Editing Hydrogeology of Nigeria

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There are local issues of over-abstraction of groundwater, causing lowering of groundwater levels and, in some cases, land subsidence. These are mainly in unconsolidated aquifers in urban areas in the coastal plain in the south, including in Lagos and Port Harcourt (Ministry of Water Resources 2013).  
 
There are local issues of over-abstraction of groundwater, causing lowering of groundwater levels and, in some cases, land subsidence. These are mainly in unconsolidated aquifers in urban areas in the coastal plain in the south, including in Lagos and Port Harcourt (Ministry of Water Resources 2013).  
  
There are issues with drought causing lowering of groundwater levels, both seasonally in dry seasons, and during longer term periods of low rainfall. This is particularly an issue for local, low storage basement aquifers, both in the north where rainfall is low and in the south, where rainfall is high (Ministry of Water Resources 2013). The potential impact of climate change on groundwater levels, with changing climate patterns combined with changing water demand, is recognised in the National Water Resources Master Plan (Ministry of Water Resources 2013).  
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There are issues with drought causing lowering of groundwater levels, both seasonally in dry seasons, and during longer term periods of low rainfall. This is particularly an issue for local, low storage basement aquifers, both in the north where rainfall is low and in the south, where rainfall is high (Ministry of Water Resources 2013).
  
 
====Groundwater quality====
 
====Groundwater quality====
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Groundwater is widely used in Nigeria for domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes. The cities of Calabar (coastal southeastern Nigeria) and Port Harcourt (capital of Rivers State, south Nigeria) are totally dependent on groundwater.
 
Groundwater is widely used in Nigeria for domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes. The cities of Calabar (coastal southeastern Nigeria) and Port Harcourt (capital of Rivers State, south Nigeria) are totally dependent on groundwater.
  
In 2013 there were around 65,000 boreholes or other groundwater points in Nigeria, extracting an estimated total of 6,340,000 m³/day (JICA 2014; Ministry of Water Resources 2013). Most are used for water supply in rural areas and for small towns (Ministry of Water Resources 2013). Rural water supply boreholes are usually installed with hand pumps, which have a maximum pumping capacity of 10 m³/day (Ministry of Water Resources 2013).  
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In 2013 there were around 65,000 boreholes or other groundwater points in Nigeria, extracting an estimated total of 6,340,000 m³/day (JICA 2014; Ministry of Water Resources 2013). Most are used for water supply in rural areas and for small towns (Ministry of Water Resources 2013).  
  
 
The groundwater access points identified were:
 
The groundwater access points identified were:
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*Shallow hand-dug wells :13,108
 
*Shallow hand-dug wells :13,108
  
A 1996 survey by the  Ministry of Water Resources found only 63% of Nigerian boreholes were in working order, with many out of action due to pump failure (JICA 2014). This is related to the management structure for boreholes: most are meant to be managed by communities, but only around one fifth of rural communities were identified as having borehole management organisations, so that actual management, including restoring non-operational boreholes, is not optimum (Ministry of Water Resources 2013).  
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A 1996 survey by the  Ministry of Water Resources found only 63% of Nigerian boreholes were actually in working order, with many out of action due to pump failure (JICA 2014). This is related to the management structure for boreholes: most are meant to be managed by communities, but only around one fifth of rural communities were identified as having borehole management organisations, so that actual management, including restoring non-operational boreholes, is not optimum (Ministry of Water Resources 2013).  
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=== Groundwater management===
 
=== Groundwater management===
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The 2004 National Water Policy aimed to decentralise management of water to the most local government unit possible and to maximise user participation in planning and management , with central government retaining overall control of water governance.  
 
The 2004 National Water Policy aimed to decentralise management of water to the most local government unit possible and to maximise user participation in planning and management , with central government retaining overall control of water governance.  
 
====Groundwater monitoring====
 
 
The Nigeria Hydrological Services Agency (NIHSA), an agency of the Federal Ministry of Water Resources, has responsibility for groundwater monitoring. There is a national groundwater level monitoring programme with 43 monitoring points, 32 of which are equipped with data loggers. These are sited in basement and sedimentary aquifers. The frequency of monitoring at sites with data loggers is daily, and sometimes twice daily.
 
 
NIHSA has implemented a programme of drilling new monitoring boreholes for monitoring groundwater level. The new boreholes so far are focussed on sedimentary aquifers used for urban water supply; with borehole depths of 80 to 100 m (Ministry of Water Resources 2013). The groundwater level monitoring data are stored at NIHSA headquarters in Abuja.
 
 
The NIHSA is also responsible for water quality monitoring, but as yet a full programme is not in place due to lack of equipment.
 
 
The National Water Resources Master Plan recognises current problems in the effective aquisition and management of groundwater data, and recommends strategies for improving this situation (Ministry of Water Resources 2013).
 
  
 
====Groundwater for the future====
 
====Groundwater for the future====
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Nigeria has a number of transboundary aquifers:
 
Nigeria has a number of transboundary aquifers:
  
#The Iullemeden, Taoudeni/Tanezrout Aquifer Systems (ITAS), shared by Algeria, Benin, Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania, Niger and Nigeria.
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#The Iullemeden, Taoudeni/Tanezrout Aquifer Systems (ITAS) shared by Algeria, Benin, Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania, Niger and Nigeria.
#The Chad Basin Aquifer, shared by Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Niger and Nigeria.
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#The Chad Basin Aquifer shared by Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Niger and Nigeria.
#The Keta Basin Aquifers, shared by Ghana, Togo, Benin and Nigeria.
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#The Keta Basin Aquifers shared by Ghana, Togo, Benin and Nigeria.
#The Benue Trough, shared by Cameroon and Nigeria
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#The Benue Trough shared by Cameroon and Nigeria
#The Rio Del Rey Basin, shared by Cameroon and Nigeria along the coast.
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#The Rio Del Rey Basin shared by Cameroon and Nigeria along the coast.
  
 
A mechanism  for the management of the Iullemeden aquifer is in development, as Nigeria has just ratified an Agreement. The Lake Chad Basin Commission manages issues on the Chad Basin. Groundwater management activities on other Basins are yet to commence.  
 
A mechanism  for the management of the Iullemeden aquifer is in development, as Nigeria has just ratified an Agreement. The Lake Chad Basin Commission manages issues on the Chad Basin. Groundwater management activities on other Basins are yet to commence.  
  
 
For links to further information about transboundary aquifers, please see the [[Transboundary aquifers | Transboundary aquifers resources page]]
 
For links to further information about transboundary aquifers, please see the [[Transboundary aquifers | Transboundary aquifers resources page]]
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=== Groundwater monitoring===
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There is a national groundwater level monitoring programme with 43 monitoring points, 32 of which are equipped with data loggers. The frequency of monitoring at sites with data loggers is daily, and sometimes twice daily.
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The Nigeria Hydrological Services Agency (NIHSA), an agency of the Federal Ministry of Water Resources, carries out the monitoring of groundwater level, and the data are stored at their headquarters in Abuja.
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The NIHSA is also responsible for water quality monitoring, but as yet a full programme is not in place due to lack of equipment.
  
 
==References==
 
==References==

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