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[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Mali
 
[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Mali
  
  '''Lire cette page en français: [[Hydrogéologie du Mali| Hydrogéologie du Mali]]''' [[File: flag_of_france.png  | 50px]]
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'''Lire cette page en français: [[Hydrogéologie du Mali| Hydrogéologie du Mali]]''' [[File: flag_of_france.png  | 50px]]
 
 
[[File:CC-BY-SA_logo_88x31.png | frame | This work is licensed under a [https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License]]]
 
 
 
Mali is a landlocked country, formerly part of the three ancient Sahelian empires of Ghana, Mali and Songhai. A the height of the Mali empire in the 13th century, the town of Timbuktu was a centre of culture, learning and Islamic religion, and Djenne was an international trade centre. In the late 19th century, France seized control of the present day area of Mali, making it a part of French Sudan. Mali won independence in 1960 as the Mali Federation with Senegal, shortly afterwards becoming the Republic of Mali in its current borders. Under one-party rule until a coup in 1991, Mali transitioned to a multi-party state with the first elections in 1992. Mali was perceived internationally as a fairly stable democratic country during this time. In 2012 there were two military coups and armed conflict between the state, Tuareg Islamic militants, which was eventually resolved with a return to democratic elections in 2013.
 
 
 
The economy has traditionally relied on agriculture. Desert areas are only suited for pastoralism, but there is cultivation of many crops including rice, groundnut and cotton (the latter particularly important as an export crop) in the less arid south and around the Niger River. There are also areas of irrigated vegetable production, but these are less economically significant on a national scale. Post-independence, drought was one factor leading to economic decline. Remittances from migrants to Cote d’Ivoire have also been important, and the return of many of these people during periods of instability in Cote d’Ivoire in 2002 and 2010 had an impact on the livelihoods on many Malians. There are attempts to diversify the economy with development of the mining industry, including gold, phosphate and kaolin.
 
 
 
With a largely semi-arid to arid climate, Mali has limited surface water resources in the north, but two major river systems in the south of the country are a key resource. Mali also has huge stores of groundwater in major aquifer systems, with a mix of fossil and actively recharged groundwater.
 
  
  
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'''Aboubacar Sidibe''', Mali
 
'''Aboubacar Sidibe''', Mali
  
'''Dr Kirsty Upton''', '''Brighid Ó Dochartaigh''', British Geological Survey, UK
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'''Kirsty Upton''', '''Brighid Ó Dochartaigh''', British Geological Survey, UK
  
'''Dr Imogen Bellwood-Howard''', Institute of Development Studies, UK
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Please cite this page as: Traore, Bokar, Sidibe, Upton & Ó Dochartaigh, 2016.
  
Please cite this page as: Traore, Bokar, Sidibe, Upton, Ó Dochartaigh and Bellwood-Howard, 2018.
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Bibliographic reference: Traore, A.Z., Bokar, H., Sidibe, A., Upton, K. & Ó Dochartaigh, B.É. 2016. Africa Groundwater Atlas: Hydrogeology of Mali. British Geological Survey. Accessed [date you accessed the information]. http://earthwise.bgs.ac.uk/index.php/Hydrogeology_of_Mali
 
 
Bibliographic reference: Traore AZ, Bokar H, Sidibe A, Upton K, Ó Dochartaigh BÉ and Bellwood-Howard, I. 2018. Africa Groundwater Atlas: Hydrogeology of Mali. British Geological Survey. Accessed [date you accessed the information]. http://earthwise.bgs.ac.uk/index.php/Hydrogeology_of_Mali
 
  
 
==Terms and conditions==
 
==Terms and conditions==
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{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
|-
 
|-
|Capital city || Bamako
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|Estimated Population in 2013* || 15,301,650
 
|-
 
|-
|Region || West Africa
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|Rural Population (% of total)* || 62%
 
|-
 
|-
|Border countries || Algeria, Niger, Burkina Faso, Cote d’Ivoire, Guinea, Senegal, Mauritania
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|Total Surface Area* || 1,220,190 sq km
 
|-
 
|-
|Total surface area* || 1,240,190 km<sup>2</sup>  (124,019,000  ha)
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|Agricultural Land (% of total area)* || 34%
 
|-
 
|-
|Total population (2015)* || 17,600,000
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|Capital City || Bamako
 
|-
 
|-
|Rural population (2015)* ||11,110,000 (63%)
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|Region || Western Africa
 
|-
 
|-
|Urban population (2015)* || 6,490,000 (37%)
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|Border Countries || Algeria, Niger, Burkina Faso, Cote d’Ivoire, Guinea, Senegal, Mauritania
 
|-
 
|-
|UN Human Development Index (HDI) [highest = 1] (2014)*|| 0.4193
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|Annual Freshwater Withdrawal (2013)* || 5,186 Million cubic metres
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|-
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|Annual Freshwater Withdrawal for Agriculture* || 98%
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|-
 +
|Annual Freshwater Withdrawal for Domestic Use* || 2%
 +
|-
 +
|Annual Freshwater Withdrawal for Industry* || <0.1%
 +
|-
 +
|Rural Population with Access to Improved Water Source* || 54%
 +
|-
 +
|Urban Population with Access to Improved Water Source* || 91%
 
|}
 
|}
  
<nowiki>*</nowiki> Source: [http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/data/query/index.html?lang=en FAO Aquastat]
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<nowiki>*</nowiki> Source: World Bank
 
 
  
  
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| [[File:Mali_LandCover.png | frame | Land Cover Map of Mali, from the European Space Agency GlobCover 2.3, 2009. For more information on the map see the [[Land cover | land cover resource page]].]]
 
| [[File:Mali_LandCover.png | frame | Land Cover Map of Mali, from the European Space Agency GlobCover 2.3, 2009. For more information on the map see the [[Land cover | land cover resource page]].]]
 
|}
 
|}
 
 
===Water statistics===
 
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
| ||2000||2006||2014||2015
 
|-
 
|Rural population with access to safe drinking water (%) || || ||  || 64.1
 
|-
 
|Urban population with access to safe drinking water (%) || || ||  || 96.5
 
|-
 
|Population affected by water related disease || No data || No data || No data || No data
 
|-
 
|Total internal renewable water resources (cubic metres/inhabitant/year) || || ||3,409  ||
 
|-
 
|Total exploitable water resources (Million cubic metres/year) || No data || No data || No data || No data
 
|-
 
|Freshwater withdrawal as % of total renewable water resources || ||4.32 || ||
 
|-
 
|Total renewable groundwater (Million cubic metres/year) ||  || ||20,000 ||
 
|-
 
|Exploitable: Regular renewable groundwater (Million cubic metres/year) || No data || No data || No data || No data
 
|-
 
|Groundwater produced internally (Million cubic metres/year) || || ||20,000 ||
 
|-
 
|Fresh groundwater withdrawal (primary and secondary) (Million cubic metres/year) ||||61||  ||
 
|-
 
|Groundwater: entering the country (total) (Million cubic metres/year) disease || No data || No data || No data || No data
 
|-
 
|Groundwater: leaving the country to other countries (total) (Million cubic metres/year) || No data || No data || No data || No data
 
|-
 
|Industrial water withdrawal (all water sources) (Million cubic metres/year) || ||4 || ||
 
|-
 
| Municipal water withdrawal (all water sources) (Million cubic metres/year)  || ||107 || ||
 
|-
 
|Agricultural water withdrawal (all water sources) (Million cubic metres/year) || ||5,075 || ||
 
|-
 
|Irrigation water withdrawal (all water sources)<sup>1</sup> (Million cubic metres/year) || ||5,000 ||  ||
 
|-
 
|Irrigation water requirement (all water sources)<sup>1</sup> (Million cubic metres/year) ||1,469 || ||  ||
 
|-
 
|Area of permanent crops (ha) || || || 150,000 ||
 
|-
 
|Cultivated land (arable and permanent crops) (ha) || || || 6,561,000 ||
 
|-
 
|Total area of country cultivated (%) || || || 5.29 ||
 
|-
 
|Area equipped for irrigation by groundwater (ha) ||1,000 || ||  ||
 
|-
 
|Area equipped for irrigation by mixed surface water and groundwater (ha) || No data || No data || No data || No data
 
|}
 
 
These statistics are sourced from [http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/main/index.stm FAO Aquastat]. They are the most recent available information in the Aquastat database. More information on the derivation and interpretation of these statistics can be seen on the FAO Aquastat website.
 
 
Further water and related statistics can be accessed at the [http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/data/query/index.html?lang=en Aquastat Main Database].
 
 
<sup>1</sup> More information on [http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/water_use_agr/index.stm irrigation water use and requirement statistics]
 
  
 
==Geology==
 
==Geology==
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This section provides a summary of the geology of Mali. More detail can be found in the references listed at the bottom of this page. Many of these references can be accessed through the [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/index.cfm Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].
 
This section provides a summary of the geology of Mali. More detail can be found in the references listed at the bottom of this page. Many of these references can be accessed through the [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/index.cfm Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].
  
The geology map on this page shows a simplified version of the '''bedrock geology''' at a national scale (see [[Geology | the Geology resource page]] for more details.
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The geology map on this page shows a simplified version of the geology at a national scale (see [[Geology | the Geology resource page]] for more details.
  
[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html '''Download a GIS shapefile of the Mali geology and hydrogeology map'''].
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[[File:Mali_Geology3.png | center | thumb| 500px | Geology of Mali at 1:5 million scale. Developed from USGS map (Persits et al. 2002). For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geology | geology resource page]].]]
 
 
[[File:Mali_Geology4.png | center | thumb| 500px | Geology of Mali at 1:5 million scale. Based on map described by Persits et al. 2002 / Furon and Lombard 1964. For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geology | geology resource page]]. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html Download a GIS shapefile of the Mali geology and hydrogeology map].]]
 
  
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
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The hydrogeology map on this page shows a simplified overview of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the [[Hydrogeology Map | Hydrogeology map resource page]] for more details).  
 
The hydrogeology map on this page shows a simplified overview of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the [[Hydrogeology Map | Hydrogeology map resource page]] for more details).  
 
[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html '''Download a GIS shapefile of the Mali geology and hydrogeology map'''].
 
  
 
'''Summary'''
 
'''Summary'''
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Intrusive igneous rocks (dolerites) can either act as a barrier to flow, or can provide preferential pathways for groundwater flow. Under certain conditions they also form aquifers of local importance.
 
Intrusive igneous rocks (dolerites) can either act as a barrier to flow, or can provide preferential pathways for groundwater flow. Under certain conditions they also form aquifers of local importance.
  
[[File:Mali_Hydrogeology4.png | center | thumb| 500px | Hydrogeology of Mali at 1:5 million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Hydrogeology Map | Hydrogeology map]] resource page. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html Download a GIS shapefile of the Mali geology and hydrogeology map].]].
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[[File:Mali_Hydrogeology3.png | center | thumb| 500px | Hydrogeology of Mali at 1:5 million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Hydrogeology Map | Hydrogeology map]] resource page]].
  
 
====Unconsolidated Aquifers====
 
====Unconsolidated Aquifers====
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==References==
 
==References==
Many of the references below, and others relating to the hydrogeology of Mali, can be found in the [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=listResults&title_search=&author_search=&category_search=&country_search=ML&placeboolean=AND&singlecountry=1 Africa Groundwater Literature Archive]
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Many of the references below, and others relating to the hydrogeology of Mali, can be found in the [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/searchResults.cfm?title_search=&author_search=&category_search=&country_search=ML&placeboolean=AND&singlecountry=1 Africa Groundwater Literature Archive]
  
 
===Key Geology References===
 
===Key Geology References===

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