and the Ministry Agriculture, Irrigation and Water Development (Chavula 2012).
 
 
In much of the country, the practical development of groundwater resources is currently dominantly carried out by NGOs, the donor community and the private sector, in collaboration with the NWRA and the Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Water Development (Chavula 2012).
 
 
 
In 2016, the Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Water Development published '''a technical manual and a set of guidelines''' for groundwater well/borehole development. The manual covers topics such as effective well/borehole siting, different drilling methods and detailed techniques, pump selection, headwork construction, spring development and borehole rehabilitation. The guidelines are practical Standard Operating Procedures for groundwater sampling, aquifer pumping test, groundwater level monitoring, groundwater use permitting and drilling and construction of national monitoring boreholes. These are available to download from the [http://www.rural-water-supply.net/en/resources/details/807 '''RWSN website'''].
 
  
 
===Groundwater monitoring===
 
===Groundwater monitoring===
  
There is a groundwater level monitoring network of approximately 35 boreholes across the country. In 2012, it was reported that monitoring was only being done at 18 of these boreholes (Republic of Malawi, 2014). At least some of these are equipped with automatic water level monitors.  
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Groundwater level monitoring is being carried out across a network of approximately 30 boreholes across the country, assisted by the use of automatic water level monitors. Some groundwater quality monitoring is also taking place. The monitoring network is currently being upgraded as part of a World Bank funded project on national hydrogeological and water quality mapping.  
 
 
Some groundwater quality monitoring is also done, as part of a network of 195 water quality monitoring points (for surface water, groundwater, and pollution control at specific effluent outlets), but it has not been systematic, due to budgetary constraints (Republic of Malawi, 2014).
 
 
 
In 2016, the Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Water Development published '''a technical manual and guidelines''' that include groundwater monitoring and groundwater data management, including operating and managing the national groundwater database. These are the same manual and guidelines described above for groundwater development topics, and they are available to download from the [http://www.rural-water-supply.net/en/resources/details/807 '''RWSN website'''].
 
 
 
Since 2014, a World Bank funded project on national hydrogeological and water quality mapping carried out development work for the national groundwater level and quality monitoring network.  
 
  
 
=== Transboundary aquifers===
 
=== Transboundary aquifers===
  
 
For further information about transboundary aquifers, please see the [[Transboundary aquifers | Transboundary aquifers resources page]]
 
For further information about transboundary aquifers, please see the [[Transboundary aquifers | Transboundary aquifers resources page]]
 
===Groundwater Projects===
 
 
Many groundwater projects have been carried out in Malawi. Information on some major past groundwater projects, with web links to project results and outputs, can be found on the [[Malawi Groundwater Projects]] page.
 
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
  
The following references provide more information on the geology and hydrogeology of Malawi. These, and others, can be accessed through the [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=listResults&title_search=&author_search=&category_search=&country_search=MW&placeboolean=AND&singlecountry=1  Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].
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The following references provide more information on the geology and hydrogeology of Malawi. These, and others, can be accessed through the [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/searchResults.cfm?title_search=&author_search=&category_search=&country_search=MW&placeboolean=AND&singlecountry=1  Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].
  
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===Online resources===
  
 
[https://ggis.un-igrac.org/ggis-viewer/viewer/sadcgip/public/default SADC Groundwater Information Portal]
 
[https://ggis.un-igrac.org/ggis-viewer/viewer/sadcgip/public/default SADC Groundwater Information Portal]
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===Geology: key references===
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Smith-Carington AK and Chilton PJ. 1983. [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/fulldetails.cfm?id=MW1188 Groundwater resources of Malawi]. Department of Lands, Valuation and Water; Republic of Malawi, Lilongwe.
  
Anscombe JR. 2011. [https://www.unicef.org/malawi/MLW_resources_qualityassureboreholes.pdf Consultancy Services: Quality Assurance of UNICEF Drilling Programes for Boreholes in Malawi: Final Report]. Report prepared for UNICEF / Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Water Development, Government of Malawi.
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===Hydrogeology: key references===
  
 
Bath AH. 1980. [http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/505535/ Hydrochemistry in groundwater development: report on an advisory visit to Malawi]. British Geological Survey Report WD/OS/80/20.  
 
Bath AH. 1980. [http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/505535/ Hydrochemistry in groundwater development: report on an advisory visit to Malawi]. British Geological Survey Report WD/OS/80/20.  
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Chowns E. 2015. [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pad.1737/abstract Is community management an efficient and effective model of public service delivery? Lessons from the rural water supply sector in Malawi]. Public Administration and Development, 35(4), 263-276.  
 
Chowns E. 2015. [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pad.1737/abstract Is community management an efficient and effective model of public service delivery? Lessons from the rural water supply sector in Malawi]. Public Administration and Development, 35(4), 263-276.  
 
Climate Justice Fund. 2015. [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l7S_O6EeSys  Sustainable Groundwater Management in Malawi: Overview of the Hydrogeological Project Management for Sustainable Groundwater Resources in the Lower Shire Malawi]. Video.
 
 
Davies J, Robins NS and Farr JL. 2013. [https://www.researchgate.net/publication/312054890_Is_the_Precambrian_basement_aquifer_in_Malawi_up_to_the_job Is the Precambrian basement aquifer in Malawi up to the job?] In book: J Cobbing, S Adams, I Dennis, K Riemann (Eds), Assessing and Managing Groundwater in Different Environments, Vol 19, Chapter 17, published by CRC Press. Doi: 10.1201/b15937-18
 
 
GEF-TWAP. 2015. [https://services.geodan.nl/public/document/AGRC0001XXXX/api/data/AGRC0001XXXX/mim/AF17_20150911.pdf_lo4uoeoyd Transboundary Aquifer Information Sheet: AF17 - Shire Valley Alluvial Aquifer]. Report prepared for GEF Transboundary Water Assessment Programme.
 
 
Holm RH, Kunkel G and Nyirenda L. 2018. [https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352801X17301881 A thought leadership piece: Where are the rural groundwater quality data for the assessment of health risks in northern Malawi?]. Groundwater for Sustainable Development 7, 157-163. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gsd.2018.05.004
 
  
 
Jimu IM. 2008. [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1474706508001629 The role of stakeholders in the provision and management of water kiosks in Nkolokoti, Blantyre (Malawi)]. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, 33(8), 833-840.  
 
Jimu IM. 2008. [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1474706508001629 The role of stakeholders in the provision and management of water kiosks in Nkolokoti, Blantyre (Malawi)]. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, 33(8), 833-840.  
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Kamwamba‐Mtethiwa J, Namara R, De Fraiture C, Mangisoni J & Owusu E. 2012. [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ird.1665/abstract Treadle pump irrigation in Malawi: Adoption, gender and benefits]. Irrigation and Drainage, 61(5), 583-595.  
 
Kamwamba‐Mtethiwa J, Namara R, De Fraiture C, Mangisoni J & Owusu E. 2012. [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ird.1665/abstract Treadle pump irrigation in Malawi: Adoption, gender and benefits]. Irrigation and Drainage, 61(5), 583-595.  
 
Kambuku D, Tsujimura M and Kagawa S. 2018. [https://academicjournals.org/journal/AJEST/article-references/E772C5F67005 Groundwater recharge and flow processes as revealed by stable isotopes and geochemistry in fractured Hornblende-biotite-gneiss, Rivirivi Catchment, Malawi]. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 12 (1), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJEST2017.2406
 
 
Malawi Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Water Development. 2016. [http://www.rural-water-supply.net/en/resources/details/807 Technical Manual for Water Wells and Groundwater Monitoring Systems and Standard Operating Procedures for Groundwater].
 
  
 
Mangisoni JH. 2008. [http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3763/ijas.2008.0306?journalCode=tags20 Impact of treadle pump irrigation technology on smallholder poverty and food security in Malawi: a case study of Blantyre and Mchinji districts]. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, 6:4, 248-266  
 
Mangisoni JH. 2008. [http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3763/ijas.2008.0306?journalCode=tags20 Impact of treadle pump irrigation technology on smallholder poverty and food security in Malawi: a case study of Blantyre and Mchinji districts]. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, 6:4, 248-266  
 
Mapoma HWT and Xie X. 2014.
 
[https://www.researchgate.net/publication/260438305_Basement_and_alluvial_aquifers_of_Malawi_An_overview_of_groundwater_quality_and_policies Basement and alluvial aquifers of Malawi: An overview of groundwater quality and policies]. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 8 (3), 190-202. Doi: 10.5897/AJEST2013.1639
 
  
 
Ministry of Water Development and Irrigation. 2012. [http://www.300in6.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/10.-Irrigation-Water-Sanitation-Sector-Performance-Report-by-GoM-20121.pdf Malawi Sector Performance Report 2011: Irrigation, Water and Sanitation]. Final Report, June 2012.  
 
Ministry of Water Development and Irrigation. 2012. [http://www.300in6.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/10.-Irrigation-Water-Sanitation-Sector-Performance-Report-by-GoM-20121.pdf Malawi Sector Performance Report 2011: Irrigation, Water and Sanitation]. Final Report, June 2012.  
 
Monjerezi M and Ngongondo C. 2012. [https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12403-012-0064-0 Quality of Groundwater Resources in Chikhwawa, Lower Shire Valley, Malawi]. Water Quality, Exposure and Health, 4 (1), 39–53. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12403-012-0064-0
 
  
 
Msilimba G & Wanda EM. 2013. [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1474706513000867 Microbial and geochemical quality of shallow well water in high-density areas in Mzuzu City in Malawi]. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, 66, 173-180  
 
Msilimba G & Wanda EM. 2013. [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1474706513000867 Microbial and geochemical quality of shallow well water in high-density areas in Mzuzu City in Malawi]. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, 66, 173-180  
  
 
Mzembe CP. 1992. [http://dlc.dlib.indiana.edu/dlc/bitstream/handle/10535/4645/Wetland%20development%20and%20management%20in%20malawi.pdf?sequence=1 Wetland development and management in Malawi]. Irrigation Management Network Paper.
 
Mzembe CP. 1992. [http://dlc.dlib.indiana.edu/dlc/bitstream/handle/10535/4645/Wetland%20development%20and%20management%20in%20malawi.pdf?sequence=1 Wetland development and management in Malawi]. Irrigation Management Network Paper.
 
NEPAD. 2014. [http://nepadwatercoe.org/wp-content/uploads/CountryWaterResourceReport-MalawiFinal1.pdf Malawi: Country Water Resource Profile]. AU/NEPAD SANWATCE
 
  
 
Pritchard M, Mkandawire T, & O’Neill JG. 2008. [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1474706508001599 Assessment of groundwater quality in shallow wells within the southern districts of Malawi]. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, 33(8), 812-823.  
 
Pritchard M, Mkandawire T, & O’Neill JG. 2008. [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1474706508001599 Assessment of groundwater quality in shallow wells within the southern districts of Malawi]. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, 33(8), 812-823.  
 
Republic of Malawi. 2014. Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Water Development. [http://open_jicareport.jica.go.jp/pdf/12184537_01.pdf '''Project for  National Water Resources Master Plan in the Republic of Malawi Final Report Volume II: Main Report'''].
 
  
 
RWSN. 2014. [http://www.rural-water-supply.net/en/resources/details/743 Water Point Mapping and Monitoring Series. A Decade of WPM].  
 
RWSN. 2014. [http://www.rural-water-supply.net/en/resources/details/743 Water Point Mapping and Monitoring Series. A Decade of WPM].  
  
Sehatzadeh M. 2011. [https://www.duo.uio.no/bitstream/handle/10852/12531/MASTERxTHESIS.pdf?sequence=1 Groundwater Modelling in the Chikwawa district, lower Shire area of southern Malawi]. Masters Thesis, Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo.
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Smith-Carington AK and Chilton PJ. 1983. [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/fulldetails.cfm?id=MW1188 Groundwater resources of Malawi]. Department of Lands, Valuation and Water; Republic of Malawi, Lilongwe.
 
 
Smith-Carington AK and Chilton PJ. 1983. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=MW1188 Groundwater resources of Malawi]. Department of Lands, Valuation and Water; Republic of Malawi, Lilongwe.
 
  
 
UN. 1989. Malawi: Ground water in Eastern, Central and Southern Africa. Natural Resources/Water Series No. 19, ST/TCD/6. United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development.  
 
UN. 1989. Malawi: Ground water in Eastern, Central and Southern Africa. Natural Resources/Water Series No. 19, ST/TCD/6. United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development.  
  
Wanangwa GJ. 2018.[https://rwsn.blog/2018/09/04/borehole-drilling-in-malawi/ Borehole drilling supervision in Malawi: why it is essential, not optional].  RWSN blog post.
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Water Department/UNDP. 1986. [https://wedc-knowledge.lboro.ac.uk/search.html?q=author%3A%22Malawi,+Department+of+Water%22 National Water Resources Master Plan]. Malawi Government. NOTE this was replaced by an updated version, compiled by JICA, 2014.  
 
 
Water Department/UNDP. 1986. [https://wedc-knowledge.lboro.ac.uk/search.html?q=author%3A%22Malawi,+Department+of+Water%22 National Water Resources Master Plan]. Malawi Government. '''NOTE this was replaced by an updated version: Republic of Malawi, Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Water Development, 2014 - see above.'''
 
 
 
Wright E. 1992. [http://sp.lyellcollection.org/content/specpubgsl/66/1/1.full.pdf The hydrogeology of crystalline basement aquifers in Africa]. In Wright EP and Burgess WG (eds), Hydrogeology of Crystalline Basement Aquifers in Africa, Geological Society Special Publication No 66, pp 1-27.
 
  
  
Return to the index pages:
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==Return to the index pages==
[[Overview of Africa Groundwater Atlas | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]]  
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[[Overview of Africa Groundwater Atlas | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Malawi
  
  

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