Editing Hydrogeology of Malawi

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=== Groundwater management===
 
=== Groundwater management===
  
The [http://open_jicareport.jica.go.jp/pdf/12184537_01.pdf '''National Water Resources Master Plan'''] (Republic of Malawi, 2014 - see References, below) describes in detail the institutions and activities related to water management in Malawi. Here is a summary, with particular relevance to groundwater:
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The [http://open_jicareport.jica.go.jp/pdf/12184537_01.pdf National Water Resources Master Plan] (Republic of Malawi, 2014 - see References, below) describes in detail the institutions and activities related to water management in Malawi. Here is a summary, with particular relevance to groundwater:
  
 
The Water Resources Act of 1969 was replaced by the Water Resources Act of 2013. Part of the new Act was to establish the National Water Resources Authority. Since 2013, there has been ongoing development and reorganisation within government agencies concerning how groundwater, and other water, resources are managed.  
 
The Water Resources Act of 1969 was replaced by the Water Resources Act of 2013. Part of the new Act was to establish the National Water Resources Authority. Since 2013, there has been ongoing development and reorganisation within government agencies concerning how groundwater, and other water, resources are managed.  
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In much of the country, the practical development of groundwater resources is currently dominantly carried out by NGOs, the donor community and the private sector, in collaboration with the NWRA and the Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Water Development (Chavula 2012).  
 
In much of the country, the practical development of groundwater resources is currently dominantly carried out by NGOs, the donor community and the private sector, in collaboration with the NWRA and the Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Water Development (Chavula 2012).  
  
In 2016, the Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Water Development published '''a technical manual and a set of guidelines''' for groundwater well/borehole development. The manual covers topics such as effective well/borehole siting, different drilling methods and detailed techniques, pump selection, headwork construction, spring development and borehole rehabilitation. The guidelines are practical Standard Operating Procedures for groundwater sampling, aquifer pumping test, groundwater level monitoring, groundwater use permitting and drilling and construction of national monitoring boreholes. These are available to download from the [http://www.rural-water-supply.net/en/resources/details/807 '''RWSN website'''].
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In 2016, the Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Water Development published a technical manual and a set of guidelines for groundwater well/borehole development and for groundwater monitoring. The manual covers effective well/borehole siting, different drilling methods and detailed techniques, pump selection, headwork construction, spring development, borehole rehabilitation, groundwater monitoring and data management. The guidelines are practical Standard Operating Procedures for groundwater sampling, aquifer pumping test, groundwater level monitoring, groundwater use permitting, drilling and construction of national monitoring boreholes, operation and management of the national groundwater database. These are available to download from the [http://www.rural-water-supply.net/en/resources/details/807 '''RWSN website'''].
  
 
===Groundwater monitoring===
 
===Groundwater monitoring===
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Some groundwater quality monitoring is also done, as part of a network of 195 water quality monitoring points (for surface water, groundwater, and pollution control at specific effluent outlets), but it has not been systematic, due to budgetary constraints (Republic of Malawi, 2014).  
 
Some groundwater quality monitoring is also done, as part of a network of 195 water quality monitoring points (for surface water, groundwater, and pollution control at specific effluent outlets), but it has not been systematic, due to budgetary constraints (Republic of Malawi, 2014).  
 
In 2016, the Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Water Development published '''a technical manual and guidelines''' that include groundwater monitoring and groundwater data management, including operating and managing the national groundwater database. These are the same manual and guidelines described above for groundwater development topics, and they are available to download from the [http://www.rural-water-supply.net/en/resources/details/807 '''RWSN website'''].
 
  
 
Since 2014, a World Bank funded project on national hydrogeological and water quality mapping carried out development work for the national groundwater level and quality monitoring network.  
 
Since 2014, a World Bank funded project on national hydrogeological and water quality mapping carried out development work for the national groundwater level and quality monitoring network.  

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