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[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]]  >> Hydrogeology of Rwanda  
 
[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]]  >> Hydrogeology of Rwanda  
  
[[File:CC-BY-SA_logo_88x31.png | frame | This work is licensed under a [https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License]]]
 
  
Rwanda is a small and quite densely populated country in the Great Lakes region of central Africa. It is also known as "The Land of a Thousand Hills". Rwanda has been a distinct entity from pre-colonial times. It was colonised by Germany in 1884 (as part of German East Africa), then by Belgium in 1916, before achieving independence in 1962. Ethnic tensions between the Hutu and Tutsi cultural groups led to periodic episodes of violence, including the 1994 genocide. In the aftermath of the genocide there was a period of reconciliation and justice with associated improvement in economic, health and social indicators.
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Rwanda is a small and relatively densely populated country. Its recent history has been dominated by violence between the related Tutsi and Hutu ethnic groups. Rwanda as a country has been a distinct entity from pre-colonial times. By the mid 18th century, the Kingdom of Rwanda was dominant in the territory, ruled by a Tutsi clan. Tutsis continued to dominate government throughout the colonial period after 1884, supported by the German (as part of German East Africa) and, after 1916, Belgian (as part of Ruanda-Urundi) colonising powers. Ethnic tensions periodically erupted into conflict, including a revolution in 1959. The monarchy was abolished after a colonial referendum in 1961. Rwanda gained independence in 1962, with Hutu now dominating in government. Periodic episodes of violence followed, including a military coup in 1973 and civil war that began in 1990. The most recent notorious and large-scale violence followed during the 1994 genocide, with Rwanda also playing a role in the Congo wars of the later 1990s. In the aftermath of the genocide there was a period of reconciliation and justice with associated improvement in economic, health and social indicators.
  
Tea and coffee cultivation are the major cash crops and growth agricultural industries, facilitated by Rwanda's climate and geography. Mining is a significant contributor to export income. The services sector has started to recover after the late 2000s recession, including banking and communications, and particularly tourism, which is now the main source of foreign income and is supported by government. This sector is boosted by the presence of mountain gorillas in uplands areas.  
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The 1990s war and genocide devastated Rwanda’s infrastructure and economy, which had been traditionally based on subsistence agriculture. Tea and coffee cultivation are the major cash crops, facilitated by climate and geography, and are growth agricultural industries. Minerals mining is a significant contributor to export income. The services sector has started to recover after the late 2000s recession, including banking and communications, and particularly tourism, which is now the main source of foreign income and is supported by government. This sector is boosted by the presence of mountain gorillas in uplands areas.  
  
 
Rwanda has relatively high rainfall and both surface water and groundwater resources. Two major river basins cover Rwanda – the Nile and the Congo basins – and there are many lakes and wetlands. Groundwater is the main source of water supply in rural and some urban areas: in mountain areas from springs, and in other areas from boreholes.  
 
Rwanda has relatively high rainfall and both surface water and groundwater resources. Two major river basins cover Rwanda – the Nile and the Congo basins – and there are many lakes and wetlands. Groundwater is the main source of water supply in rural and some urban areas: in mountain areas from springs, and in other areas from boreholes.  
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==Compilers==
 
==Compilers==
  
'''Mr Francois-Xavier Tetero''', Rwanda Water and Forestry Authority
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'''Mr Francis Tetero''', Rwanda Water and Forestry Authority
 
   
 
   
 
'''Dr Kirsty Upton''' and '''Brighid Ó Dochartaigh''', British Geological Survey, UK
 
'''Dr Kirsty Upton''' and '''Brighid Ó Dochartaigh''', British Geological Survey, UK
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===Climate===
 
===Climate===
  
Rwanda's climate is classed as tropical savannah. Temperature does not vary significantly throughout the year but there are two distinct rainy seasons (February to May and October to December). Rainfall varies across the country, with drier conditions in the eastern savannah regions and much wetter conditions over the central plateau and western mountains.
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Rwanda's climate is classed as tropical savannah. Temperatures are relatively
  
 
[[File:Rwanda_ClimateZones.png | 375x365px |Koppen Geiger Climate Zones]][[File:Rwanda_ClimatePrecip.png | 375x365px |Average Annual Precipitation]][[File:Rwanda_ClimateTemp.png | 375x365px |Average Temperature]]
 
[[File:Rwanda_ClimateZones.png | 375x365px |Koppen Geiger Climate Zones]][[File:Rwanda_ClimatePrecip.png | 375x365px |Average Annual Precipitation]][[File:Rwanda_ClimateTemp.png | 375x365px |Average Temperature]]
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These maps and graphs were developed from the CRU TS 3.21 dataset produced by the Climatic Research Unit at the University of East Anglia, UK. For more information see the [[Climate | climate resource page]].
 
These maps and graphs were developed from the CRU TS 3.21 dataset produced by the Climatic Research Unit at the University of East Anglia, UK. For more information see the [[Climate | climate resource page]].
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In Rwanda, rainfall data are collected by MeteoRwanda. More detailed information on rainfall at a catchment scale is described in the [http://www.environment.gov.rw/uploads/media/Rwanda_Water_Resources_Master_Plan_01.pdf Rwanda Water Resources Master Plan] (2014).
 
In Rwanda, rainfall data are collected by MeteoRwanda. More detailed information on rainfall at a catchment scale is described in the [http://www.environment.gov.rw/uploads/media/Rwanda_Water_Resources_Master_Plan_01.pdf Rwanda Water Resources Master Plan] (2014).
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==Geology==
 
==Geology==
  
The geology map shows a simplified overview of geology at a national scale (see the [[Geology | Geology resource page]] for more details).  
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The geology map shows a simplified overview of geology at a national scale (see the [[Geology | Geology resource page]] for more details).
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More information is available in the report [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060018 UN (1988)] (see References section, below).  
 
More information is available in the report [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060018 UN (1988)] (see References section, below).  
  
  
[[File:Rwanda_Geology2.png | center | thumb| 500px | Geology of Rwanda at 1:5 million scale. Based on map described by Persits et al. 2002/Furon and Lombard 1964. For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geology | geology resource page]].]]
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{|
 
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|-
 
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|
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| [[File:Rwanda_Geology.png | center | thumb| 500px | Geology of Rwanda at 1:5 million scale. Based on map described by Persits et al. 2002/Furon and Lombard 1964. For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geology | geology resource page]].]]
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|}
  
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
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|Key formations||Period||Lithology
 
|Key formations||Period||Lithology
 
|-
 
|-
!colspan="4"|Unconsolidated sedimentary
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!colspan="4"|Unconsolidated
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Alluvium and lake sediments
 
|Alluvium and lake sediments
 
||Quaternary
 
||Quaternary
||Unconsolidated alluvium infilling valleys and forming floodplains; and lake sediments, which mainly comprise sands, silts, gravels and clays. The most significant alluvial sediments occur in the Akagera River floodplain along the eastern border with Tanzania. Smaller outcrops of alluvium are also present in river valleys across the rest of the country, but are too small to be shown on this map.  
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||Unconsolidated alluvial sediments infilling valleys and forming floodplains; and lake sediments. These occur in parts of the Western Rift, along rivers and lakes. Significant outcrops of alluvial sediments occur in the Akagera River floodplain (shown on the map below as the line of Unconsolidated Aquifer along the eastern border of Rwanda). Smaller outcrops of alluvium are also present in river valleys across the rest of the country, but are too small to be shown on this map.  
 
|-
 
|-
 
!colspan="4"|Volcanic rocks
 
!colspan="4"|Volcanic rocks
 
|-
 
|-
|Northern lavas; Southwestern basalts
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|
||Cenozoic (some possibly Cretaceous)
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||Neogene (Cenozoic to recent)
||Volcanic rocks crop out in the north and the far west of the country, largely lava flows. Schlüter (2006) divides them into northern lavas (of Quaternary age) and southwestern basalts (of Cenozoic-Cretaceous age).  
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||Volcanic rocks crop out in the northwest and southwest of Rwanda.
 
|-
 
|-
 
!colspan="4"|Precambrian
 
!colspan="4"|Precambrian
A number of different units within the Precambrian are named, with complex outcrops across the country (e.g. see Schlüter 2006). These are not distinguished on this geology map because of its small scale. The main divisions are described below.
 
 
|-
 
|-
|Metasedimentary rocks, including the Burundian Supergroup
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|Granites
||Middle Proterozoic
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||Palaeoproterozoic
||Metasedimentary rocks, largely quartzites, metamorphosed sandstones and shales of the Burundian Supergroup, which are locally intruded by granite. These are seen across much of the country. Named geological units within the Burundian Supergroup are the Byumba, Miyove and Lower series (Schlüter 2006).
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||The 'older granites' are seen in eastern Rwanda, along with granitic-gneisses and migmatites
 
|-
 
|-
|Granites and associated other basement rocks
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|Metasedimentary rocks, including Burundian Supergroup
||Lower Proterozoic
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||Mesoproterozoic
||These are sometimes called 'older granites', along with granitic-gneisses and migmatites. They are seen in parts of eastern and southern Rwanda.
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||Metasedimentary rocks, largely quartzites, sandstones, and shales of the Burundian Supergroup, which are locally intruded by granite.  
 
|-
 
|-
 
|}
 
|}
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The hydrogeology map below shows a simplified overview of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps| Hydrogeology map resource page]] for more details).  
 
The hydrogeology map below shows a simplified overview of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps| Hydrogeology map resource page]] for more details).  
  
Information on groundwater in Rwanda is still relatively limited, but further detail can be found in the reports listed in the references section below, including a more detailed hydrogeological map, which is published in the [https://waterportal.rwfa.rw/report/annual-water-status-report-2016-2017 Rwanda Annual Water Status Report 2016-2017].
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Some information on the hydrogeology of Rwanda is available in the report [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060018 United Nations (1988)] (see References section, below).  
  
[[File:Rwanda_Hydrogeology2.png | center | thumb | 500px | Hydrogeology of Rwanda at 1:5 million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | hydrogeology map]] resource page]]  
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[[File:Rwanda_Hydrogeology.png | center | thumb | 500px | Hydrogeology of Rwanda at 1:5 million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | hydrogeology map]] resource page]]
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[[File: Hydrogeology_Key.png | 500x195px]]
  
  
'''Summary'''
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===Groundwater use and management===
 
 
The most common aquifer type in Rwanda is fractured, weathered Precambrian basement. Small outcrops of volcanic rocks form aquifers in the Western Province, in the far west and on the northern border. There are many local Quaternary unconsolidated alluvial aquifers, generally forming narrow, shallow aquifers along river valleys, with the largest outcrop in the east of the country.
 
 
 
====Unconsolidated====
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
|Aquifer Productivity||Named Aquifers and General Description||Recharge
 
|-
 
|High Productivity
 
||Most of the Quaternary unconsolidated aquifers are river alluvium, and form narrow linear aquifers along river valleys. Their aquifer properties are variable, depending largely on lithology, but where alluvium is dominated by coarser grained sediment (gravel and coarse sand), storage capacity and transmissivity can be high. Aquifers are usually unconfined with a shallow water table (<15 mbgl) and form locally important water supply sources.
 
||Recharge is generally high due to close connection with rivers and wetlands.
 
|}
 
 
 
====Volcanic====
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
|Aquifer Productivity||Named Aquifers and General Description
 
|-
 
|Moderate Productivity
 
||Little is known about groundwater in the volcanic rocks in Rwanda. Highly permeable basalt layers are documented in the Sebeya catchment in north-west Rwanda [http://www.water.rw/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/20181016-Sebeya-Catchment-Plan-2018-2024-FINAL.pdf (Water for Growth Rwanda, 2018c)].
 
|}
 
 
 
====Weathered, Fractured Basement====
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
|Aquifer Productivity||Named Aquifers and General Description
 
|-
 
|Variable Productivity (generally Low to Moderate)
 
||The productivity of the basement aquifer depends on the localised nature and extent of fracturing and weathering - how thick is the weathered zone and how developed are water-bearing fractures? In the eastern and western provinces groundwater is mostly found in low productivity fractured granite, gneiss and the generally more productive quartzite. A north-south trending belt of more productive metasedimentary basement rocks, including schist and quartzite, extends along the border of the western province.
 
|}
 
 
 
===Groundwater Quality===
 
  
Groundwater quality is monitored by the Rwanda Water and Forestry Authority (RWFA). Noted problems with groundwater quality are usually caused by poor agricultural and mining practices, or by wastewater discharge from both domestic and industrial sources. Further detail on specific groundwater quality issues identified by the monitoring programme are summarised in [https://waterportal.rwfa.rw/report/annual-water-status-report-2016-2017 Rwanda Water and Forestry Authority (2017)].
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The [http://www.minirena.gov.rw Ministry of Environment] and the [http://www.rnra.rw/ Rwanda Natural Resources Authority (RNRA)] have responsibilities for managing water resources in Rwanda. The RNRA, and particularly its Integrated Water Resource Management Department (RNRA-IWRM) is the institution with responsibility for monitoring groundwater resources.  
  
===Groundwater use and management===
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A [http://www.minirena.gov.rw/fileadmin/Land_Subsector/Water/Rwanda_Water_Resources_Master_Plan.pdf Rwanda Water Resources Master Plan] (2014) contains detailed recommendations for future management of groundwater, including setting up and operating a groundwater monitoring network.
  
The [http://www.environment.gov.rw Ministry of Environment] and the [http://rwfa.rw Rwanda Water and Forestry Authority (RWFA)] have responsibilities for managing water resources in Rwanda.  
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At present there is no systematic groundwater monitoring in Rwanda. Groundwater monitoring data (both levels and quality) are generally only collected during specific, temporary projects (RNRA 2014), such as the development of the Rwanda National Water Master plan, during which a few groundwater stations were monitored temporarily. Groundwater data collected will be stored in the Rwanda Water Resources Information System (RWRIS).  
  
The [http://www.minirena.gov.rw/fileadmin/Land_Subsector/Water/Rwanda_Water_Resources_Master_Plan.pdf Rwanda Water Resources Master Plan] (2014) contains detailed recommendations for integrated water resources management, including setting up and operating a groundwater monitoring network. This has now started and data from the monitoring stations are available through the [https://waterportal.rwfa.rw/ Rwanda Water Portal]. An Annual Water Status Report was produced for 2016/17 and is available through the Water Portal (see References below). This contains a more detailed hydrogeological map of the country.  
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At the moment, therefore, there is not enough information to assess the groundwater resources in Rwanda in terms of total volume available, water levels, essential water quality parameters, or annual recharge assessments, interactions with surface water resources, or current abstraction and used water infiltration rates (RNRA 2014).  
  
The Water Resources Master Plan estimated that total groundwater storage in Rwanda is around 162,176 Million Cubic Metres. There are no reliable estimates of total groundwater abstraction, but in 2005, groundwater was reported to account for 86% of safe drinking water supply in rural areas (Ministry of Natural Resources 2011). In the Eastern and parts of the Southern Province, most people depend on groundwater from boreholes. Extensive borehole drilling and shallow well construction have been done, mostly in the Eastern Province, since 1994. As of 2009, there were at least 400 boreholes and wells in various parts of the country (Ministry of Natural Resources 2011). In upland areas, groundwater from springs is a key resource, including via many piped water supply schemes. Spring supplies can be threatened by deforestation and erosion.
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In 2005, groundwater was reported to account for 86% of safe drinking water supply in rural areas (Ministry of Natural Resources 2011). In the Eastern and parts of the Southern Province, most people depend on groundwater from boreholes. Extensive borehole drilling and shallow well construction have been done, mostly in the Eastern Province, since 1994. As of 2009, there were at least 400 boreholes and wells in various parts of the country (Ministry of Natural Resources 2011). In upland areas, groundwater from springs is a key resource, including via many piped water supply schemes. Spring supplies can be threatened by deforestation and erosion.
  
 
=== Transboundary aquifers===
 
=== Transboundary aquifers===
  
For general information about transboundary aquifers, please see the [[Transboundary aquifers | Transboundary aquifers resources page]].
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For further information about transboundary aquifers, please see the [[Transboundary aquifers | Transboundary aquifers resources page]].
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
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===Online resources===
 
===Online resources===
  
Further information on Rwanda's water and groundwater resources can be found via:
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Information on Integrated Water Resource Management] in the [http://www.rnra.rw/ Rwanda Natural Resources Authority]
 
 
[http://rwfa.rw Rwanda Water and Forestry Authority]
 
 
 
[https://waterportal.rwfa.rw/ Rwanda Water Portal]
 
 
 
[http://www.water.rw/ Water for Growth Rwanda] - a joint Rwanda-Netherlands Initiative to promote improved integrated water resources management in Rwanda
 
 
 
Further geological information can be obtained from the [http://www.rmb.gov.rw Rwanda Mining Board].
 
  
 
===Documents===
 
===Documents===
  
Hulsbosch N, Van Daele J, Reinders N, Dewaele S, Jacques D and Muchez P. 2017. [https://www.researchgate.net/publication/317424038_Structural_control_on_the_emplacement_of_contemporaneous_Sn-Ta-Nb_mineralized_LCT_pegmatites_and_Sn_bearing_quartz_veins_Insights_from_the_Musha_and_Ntunga_deposits_of_the_Karagwe-Ankole_Belt_Rwanda Structural control on the emplacement of contemporaneous Sn-Ta-Nb mineralized LCT pegmatites and Sn bearing quartz veins: Insights from the Musha and Ntunga deposits of the Karagwe-Ankole Belt, Rwanda]. Journal of African Earth Sciences 134, 24-32. Doi: 10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2017.06.004
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Rwanda Natural Resources Authority (RNRA). 2014. [http://www.minirena.gov.rw/fileadmin/Land_Subsector/Water/Rwanda_Water_Resources_Master_Plan.pdf Consultancy services for development of Rwanda National Water Resources Master Plan]. Tender Number 021/RNRA/2011-2012. Master Plan Report: Main Volume. Final Version May 2014. Prepared by SHER Ingénieurs-Conseils s.a.  
  
Rwanda Natural Resources Authority (RNRA). 2014. [http://www.environment.gov.rw/uploads/media/Rwanda_Water_Resources_Master_Plan_01.pdf Consultancy services for development of Rwanda National Water Resources Master Plan]. Tender Number 021/RNRA/2011-2012. Master Plan Report: Main Volume. Final Version May 2014. Prepared by SHER Ingénieurs-Conseils s.a.
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Rwanda Ministry of Natural Resources. 2011. [http://www.minirena.gov.rw/fileadmin/Land_Subsector/Water/Rwanda-Waterstrategy-04062011-final-1006-corrected1406_01.pdf Water Resources Management Sub-Sector Strategic Plan (2011-2015)].  
 
 
Rwanda Ministry of Natural Resources. 2011. [http://www.environment.gov.rw/uploads/media/Rwanda-Waterstrategy-04062011-final-1006-corrected1406_02.pdf Water Resources Management Sub-Sector Strategic Plan (2011-2015)].
 
 
 
Rwanda Water and Forestry Authority. 2017. [https://waterportal.rwfa.rw/report/annual-water-status-report-2016-2017 Annual Water Status Report 2016-2017]
 
 
 
Schlüter T. 2006. [http://www.geokniga.org/bookfiles/geokniga-geological-atlas-africa.pdf Geological Atlas of Africa]. 
 
 
 
Water for Growth Rwanda. 2018a. [http://www.water.rw/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/20181016-Upper-Nyabarongo-Catchment-Plan-2018-2024-FINAL.pdf IWRM Programme Rwanda: Upper Nyabarongo Catchment Plan 2018-2024].
 
 
 
Water for Growth Rwanda. 2018b. [http://www.water.rw/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/20181016-Nyabugogo-Catchment-Plan-2018-2024-FINAL.pdf IWRM Programme Rwanda: Nyabugogo Catchment Plan 2018-2024].
 
 
 
Water for Growth Rwanda. 2018c. [http://www.water.rw/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/20181016-Sebeya-Catchment-Plan-2018-2024-FINAL.pdf IWRM Programme Rwanda: Sebeya Catchment Plan 2018-2024].
 
 
 
Water for Growth Rwanda. 2018d. [http://www.water.rw/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/20181016-Muvumba-Catchment-Plan-2018-2024-FINAL.pdf IWRM Programme Rwanda: Muvumba Catchment Plan 2018-2024].  
 
  
 
Theunissen K, Hanon M and Fernandez N. 1991. Carte geologique du Rwanda (scale 1:250,000). Service Geologique du Rwanda et Musee Royale de l'Afrique Centrale,  Tervuren.
 
Theunissen K, Hanon M and Fernandez N. 1991. Carte geologique du Rwanda (scale 1:250,000). Service Geologique du Rwanda et Musee Royale de l'Afrique Centrale,  Tervuren.
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United Nations. 1989. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060018 Groundwater in Eastern, Central and Southern Africa: Rwanda]. United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development.
 
United Nations. 1989. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060018 Groundwater in Eastern, Central and Southern Africa: Rwanda]. United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development.
  
 
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==Return to the index pages==
Return to the index pages:
 
 
[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]]  >> Hydrogeology of Rwanda  
 
[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]]  >> Hydrogeology of Rwanda  
  

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