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[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]]  >> Hydrogeology of Rwanda  
 
[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]]  >> Hydrogeology of Rwanda  
  
[[File:CC-BY-SA_logo_88x31.png | frame | This work is licensed under a [https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License]]]
 
  
Rwanda is a small and quite densely populated country in the Great Lakes region of central Africa. It is also known as "The Land of a Thousand Hills". Rwanda has been a distinct entity from pre-colonial times. It was colonised by Germany in 1884 (as part of German East Africa), then by Belgium in 1916, before achieving independence in 1962. Ethnic tensions between the Hutu and Tutsi cultural groups led to periodic episodes of violence, including the 1994 genocide. In the aftermath of the genocide there was a period of reconciliation and justice with associated improvement in economic, health and social indicators.
+
'''This page has limited information and needs to be updated. If you have more information on the hydrogeology of Rwanda, please get in touch!'''
 
 
Tea and coffee cultivation are the major cash crops and growth agricultural industries, facilitated by Rwanda's climate and geography. Mining is a significant contributor to export income. The services sector has started to recover after the late 2000s recession, including banking and communications, and particularly tourism, which is now the main source of foreign income and is supported by government. This sector is boosted by the presence of mountain gorillas in uplands areas.
 
 
 
Rwanda has relatively high rainfall and both surface water and groundwater resources. Two major river basins cover Rwanda – the Nile and the Congo basins – and there are many lakes and wetlands. Groundwater is the main source of water supply in rural and some urban areas: in mountain areas from springs, and in other areas from boreholes.
 
  
  
 
==Compilers==
 
==Compilers==
  
'''Mr Francois-Xavier Tetero''', Rwanda Water and Forestry Authority
 
 
 
'''Dr Kirsty Upton''' and '''Brighid Ó Dochartaigh''', British Geological Survey, UK
 
'''Dr Kirsty Upton''' and '''Brighid Ó Dochartaigh''', British Geological Survey, UK
 
'''Dr Imogen Bellwood-Howard''', Institute of Development Studies
 
 
Please cite this page as: Tetero, Upton, Ó Dochartaigh and Bellwood-Howard, 2018.
 
 
Bibliographic reference: Tetero F, Upton K, Ó Dochartaigh BÉ and Bellwood-Howard, I. 2018. Africa Groundwater Atlas: Hydrogeology of Rwanda. British Geological Survey. Accessed [date you accessed the information]. http://earthwise.bgs.ac.uk/index.php/Hydrogeology_of_Rwanda
 
 
==Terms and conditions==
 
 
The Africa Groundwater Atlas is hosted by the British Geological Survey (BGS) and includes information from third party sources. Your use of information provided by this website is at your own risk. If reproducing diagrams that include third party information, please cite both the Africa Groundwater Atlas and the third party sources. Please see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Terms of Use | Terms of use]] for more information.
 
  
 
==Geographical Setting==
 
==Geographical Setting==
  
[[File:Rwanda_Political.png | right | frame | Rwanda. Map developed from USGS GTOPOPO30; GADM global administrative areas; and UN Revision of World Urbanization Prospects. For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geography | geography resource page]].]]
+
[[File:Rwanda_Political.png | right | frame | Map of Rwanda (For more information on the datasets used in the map see the [[Geography | geography resources section]])]]  
  
 
===General===
 
===General===
 +
  
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
|-
 
|-
|Capital city || Kigali
+
|Estimated Population in 2013* || 11,776,522
 +
|-
 +
|Rural Population (% of total) (2013)* || 73.1%
 +
|-
 +
|Total Surface Area* || 24,670 sq km
 
|-
 
|-
|Region || Eastern Africa
+
|Agricultural Land (% of total area) (2012)* || 75.3%
 
|-
 
|-
|Border countries || Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo
+
|Capital City || XXX
 
|-
 
|-
|Total surface area* || 26,340 km<sup>2</sup>  (2,634,000 ha)
+
|Region || XXX
 
|-
 
|-
|Total population (2015)* || 11,610,000
+
|Border Countries || XXX
 
|-
 
|-
|Rural population (2015)* || 8,029,000 (69%)
+
|Annual Freshwater Withdrawal (2013)* || 150 Million cubic metres
 
|-
 
|-
|Urban population (2015)* ||3,581,000 (31%)
+
|Annual Freshwater Withdrawal for Agriculture (2013)* || 68%
 
|-
 
|-
|UN Human Development Index (HDI) [highest = 1] (2014)*|| 0.4832
+
|Annual Freshwater Withdrawal for Domestic Use (2013)* || 24%
 +
|-
 +
|Annual Freshwater Withdrawal for Industry (2013)* || 8%
 +
|-
 +
|Rural Population with Access to Improved Water Source (2012)* || 68.3%
 +
|-
 +
|Urban Population with Access to Improved Water Source (2012)* || 80.7%
 
|}
 
|}
  
<nowiki>*</nowiki> Source: [http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/data/query/index.html?lang=en FAO Aquastat]
+
<nowiki>*</nowiki> Source: World Bank
  
  
 
===Climate===
 
===Climate===
  
Rwanda's climate is classed as tropical savannah. Temperature does not vary significantly throughout the year but there are two distinct rainy seasons (February to May and October to December). Rainfall varies across the country, with drier conditions in the eastern savannah regions and much wetter conditions over the central plateau and western mountains.  
+
<gallery widths="375px" heights=365px mode=nolines>
 +
File:Rwanda_ClimateZones.png |Koppen Geiger Climate Zones
 +
File:Rwanda_ClimatePrecip.png |Average Annual Precipitation
 +
File:Rwanda_ClimateTemp.png |Average Temperature
 +
</gallery>
  
[[File:Rwanda_ClimateZones.png | 375x365px |Koppen Geiger Climate Zones]][[File:Rwanda_ClimatePrecip.png | 375x365px |Average Annual Precipitation]][[File:Rwanda_ClimateTemp.png | 375x365px |Average Temperature]]
+
[[File:Rwanda_pre_Monthly.png| 255x124px| Average monthly precipitation for Rwanda showing minimum and maximum (light blue), 25th and 75th percentile (blue), and median (dark blue) rainfall]] [[File:Rwanda_tmp_Monthly.png| 255x124px| Average monthly temperature for Rwanda showing minimum and maximum (orange), 25th and 75th percentile (red), and median (black) temperature]] [[File:Rwanda_pre_Qts.png | 255x124px | Quarterly precipitation over the period 1950-2012]] [[File:Rwanda_pre_Mts.png|255x124px | Monthly precipitation (blue) over the period 2000-2012 compared with the long term monthly average (red)]]  
 
+
[[File:Rwanda_pre_Monthly.png| 255x124px| Average monthly precipitation for Rwanda showing minimum and maximum (light blue), 25th and 75th percentile (blue), and median (dark blue) rainfall]] [[File:Rwanda_tmp_Monthly.png| 255x124px| Average monthly temperature for Rwanda showing minimum and maximum (orange), 25th and 75th percentile (red), and median (black) temperature]] [[File:Rwanda_pre_Qts.png | 255x124px | Quarterly precipitation over the period 1950-2012]] [[File:Rwanda_pre_Mts.png|255x124px | Monthly precipitation (blue) over the period 2000-2012 compared with the long term monthly average (red)]]
+
For further detail on the climate datasets used see the [[Climate | climate resources section]].
 
 
These maps and graphs were developed from the CRU TS 3.21 dataset produced by the Climatic Research Unit at the University of East Anglia, UK. For more information see the [[Climate | climate resource page]].
 
 
 
In Rwanda, rainfall data are collected by MeteoRwanda. More detailed information on rainfall at a catchment scale is described in the [http://www.environment.gov.rw/uploads/media/Rwanda_Water_Resources_Master_Plan_01.pdf Rwanda Water Resources Master Plan] (2014).
 
  
 
===Surface water===
 
===Surface water===
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{|
 
{|
 
|-
 
|-
|Rwanda is divided into two major river basins: the Nile in the east and centre, and the Congo in the west. Both are shared with neighbouring countries.
+
|
 
 
Within the Nile and Congo basins in Rwanda, smaller river catchments include the Rusizi and Akanyaru rivers (shared with Burundi); the Akagera River (shared with Tanzania and Burundi); the Muvumba River (shared with Uganda); and Lake Kivu and the Rusizi River (shared with the DRC). There are many smaller lakes, rivers and associated wetlands. The Akagera River, and its tributary the Nyabarongo, are two of the main rivers, both part of the upper Nile basin.
 
 
 
Surface water resources, as other water resources in Rwanda, are managed by the [http://rwfa.rw Rwanda Water and Forestry Authority], previously the Rwanda Natural Resources Authority, which is affiliated to the [http://www.environment.gov.rw Ministry of Environment].
 
 
 
Nine Level 1 surface water catchments have been classified for Rwanda (see the [http://www.environment.gov.rw/uploads/media/Rwanda_Water_Resources_Master_Plan_01.pdf Rwanda Water Resources Master Plan (RNRA 2014)], page 10).
 
  
Surface water monitoring is generally good for the large catchments, but less well established for smaller catchments (RNRA 2014). Monitoring data are collected and stored as part of the Water Management Information System. Data from 65 surface water monitoring stations is now available via the [https://waterportal.rwfa.rw/data/surface_water Rwanda Water Portal]. 
 
  
| [[File:Rwanda_Hydrology.png | frame | Major surface water features of Rwanda. Map developed from World Wildlife Fund HydroSHEDS; Digital Chart of the World drainage; and FAO Inland Water Bodies. For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Surface water | surface water resource page]].]]
+
| [[File:Rwanda_Hydrology.png | frame | Surface Water Map of Rwanda (For more information on the datasets used in the map see the [[Surface water | surface water resources section]])]]
 
|}
 
|}
  
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{|
 
{|
 
|-
 
|-
| [[File:Rwanda_soil.png | frame | Soil Map of Rwanda, from the European Commission Joint Research Centre: European Soil Portal. For more information on the map see the [[Soil | soil resource page]].]]
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| [[File:Rwanda_soil.png | frame | Soil Map of Rwanda (For map key and more information on the datasets used in the map see the [[Soil | soil resources section]])]]
  
 
|
 
|
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|
 
|
  
| [[File:Rwanda_LandCover.png | frame | Land Cover Map of Rwanda, from the European Space Agency GlobCover 2.3, 2009. For more information on the map see the [[Land cover | land cover resource page]].]]
+
| [[File:Rwanda_LandCover.png | frame | Land Cover Map of Rwanda (For map key and more information on the datasets used in the map see the [[Land cover | land cover resources section]])]]
 
 
|
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
  
===Water statistics===
 
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
| ||2000||2005||2014||2015
 
|-
 
|Rural population with access to safe drinking water (%) || || ||  ||71.9
 
|-
 
|Urban population with access to safe drinking water (%) || || ||  ||86.6
 
|-
 
|Population affected by water related disease || No data || No data ||No data || No data
 
|-
 
|Total internal renewable water resources (cubic metres/inhabitant/year) || || ||818.3||
 
|-
 
|Total exploitable water resources (Million cubic metres/year) || No data || No data ||No data || No data
 
|-
 
|Freshwater withdrawal as % of total renewable water resources ||1.128|| || ||
 
|-
 
|Total renewable groundwater (Million cubic metres/year) ||  || ||7,000 ||
 
|-
 
|Exploitable: Regular renewable groundwater (Million cubic metres/year) || No data || No data ||No data || No data
 
|-
 
|Groundwater produced internally (Million cubic metres/year) || || ||7,000||
 
|-
 
|Fresh groundwater withdrawal (primary and secondary) (Million cubic metres/year) || || || ||
 
|-
 
|Groundwater: entering the country (total) (Million cubic metres/year) || No data || No data ||No data || No data
 
|-
 
|Groundwater: leaving the country to other countries (total) (Million cubic metres/year) || No data || No data ||No data || No data
 
|-
 
|Industrial water withdrawal (all water sources) (Million cubic metres/year) || ||20.5|| ||
 
|-
 
|Municipal water withdrawal (all water sources) (Million cubic metres/year)  || ||61.4|| ||
 
|-
 
|Agricultural water withdrawal (all water sources) (Million cubic metres/year) ||102 || || ||
 
|-
 
|Irrigation water withdrawal (all water sources) <sup>1</sup> (Million cubic metres/year) || No data || No data ||No data || No data
 
|-
 
|Irrigation water requirement (all water sources) <sup>1</sup> (Million cubic metres/year) || || || ||
 
|-
 
|Area of permanent crops (ha) || || ||250,000||
 
|-
 
|Cultivated land (arable and permanent crops) (ha) || || ||1,400,000||
 
|-
 
|Total area of country cultivated (%) || || ||53.15||
 
|-
 
|Area equipped for irrigation by groundwater (ha) ||85|| ||  ||
 
|-
 
|Area equipped for irrigation by mixed surface water and groundwater (ha) || No data || No data ||No data || No data
 
|}
 
 
These statistics are sourced from [http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/main/index.stm FAO Aquastat]. They are the most recent available information in the Aquastat database. More information on the derivation and interpretation of these statistics can be seen on the FAO Aquastat website.
 
 
Further water and related statistics can be accessed at the [http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/data/query/index.html?lang=en Aquastat Main Database].
 
 
<sup>1</sup> More information on [http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/water_use_agr/index.stm irrigation water use and requirement statistics]
 
  
 
==Geology==
 
==Geology==
  
The geology map shows a simplified overview of geology at a national scale (see the [[Geology | Geology resource page]] for more details).  
+
The geology map shows a simplified version of the geology at a national scale. More information is available in the report [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/fulldetails.cfm?id=AGLA060018 UN (1988)] (see References section, below).  
More information is available in the report [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060018 UN (1988)] (see References section, below).  
 
  
 +
{|
 +
|-
 +
|
  
[[File:Rwanda_Geology2.png | center | thumb| 500px | Geology of Rwanda at 1:5 million scale. Based on map described by Persits et al. 2002/Furon and Lombard 1964. For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geology | geology resource page]].]]
 
  
 
+
| [[File:Rwanda_Geology.png | frame | Simplified Geology of Rwanda (For more information on the datasets used in the map see the [[Geology | the Geology resources page]])]]
 
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
|+ Geological environments
 
|Key formations||Period||Lithology
 
|-
 
!colspan="4"|Unconsolidated sedimentary
 
|-
 
|Alluvium and lake sediments
 
||Quaternary
 
||Unconsolidated alluvium infilling valleys and forming floodplains; and lake sediments, which mainly comprise sands, silts, gravels and clays. The most significant alluvial sediments occur in the Akagera River floodplain along the eastern border with Tanzania. Smaller outcrops of alluvium are also present in river valleys across the rest of the country, but are too small to be shown on this map.
 
|-
 
!colspan="4"|Volcanic rocks
 
|-
 
|Northern lavas; Southwestern basalts
 
||Cenozoic (some possibly Cretaceous)
 
||Volcanic rocks crop out in the north and the far west of the country, largely lava flows. Schlüter (2006) divides them into northern lavas (of Quaternary age) and southwestern basalts (of Cenozoic-Cretaceous age).
 
|-
 
!colspan="4"|Precambrian
 
A number of different units within the Precambrian are named, with complex outcrops across the country (e.g. see Schlüter 2006). These are not distinguished on this geology map because of its small scale. The main divisions are described below.
 
|-
 
|Metasedimentary rocks, including the Burundian Supergroup
 
||Middle Proterozoic
 
||Metasedimentary rocks, largely quartzites, metamorphosed sandstones and shales of the Burundian Supergroup, which are locally intruded by granite. These are seen across much of the country. Named geological units within the Burundian Supergroup are the Byumba, Miyove and Lower series (Schlüter 2006).
 
|-
 
|Granites and associated other basement rocks
 
||Lower Proterozoic
 
||These are sometimes called 'older granites', along with granitic-gneisses and migmatites. They are seen in parts of eastern and southern Rwanda.
 
|-
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
 
==Hydrogeology==
 
==Hydrogeology==
  
The hydrogeology map below shows a simplified overview of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps| Hydrogeology map resource page]] for more details).
+
The hydrogeology map below shows a simplified version of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see [[Aquifer properties| the Aquifer properties resource page]] for more details).  
 
 
Information on groundwater in Rwanda is still relatively limited, but further detail can be found in the reports listed in the references section below, including a more detailed hydrogeological map, which is published in the [https://waterportal.rwfa.rw/report/annual-water-status-report-2016-2017 Rwanda Annual Water Status Report 2016-2017].
 
  
[[File:Rwanda_Hydrogeology2.png | center | thumb | 500px | Hydrogeology of Rwanda at 1:5 million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | hydrogeology map]] resource page]]  
+
More information on the hydrogeology of Rwanda is available in the report [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/fulldetails.cfm?id=AGLA060018 UN (1988)] (see References section, below).
  
 +
[[File:Rwanda_Hydrogeology.png]] [[File: Hydrogeology_Key.png | 500x195px]]
  
'''Summary'''
 
  
The most common aquifer type in Rwanda is fractured, weathered Precambrian basement. Small outcrops of volcanic rocks form aquifers in the Western Province, in the far west and on the northern border. There are many local Quaternary unconsolidated alluvial aquifers, generally forming narrow, shallow aquifers along river valleys, with the largest outcrop in the east of the country.
 
  
====Unconsolidated====
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
|Aquifer Productivity||Named Aquifers and General Description||Recharge
 
|-
 
|High Productivity
 
||Most of the Quaternary unconsolidated aquifers are river alluvium, and form narrow linear aquifers along river valleys. Their aquifer properties are variable, depending largely on lithology, but where alluvium is dominated by coarser grained sediment (gravel and coarse sand), storage capacity and transmissivity can be high. Aquifers are usually unconfined with a shallow water table (<15 mbgl) and form locally important water supply sources.
 
||Recharge is generally high due to close connection with rivers and wetlands.
 
|}
 
  
====Volcanic====
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
|Aquifer Productivity||Named Aquifers and General Description
 
|-
 
|Moderate Productivity
 
||Little is known about groundwater in the volcanic rocks in Rwanda. Highly permeable basalt layers are documented in the Sebeya catchment in north-west Rwanda [http://www.water.rw/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/20181016-Sebeya-Catchment-Plan-2018-2024-FINAL.pdf (Water for Growth Rwanda, 2018c)].
 
|}
 
 
====Weathered, Fractured Basement====
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
|Aquifer Productivity||Named Aquifers and General Description
 
|-
 
|Variable Productivity (generally Low to Moderate)
 
||The productivity of the basement aquifer depends on the localised nature and extent of fracturing and weathering - how thick is the weathered zone and how developed are water-bearing fractures? In the eastern and western provinces groundwater is mostly found in low productivity fractured granite, gneiss and the generally more productive quartzite. A north-south trending belt of more productive metasedimentary basement rocks, including schist and quartzite, extends along the border of the western province.
 
|}
 
 
===Groundwater Quality===
 
 
Groundwater quality is monitored by the Rwanda Water and Forestry Authority (RWFA). Noted problems with groundwater quality are usually caused by poor agricultural and mining practices, or by wastewater discharge from both domestic and industrial sources. Further detail on specific groundwater quality issues identified by the monitoring programme are summarised in [https://waterportal.rwfa.rw/report/annual-water-status-report-2016-2017 Rwanda Water and Forestry Authority (2017)].
 
 
===Groundwater use and management===
 
 
The [http://www.environment.gov.rw Ministry of Environment] and the [http://rwfa.rw Rwanda Water and Forestry Authority (RWFA)] have responsibilities for managing water resources in Rwanda.
 
 
The [http://www.minirena.gov.rw/fileadmin/Land_Subsector/Water/Rwanda_Water_Resources_Master_Plan.pdf Rwanda Water Resources Master Plan] (2014) contains detailed recommendations for integrated water resources management, including setting up and operating a groundwater monitoring network. This has now started and data from the monitoring stations are available through the [https://waterportal.rwfa.rw/ Rwanda Water Portal]. An Annual Water Status Report was produced for 2016/17 and is available through the Water Portal (see References below). This contains a more detailed hydrogeological map of the country.
 
 
The Water Resources Master Plan estimated that total groundwater storage in Rwanda is around 162,176 Million Cubic Metres. There are no reliable estimates of total groundwater abstraction, but in 2005, groundwater was reported to account for 86% of safe drinking water supply in rural areas (Ministry of Natural Resources 2011). In the Eastern and parts of the Southern Province, most people depend on groundwater from boreholes. Extensive borehole drilling and shallow well construction have been done, mostly in the Eastern Province, since 1994. As of 2009, there were at least 400 boreholes and wells in various parts of the country (Ministry of Natural Resources 2011). In upland areas, groundwater from springs is a key resource, including via many piped water supply schemes. Spring supplies can be threatened by deforestation and erosion.
 
  
 
=== Transboundary aquifers===
 
=== Transboundary aquifers===
  
For general information about transboundary aquifers, please see the [[Transboundary aquifers | Transboundary aquifers resources page]].
+
For further information about transboundary aquifers, please see the [[Transboundary aquifers | Transboundary aquifers resources page]].
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
  
References with more information on the geology and hydrogeology of Rwanda may be accessed through the [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=listResults&title_search=&author_search=&category_search=&country_search=RW&placeboolean=AND&singlecountry=1 Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].
+
References with more information on the geology and hydrogeology of Rwanda can be accessed through the [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/searchResults.cfm?title_search=&author_search=&category_search=&country_search=RW&placeboolean=AND&singlecountry=1 Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].
  
===Online resources===
 
  
Further information on Rwanda's water and groundwater resources can be found via:
 
  
[http://rwfa.rw Rwanda Water and Forestry Authority]
+
==Return to the index pages==
 
+
[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Rwanda  
[https://waterportal.rwfa.rw/ Rwanda Water Portal]
 
 
 
[http://www.water.rw/ Water for Growth Rwanda] - a joint Rwanda-Netherlands Initiative to promote improved integrated water resources management in Rwanda
 
 
 
Further geological information can be obtained from the [http://www.rmb.gov.rw Rwanda Mining Board].
 
 
 
===Documents===
 
 
 
Hulsbosch N, Van Daele J, Reinders N, Dewaele S, Jacques D and Muchez P. 2017. [https://www.researchgate.net/publication/317424038_Structural_control_on_the_emplacement_of_contemporaneous_Sn-Ta-Nb_mineralized_LCT_pegmatites_and_Sn_bearing_quartz_veins_Insights_from_the_Musha_and_Ntunga_deposits_of_the_Karagwe-Ankole_Belt_Rwanda Structural control on the emplacement of contemporaneous Sn-Ta-Nb mineralized LCT pegmatites and Sn bearing quartz veins: Insights from the Musha and Ntunga deposits of the Karagwe-Ankole Belt, Rwanda]. Journal of African Earth Sciences 134, 24-32. Doi: 10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2017.06.004
 
 
 
Rwanda Natural Resources Authority (RNRA). 2014. [http://www.environment.gov.rw/uploads/media/Rwanda_Water_Resources_Master_Plan_01.pdf Consultancy services for development of Rwanda National Water Resources Master Plan]. Tender Number 021/RNRA/2011-2012. Master Plan Report: Main Volume. Final Version May 2014. Prepared by SHER Ingénieurs-Conseils s.a.
 
 
 
Rwanda Ministry of Natural Resources. 2011. [http://www.environment.gov.rw/uploads/media/Rwanda-Waterstrategy-04062011-final-1006-corrected1406_02.pdf Water Resources Management Sub-Sector Strategic Plan (2011-2015)].
 
 
 
Rwanda Water and Forestry Authority. 2017. [https://waterportal.rwfa.rw/report/annual-water-status-report-2016-2017 Annual Water Status Report 2016-2017]
 
 
 
Schlüter T. 2006. [http://www.geokniga.org/bookfiles/geokniga-geological-atlas-africa.pdf Geological Atlas of Africa]
 
 
 
Water for Growth Rwanda. 2018a. [http://www.water.rw/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/20181016-Upper-Nyabarongo-Catchment-Plan-2018-2024-FINAL.pdf IWRM Programme Rwanda: Upper Nyabarongo Catchment Plan 2018-2024].
 
 
 
Water for Growth Rwanda. 2018b. [http://www.water.rw/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/20181016-Nyabugogo-Catchment-Plan-2018-2024-FINAL.pdf IWRM Programme Rwanda: Nyabugogo Catchment Plan 2018-2024].
 
 
 
Water for Growth Rwanda. 2018c. [http://www.water.rw/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/20181016-Sebeya-Catchment-Plan-2018-2024-FINAL.pdf IWRM Programme Rwanda: Sebeya Catchment Plan 2018-2024].
 
 
 
Water for Growth Rwanda. 2018d. [http://www.water.rw/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/20181016-Muvumba-Catchment-Plan-2018-2024-FINAL.pdf IWRM Programme Rwanda: Muvumba Catchment Plan 2018-2024].
 
  
Theunissen K, Hanon M and Fernandez N. 1991. Carte geologique du Rwanda (scale 1:250,000). Service Geologique du Rwanda et Musee Royale de l'Afrique Centrale,  Tervuren.
 
  
United Nations. 1989. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060018 Groundwater in Eastern, Central and Southern Africa: Rwanda]. United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development.
+
United Nations. 1989. [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/fulldetails.cfm?id=AGLA060018 Groundwater in Eastern, Central and Southern Africa: Rwanda]. United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development.  
  
 
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[[Category:Hydrogeology by country|r]]
 
[[Category:Hydrogeology by country|r]]
[[Category:Africa Groundwater Atlas]]
 

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