Editing Hydrogeology of Republic of Congo

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'''Most of the textual information on this page was taken from the chapter on the Congo in the report [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060005 ‘Groundwater in Eastern, Central and Southern Africa’] (UN 1989).  If you have more recent information on the hydrogeology of the Republic of the Congo, please get in touch.'''  
 
'''Most of the textual information on this page was taken from the chapter on the Congo in the report [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060005 ‘Groundwater in Eastern, Central and Southern Africa’] (UN 1989).  If you have more recent information on the hydrogeology of the Republic of the Congo, please get in touch.'''  
 
 
Bantu-speaking peoples have dominated the region of the present-day Republic of the Congo (also known as Congo-Brazzaville) for over 3000 years, with several Bantu kingdoms building trade links along the Congo River. Between the 15th and 19th centuries, trade began to include European merchants. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, French colonisers took control of the territory of the Republic of the Congo as part of the colony of French Equatorial Africa. France’s colonial focus in the region was on natural resource extraction, including the use of forced labour. The Republic of the Congo became independent in 1960. In the first decades after independence the country experienced extensive civil and military unrest and changing political alliances, including a period of alignment with the Soviet Union. A short period of multi-party democracy in the 1990s, with economic reforms and structural adjustment, was followed by a civil war that ended in a peace treaty in 2003. Since then, although the country still nominally has a multi-party political system, elections have been disputed, and there has been continuing sporadic unrest.
 
 
The economy is heavily dependent on oil, and petroleum production and exports account for some 65% of GDP and 85% of government revenue. The country is therefore highly vulnerable to fluctuations in global oil price, and economic growth slowed considerably after the post-2015 fall in oil prices. Timber is the second main export after oil: rainforest covers about 60% of the country’s total area. Subsistence arable agriculture is the most important livelihood activity; livestock husbandry is less important. In total, agriculture accounts for less than 10% of GDP – the most important cash crops for export are sugarcane and tobacco – and the country imports part of its food needs. The country has extensive other mineral resources apart from oil, which remain largely undeveloped, including gold, iron, other base metals and phosphate.
 
 
The country has extensive water resources, both surface and groundwater, including many large perennial rivers and widespread permeable aquifers, especially in the centre and north of the country.
 
  
  

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