Editing Hydrogeology of Namibia

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'''Much hydrogeological and groundwater information and many resources, including detailed maps, reports and other documents, are available for Namibia. This page provides a summary of hydrogeological understanding and groundwater resources in Namibia, and links to some of the many available resources.'''  
 
'''Much hydrogeological and groundwater information and many resources, including detailed maps, reports and other documents, are available for Namibia. This page provides a summary of hydrogeological understanding and groundwater resources in Namibia, and links to some of the many available resources.'''  
  
[[File:CC-BY-SA_logo_88x31.png | frame | This work is licensed under a [https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License]]]
 
  
 
Namibia is one of the most sparsely populated countries in Africa. Early inhabitants were San and other hunter-gatherer peoples, prior to the 14th century expansion of Bantu people into this region. In the late 19th century the region was colonised by Germany as South West Africa. Resistance to German rule was followed by the genocide of Herero and Namaqua people between 1904 and 1907, for which Germany formally apologised in 2004. South Africa took control of South West Africa after defeating German troops in World War I, and established a white minority rule similar to the South African apartheid system. In 1966, a resistance movement developed into armed struggle. In 1968 the United Nations declared South Africa’s continued occupation of Namibia illegal, but conflict continued throughout the 1970s and 80s. Independence from South Africa was achieved in 1990, after which the country saw a transition to multiparty democracy.  
 
Namibia is one of the most sparsely populated countries in Africa. Early inhabitants were San and other hunter-gatherer peoples, prior to the 14th century expansion of Bantu people into this region. In the late 19th century the region was colonised by Germany as South West Africa. Resistance to German rule was followed by the genocide of Herero and Namaqua people between 1904 and 1907, for which Germany formally apologised in 2004. South Africa took control of South West Africa after defeating German troops in World War I, and established a white minority rule similar to the South African apartheid system. In 1966, a resistance movement developed into armed struggle. In 1968 the United Nations declared South Africa’s continued occupation of Namibia illegal, but conflict continued throughout the 1970s and 80s. Independence from South Africa was achieved in 1990, after which the country saw a transition to multiparty democracy.  
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==Hydrogeology==
 
==Hydrogeology==
  
An Atlas country hydrogeology map has not been developed for Namibia, as a higher resolution hydrogeological map is already available. The hydrogeology of Namibia is described in detail in the report [https://www.bgr.bund.de/EN/Themen/Wasser/Projekte/abgeschlossen/TZ/Namibia/groundwater_namibia.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=3 Groundwater in Namibia] (Christelis & Struckmeier 2001/2011), which accompanies the Hydrogeological Map of Namibia. The following section provides a summary. Readers wishing more detailed information should consult the detailed report ([https://www.bgr.bund.de/EN/Themen/Wasser/Projekte/abgeschlossen/TZ/Namibia/groundwater_namibia.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=3 Christelis & Struckmeier 2001/2011)]) and/or the references given below, many of which are available through the [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/index.cfm Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].  
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An Atlas country hydrogeology map has not been developed for Namibia, as a higher resolution hydrogeological map is already available. The hydrogeology of Namibia is described in detail in the report [http://www.namhydro.com/downloads.html Groundwater in Namibia] (Christelis & Struckmeier 2001 (2011)), which accompanies the Hydrogeological Map of Namibia. The following section provides a summary. Readers wishing more detailed information should consult the detailed report (Christelis & Struckmeier 2001 (2011)) and/or the references given below, many of which are available through the [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/index.cfm Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].  
  
 
The aquifers of Namibia have been classed according to whether they are consolidated (hard rock) or unconsolidated; according to the type of porosity and permeability they show (porous/intergranular or fractured, fissured or karstified); and according to how much groundwater resource potential they have. They have also been qualified according to the presence of saline or otherwise poor quality groundwater. The hydrogeological map, shown below, shows the distribution of these aquifer types across the country. General properties of each of the main aquifer types are given in the table below.  
 
The aquifers of Namibia have been classed according to whether they are consolidated (hard rock) or unconsolidated; according to the type of porosity and permeability they show (porous/intergranular or fractured, fissured or karstified); and according to how much groundwater resource potential they have. They have also been qualified according to the presence of saline or otherwise poor quality groundwater. The hydrogeological map, shown below, shows the distribution of these aquifer types across the country. General properties of each of the main aquifer types are given in the table below.  
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==Groundwater Status==
 
==Groundwater Status==
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Many of the references listed on this page, and others relating to the hydrogeology of Namibia, can be accessed through the [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=listResults&title_search=&author_search=&category_search=&country_search=ZM&placeboolean=AND&singlecountry=1 Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].
 
Many of the references listed on this page, and others relating to the hydrogeology of Namibia, can be accessed through the [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=listResults&title_search=&author_search=&category_search=&country_search=ZM&placeboolean=AND&singlecountry=1 Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].
  
Key report:
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Christelis G and Struckmeier W (Editors). 2001 (2011). [http://www.bgr.bund.de/EN/Themen/Wasser/Projekte/abgeschlossen/TZ/Namibia/groundwater_namibia.pdf?__blob=publicationFile Groundwater in Namibia: an explanation to the Hydrogeological Map]. Ministry of Agriculture, Water and Rural Development, Namibia. (First edition December 2001; unrevised second edition January 2011).
 
Christelis G and Struckmeier W (Editors). 2001 (2011). [http://www.bgr.bund.de/EN/Themen/Wasser/Projekte/abgeschlossen/TZ/Namibia/groundwater_namibia.pdf?__blob=publicationFile Groundwater in Namibia: an explanation to the Hydrogeological Map]. Ministry of Agriculture, Water and Rural Development, Namibia. (First edition December 2001; unrevised second edition January 2011).
 
 
Many of the project reports listed below can be accessed via the project details in the [[Namibia Groundwater Projects]] page.
 
  
 
''Cuvelai-Etosha Basin:''
 
''Cuvelai-Etosha Basin:''

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