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[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Nigeria
 
[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Nigeria
  
[[File:CC-BY-SA_logo_88x31.png | frame | This work is licensed under a [https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License]]]
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Nigeria has the largest population and the largest economy in Africa. Gaining independence from UK colonialism in 1960, the country saw civil war from 1967-70, and military rule from 1970-99, since when there has been multi-party democracy. Localised unrest continues to impede infrastructure development in some areas.
 
 
Nigeria has the largest population and the largest economy in Africa. The area of present-day Nigeria has been home to a number of ancient and indigenous kingdoms and states over the millennia, with the modern state originating from British colonial rule beginning in the 19th century. After it gained independence from British colonialism in 1960, Nigeria saw civil war from 1967-70, and military rule from 1970-99, since when there has been multi-party democracy. Localised unrest continues to impede infrastructure development in some areas.
 
  
 
Much of Nigeria’s economy depends on oil revenues from fields in the south of the country. About one third of Nigerians are employed in agriculture. The service sector is large, particularly telecommunications and financial services; and manufacturing industry is growing. Nigeria has extensive mineral resources, but the mining industry is still small.  
 
Much of Nigeria’s economy depends on oil revenues from fields in the south of the country. About one third of Nigerians are employed in agriculture. The service sector is large, particularly telecommunications and financial services; and manufacturing industry is growing. Nigeria has extensive mineral resources, but the mining industry is still small.  
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|Freshwater withdrawal as % of total renewable water resources || ||4.357  || || ||
 
|Freshwater withdrawal as % of total renewable water resources || ||4.357  || || ||
 
|-
 
|-
|Total renewable groundwater (Million cubic metres/year) || || || ||87,000 ||
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|Renewable groundwater resources (Million cubic metres/year) || || ||59,510  || ||
 
|-
 
|-
|Exploitable: Regular renewable groundwater (Million cubic metres/year) || || ||59,510 || ||
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|Groundwater produced internally (Million cubic metres/year)  || ||  || || 87,000||
|-
 
|Groundwater produced internally (Million cubic metres/year)  || ||  || ||87,000 ||
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Fresh groundwater withdrawal (primary and secondary) (Million cubic metres/year) |||| ||  || || ||
 
|Fresh groundwater withdrawal (primary and secondary) (Million cubic metres/year) |||| ||  || || ||
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The geology map on this page shows a simplified version of the geology at a national scale (see the [[Geology | Geology resource page]] for more details).
 
The geology map on this page shows a simplified version of the geology at a national scale (see the [[Geology | Geology resource page]] for more details).
  
[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html '''Download a GIS shapefile of the Nigeria geology and hydrogeology map'''].
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[[File:Nigeria_Geology2.png | center | thumb| 500px | Geology of Nigeria at 1:5 million scale. Developed from USGS map (Persits et al. 2002). For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geology | geology resource page]].]]
 
 
[[File:Nigeria_Geology3.png | center | thumb| 500px | Geology of Nigeria at 1:5 million scale. Developed from USGS map (Persits et al. 2002). For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geology | geology resource page]]. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html Download a GIS shapefile of the Nigeria geology and hydrogeology map].]]
 
  
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
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This section provides a summary of the hydrogeology of the main aquifers in Nigeria.  More information is available in the references listed at the bottom of this page. Many of these references can be accessed through the [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/index.cfm Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].
 
This section provides a summary of the hydrogeology of the main aquifers in Nigeria.  More information is available in the references listed at the bottom of this page. Many of these references can be accessed through the [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/index.cfm Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].
  
The hydrogeology map on this page shows a simplified overview of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | Hydrogeology map resource page]] for more details).  
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The hydrogeology map on this page shows a simplified overview of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the [[Hydrogeology Map | Hydrogeology map resource page]] for more details).  
 
 
[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html '''Download a GIS shapefile of the Nigeria geology and hydrogeology map'''].
 
 
 
[[File:Nigeria_Hydrogeology3.png | center | thumb| 500px | Hydrogeology of Nigeria at 1:5 million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | Hydrogeology map]] resource page. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html Download a GIS shapefile of the Nigeria geology and hydrogeology map].]].
 
 
 
  
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[[File:Nigeria_Hydrogeology2.png | center | thumb| 500px | Hydrogeology of Nigeria at 1:5 million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Hydrogeology Map | Hydrogeology map]] resource page]].
 
====Dominantly Unconsolidated====
 
====Dominantly Unconsolidated====
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
|Named Aquifers||Aquifer Productivity||General Description||Water quantity issues||Water quality issues
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|Named Aquifers||General Description||Water quantity issues||Water quality issues||Recharge
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Alluvium
 
|Alluvium
||High Productivity
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||Alluvial aquifers occur along major river valleys, and are thickest (15 - 30 m thick) along the rivers Niger and Benue. Largely unconfined, with shallow water tables.
||Alluvial aquifers occur along major river valleys, and are thickest (15 - 30 m thick) along the rivers Niger and Benue. Largely unconfined, with shallow water tables. Recharge is directly from rainfall and by infiltration from rivers.
 
 
||None
 
||None
 
||
 
||
 +
||Recharge from direct rainfall and infiltration from rivers
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Niger Delta Basin: Deltaic Formation, Benin Formation
 
|Niger Delta Basin: Deltaic Formation, Benin Formation
||High to Very High Productivity
 
 
||The unconsolidated aquifers of the Niger Delta Basin are extensive and high yielding. The upper Deltaic Formation is unconsolidated and largely unconfined with shallow water table (0-10 m below ground level) (Offodile 2002).  
 
||The unconsolidated aquifers of the Niger Delta Basin are extensive and high yielding. The upper Deltaic Formation is unconsolidated and largely unconfined with shallow water table (0-10 m below ground level) (Offodile 2002).  
  
 
The older Benin Formation is partly consolidated. It is largely unconfined, but locally confined by lower permeability beds. Water table is typically between 3 and 15 m below ground level (Offodile 2002), but can be as much as 55 m deep.  
 
The older Benin Formation is partly consolidated. It is largely unconfined, but locally confined by lower permeability beds. Water table is typically between 3 and 15 m below ground level (Offodile 2002), but can be as much as 55 m deep.  
  
The aquifers can provide yields from 3 to 60 l/s. Borehole depths range from 10 to 800 m. Recharge is mostly directly from rainfall.
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The aquifers can provide yields from 3 to 60 l/s. Borehole depths range from 10 to 800 m.
 
||None
 
||None
 
||Salinity problems arising from sea water intrusion; iron problems; pollution problems.
 
||Salinity problems arising from sea water intrusion; iron problems; pollution problems.
 +
||Recharge is mostly from direct rainfall.
 
|}
 
|}
  
 
====Igneous - Volcanic====
 
====Igneous - Volcanic====
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
|Named Aquifers||Aquifer Productivity||General Description||Water quantity issues||Water quality issues
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|Named Aquifers||General Description||Water quantity issues||Water quality issues||Recharge
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Volcanic rocks, including basalts
 
|Volcanic rocks, including basalts
||Low to Moderate Productivity
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||Igneous volcanic aquifers provide low to moderate yields, usually below 3 l/s.  These aquifers are typically unconfined, with typical variations in water table depth of less than 5 m.  Aquifer thickness varies substantially, and borehole depths of 15 to 50 m are common.  
||Igneous volcanic aquifers provide low to moderate yields, usually below 3 l/s.  These aquifers are typically unconfined, with typical variations in water table depth of less than 5 m.  Aquifer thickness varies substantially, and borehole depths of 15 to 50 m are common. Direct rainfall recharge.
 
 
||None
 
||None
 
||Water quality is generally good.
 
||Water quality is generally good.
 +
||Direct rainfall recharge.
 
|}
 
|}
  
 
====Chad Basin - Sedimentary - Intergranular====
 
====Chad Basin - Sedimentary - Intergranular====
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
|Named Aquifers||Aquifer Productivity||General Description||Water quantity issues||Water quality issues
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|Named Aquifers||General Description||Water quantity issues||Water quality issues||Recharge
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Chad, Kerri-Kerri and Gombe formations
 
|Chad, Kerri-Kerri and Gombe formations
||Moderate to High Productivity
 
 
||The Chad Formation can be unconfined or confined depending on local conditions. Deeper sandstone layers are often confined and can be artesian. Yields of between 2.5 and 30 l/s are quoted. The water table depth is often between 10 and 15 m (Offodile 2002).   
 
||The Chad Formation can be unconfined or confined depending on local conditions. Deeper sandstone layers are often confined and can be artesian. Yields of between 2.5 and 30 l/s are quoted. The water table depth is often between 10 and 15 m (Offodile 2002).   
  
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Relatively little is known about the Kerri-Kerri Formation at depth.
 
Relatively little is known about the Kerri-Kerri Formation at depth.
 
Recharge is usually directly from rainfall.
 
 
||None
 
||None
 
||Water quality is generally good.
 
||Water quality is generally good.
 +
||Recharge is mainly by infiltration from rainfall.
 
|}
 
|}
  
 
====Sokoto Basin - Sedimentary - Intergranular====
 
====Sokoto Basin - Sedimentary - Intergranular====
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
|Named Aquifers||Aquifer Productivity||General Description||Water quantity issues||Water quality issues
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|Named Aquifers||General Description||Water quantity issues||Water quality issues||Recharge
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Sokoto Group (Gwandu and Kalambaina formations); Rima Group (Wurno, Dukamage and Taloka formations); Ilo/Gundimi Formation
 
|Sokoto Group (Gwandu and Kalambaina formations); Rima Group (Wurno, Dukamage and Taloka formations); Ilo/Gundimi Formation
||Moderate to High Productivity
 
 
||The lower sands of the Gwandu Formation are often confined; upper layers are unconfined. Water table can vary from 20 to 100 m depth. Storage is typically high. The Kalambaina Formation is locally permeable with perched aquifers in sandier layers (Offodile 2002).  
 
||The lower sands of the Gwandu Formation are often confined; upper layers are unconfined. Water table can vary from 20 to 100 m depth. Storage is typically high. The Kalambaina Formation is locally permeable with perched aquifers in sandier layers (Offodile 2002).  
  
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The gritty, conglomeratic and gravel layers of the Ilo/Gundumi Formation act as aquifers, often confined by clayey layers at depth, when artesian conditions can occur. Shallower aquifer layers are usually unconfined. Typical yields are 2 to 8 l/s. Variable transmissivity values have been quoted, from less than 10 to nearly 1000 m²/day (Offodile 2002).
 
The gritty, conglomeratic and gravel layers of the Ilo/Gundumi Formation act as aquifers, often confined by clayey layers at depth, when artesian conditions can occur. Shallower aquifer layers are usually unconfined. Typical yields are 2 to 8 l/s. Variable transmissivity values have been quoted, from less than 10 to nearly 1000 m²/day (Offodile 2002).
 +
||
 
||
 
||
 
||
 
||
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====Nupe Basin - Sedimentary - Intergranular====
 
====Nupe Basin - Sedimentary - Intergranular====
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
|Named Aquifers||Aquifer Productivity||General Description||Water quantity issues||Water quality issues
+
|Named Aquifers||General Description||Water quantity issues||Water quality issues||Recharge
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Nupe Sandstone, Patti & Lokoja Sandstone  
 
|Nupe Sandstone, Patti & Lokoja Sandstone  
||Low to Moderate Productivity
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||The Nupe Sandstone is slightly cemented, but the dominantly fine grained sandstones and interbedded clays, mudstones and siltstones through much of the sequence reduce groundwater potential. Overall, borehole yields are poor and highly variable, but where sandstones dominate, borehole yields of ~2 to 4 l/s are seen, and coarser conglomerate beds at the base of the sequence may support higher yields (Offodile 2002). The Patti and Lokoja sandstones are thought to have similar hydrogeological characteristics to the Nupe Sandstone.
||The Nupe Sandstone is slightly cemented, but the dominantly fine grained sandstones and interbedded clays, mudstones and siltstones through much of the sequence reduce groundwater potential. Overall, borehole yields are poor and highly variable, but where sandstones dominate, borehole yields of ~2 to 4 l/s are seen, and coarser conglomerate beds at the base of the sequence may support higher yields (Offodile 2002). The Patti and Lokoja sandstones are thought to have similar hydrogeological characteristics to the Nupe Sandstone. Recharge is directly from rainfall, through any overlying alluvial deposits
 
 
||
 
||
 
||
 
||
 +
||Recharge is directly from rainfall and, where there are overlying alluvial deposits, through these
 
|}
 
|}
  
 
====Upper Benue Basin - Sedimentary - Intergranular====
 
====Upper Benue Basin - Sedimentary - Intergranular====
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
|Named Aquifers||Aquifer Productivity||General Description||Water quantity issues||Water quality issues
+
|Named Aquifers||General Description||Water quantity issues||Water quality issues||Recharge
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Bima Sandstone, Yolde Sandstone  
 
|Bima Sandstone, Yolde Sandstone  
||Low to Moderate Productivity
+
||These formations have relatively low permeability and usually provide poor to moderate yields of about 1 to 5 l/s.  They vary substantially in thickness.  The water table depth is usually between 60 and 165 m.  Boreholes range in depth from 30 to 300 m.
||These formations have relatively low permeability and usually provide poor to moderate yields of about 1 to 5 l/s.  They vary substantially in thickness.  The water table depth is usually between 60 and 165 m.  Boreholes range in depth from 30 to 300 m. Recharge is usually directly from rainfall.
 
 
||None
 
||None
 
||Water quality is generally good.
 
||Water quality is generally good.
 +
||Recharge is mainly by infiltration from rainfall.
 
|}
 
|}
  
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====Lower Benue Basin - Sedimentary - Intergranular & Fracture ====
 
====Lower Benue Basin - Sedimentary - Intergranular & Fracture ====
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
|Named Aquifers||Aquifer Productivity||General Description||Water quantity issues||Water quality issues
+
|Named Aquifers||General Description||Water quantity issues||Water quality issues||Recharge
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Makurdi, Keana, Ezeaku, Awe and Asu River Group formations
 
|Makurdi, Keana, Ezeaku, Awe and Asu River Group formations
||Moderate Productivity (locally High)
+
||These formations tend to be indurated and dominated by fracture flow (although the Makurdi Sandstone is less so). Typical yields are around 2 to 8 l/s, but wide variations are seen, depending on the degree of fracturing and deep weathering. The aquifers therefore tend to be localised, and vary greatly in thickness. They are usually unconfined with the water table at about 10 - 40 m depth.  Boreholes are typically 40 - 150 m deep.  
||These formations tend to be indurated and dominated by fracture flow (although the Makurdi Sandstone is less so). Typical yields are around 2 to 8 l/s, but wide variations are seen, depending on the degree of fracturing and deep weathering. The aquifers therefore tend to be localised, and vary greatly in thickness. They are usually unconfined with the water table at about 10 - 40 m depth.  Boreholes are typically 40 - 150 m deep. Recharge is usually directly from rainfall.
 
 
||None
 
||None
 
||Water can be highly mineralised.
 
||Water can be highly mineralised.
 +
||Direct rainfall recharge.
 
|}
 
|}
  
 
====Basement====
 
====Basement====
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
|Named Aquifers||Aquifer Productivity||General Description||Water quantity issues||Water quality issues
+
|Named Aquifers||General Description||Water quantity issues||Water quality issues||Recharge
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Basement aquifers
 
|Basement aquifers
||Low to Moderate Productivity
+
||Basement rocks can form local aquifers if the degree of weathering and/or fracturing is sufficient. Crystalline and coarse-grain rocks, such as gneiss and migmatite, become sandy on weathering, thus preferentially forming aquifers.  Argillaceous meta-sedimentary rocks tend to be become clayey with low permeability when weathered, forming aquitards. Overall, basement aquifers tend not to be high yielding.  They typically vary in thickness from 10 to 25 m, with water table depth varying from about 5 to 15 m.  Boreholes tend to be drilled to depths between 10 and 70 m, depending on local conditions.
||Basement rocks can form local aquifers if the degree of weathering and/or fracturing is sufficient. Crystalline and coarse-grain rocks, such as gneiss and migmatite, become sandy on weathering, thus preferentially forming aquifers.  Argillaceous meta-sedimentary rocks tend to be become clayey with low permeability when weathered, forming aquitards. Overall, basement aquifers tend not to be high yielding.  They typically vary in thickness from 10 to 25 m, with water table depth varying from about 5 to 15 m.  Boreholes tend to be drilled to depths between 10 and 70 m, depending on local conditions. Recharge is usually directly from rainfall.
 
 
||None
 
||None
 
||Water quality is generally good.
 
||Water quality is generally good.
 +
||Direct rainfall recharge.
 
|}
 
|}
  
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Takeshima H, Adeoti A and Salau S. 2009. [http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/Pnads271.pdf  Transaction costs and investment in irrigation pumps: Evidence from Nigeria]. International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).  
 
Takeshima H, Adeoti A and Salau S. 2009. [http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/Pnads271.pdf  Transaction costs and investment in irrigation pumps: Evidence from Nigeria]. International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).  
 
Traoré U. 2019. [http://www.rural-water-supply.net/en/resources/details/875 Challenges of Water Well Drillers & Water Well Drillers Associations: Case Studies of Six Countries (Angola, Burkina Faso, Mozambique, Nigeria, United States of America, and Uganda)]. Skat Foundation and the Rural Water Supply Network, St. Gallen Switzerland, September 2019.
 
  
 
Wardrop Engineering Consultants. 1985. Bauchi State hydrogeology, Hydrogeology Map 1:500000. In : Bauchi State Agricultural Development Programme. Borehole project final report. Wardrop Engineering Consultants, 1985.
 
Wardrop Engineering Consultants. 1985. Bauchi State hydrogeology, Hydrogeology Map 1:500000. In : Bauchi State Agricultural Development Programme. Borehole project final report. Wardrop Engineering Consultants, 1985.
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Water Aid. 2008. [www.wateraid.org/~/media/Publications/water-sanitation-nigeria-national-policy.pdf Water and Sanitation in Nigeria: A briefing on national policy]. Water Aid Nigeria, Abuja: WaterAid
 
Water Aid. 2008. [www.wateraid.org/~/media/Publications/water-sanitation-nigeria-national-policy.pdf Water and Sanitation in Nigeria: A briefing on national policy]. Water Aid Nigeria, Abuja: WaterAid
  
 
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==Return to the index pages==
Return to the index pages:
 
 
[[Overview of Africa Groundwater Atlas | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Nigeria
 
[[Overview of Africa Groundwater Atlas | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Nigeria
 
 
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