Hydrogeology of Rwanda

From Earthwise
Revision as of 13:46, 28 September 2017 by Beod (Talk | contribs) (Climate)


Jump to: navigation, search

Africa Groundwater Atlas >> Hydrogeology by country >> Hydrogeology of Rwanda


This page has limited information and needs to be updated. If you have more information on the hydrogeology of Rwanda, please get in touch!


Compilers

Dr Kirsty Upton and Brighid Ó Dochartaigh, British Geological Survey, UK

Please cite this page as: Upton & Ó Dochartaigh, 2016.

Bibliographic reference: Upton, K. & Ó Dochartaigh, B.É. 2016. Africa Groundwater Atlas: Hydrogeology of Rwanda. British Geological Survey. Accessed [date you accessed the information]. http://earthwise.bgs.ac.uk/index.php/Hydrogeology_of_Rwanda

Terms and conditions

The Africa Groundwater Atlas is hosted by the British Geological Survey (BGS) and includes information from third party sources. Your use of information provided by this website is at your own risk. If reproducing diagrams that include third party information, please cite both the Africa Groundwater Atlas and the third party sources. Please see the Terms of use for more information.

Geographical Setting

Rwanda. Map developed from USGS GTOPOPO30; GADM global administrative areas; and UN Revision of World Urbanization Prospects. For more information on the map development and datasets see the geography resource page.

General

Estimated Population in 2013* 11,776,522
Rural Population (% of total) (2013)* 73.1%
Total Surface Area* 24,670 sq km
Agricultural Land (% of total area) (2012)* 75.3%
Capital City Kigali
Region Eastern Africa
Border Countries Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Annual Freshwater Withdrawal (2013)* 150 Million cubic metres
Annual Freshwater Withdrawal for Agriculture (2013)* 68%
Annual Freshwater Withdrawal for Domestic Use (2013)* 24%
Annual Freshwater Withdrawal for Industry (2013)* 8%
Rural Population with Access to Improved Water Source (2012)* 68.3%
Urban Population with Access to Improved Water Source (2012)* 80.7%

* Source: World Bank


Climate

Koppen Geiger Climate ZonesAverage Annual PrecipitationAverage Temperature

Average monthly precipitation for Rwanda showing minimum and maximum (light blue), 25th and 75th percentile (blue), and median (dark blue) rainfall Average monthly temperature for Rwanda showing minimum and maximum (orange), 25th and 75th percentile (red), and median (black) temperature Quarterly precipitation over the period 1950-2012 Monthly precipitation (blue) over the period 2000-2012 compared with the long term monthly average (red)

These maps and graphs were developed from the CRU TS 3.21 dataset produced by the Climatic Research Unit at the University of East Anglia, UK. For more information see the climate resource page.


In Rwanda, rainfall data are collected by MeteoRwanda. More detailed information on rainfall at a catchment scale is described in the Rwanda Water Resources Master Plan (2014).

Surface water

Within Rwanda are two major basins: the Nile and Congo basins, both of which are shared with neighbouring countries. Other smaller river basins include the Rusizi, Akanyaru and Akagera rivers (all shared with Burundi); the Akagera River (shared with Tanzania); the Muvumba River (shared with Uganda); and Lake Kivu and the Rusizi River (shared with the DRC). Some institutional arrangements are operational, either bilateral (Commission Mixte between Rwanda and Burundi) or regional (e.g. EAC, NBI, ABAKIR; these latter two specifically on water resources) (RNRA 2014).

Nine Level 1 surface water catchments have been classified for Rwanda (see RNRA 2014, page 10).

Surface water monitoring is generally good for the large catchments, but station data often lack absolute topographic reference level; and discharge measurements are often absent or at best out of date. For small catchments, monitoring is less well established (RNRA 2014). Information on surface water resources in Rwanda is described in the Rwanda Water Resources Master Plan (2014). Surface water monitoring data are stored in the RWRIS


Major surface water features of Rwanda. Map developed from World Wildlife Fund HydroSHEDS; Digital Chart of the World drainage; and FAO Inland Water Bodies. For more information on the map development and datasets see the surface water resource page.

Soil

Soil Map of Rwanda, from the European Commission Joint Research Centre: European Soil Portal. For more information on the map see the soil resource page.

Land cover

Land Cover Map of Rwanda, from the European Space Agency GlobCover 2.3, 2009. For more information on the map see the land cover resource page.

Geology

The geology map shows a simplified overview of geology at a national scale (see the Geology resource page for more details).

More information is available in the report UN (1988) (see References section, below).


Geology of Rwanda at 1:5 million scale. Developed from USGS map (Persits et al. 2002). For more information on the map development and datasets see the geology resource page.

Hydrogeology

The hydrogeology map below shows a simplified overview of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the Hydrogeology map resource page for more details).

Some information on the hydrogeology of Rwanda is available in the report United Nations (1988) (see References section, below).

The Rwanda Water Resources Master Plan (2014) also contains information on groundwater.

Groundwater recharge assessment using isotope methods has been carried out for the first time defining the replenishment and sustainable yield of aquifers

Rwanda Hydrogeology.png Hydrogeology Key.png

Groundwater use and management

The Ministry of Environment and the Rwanda Natural Resources Authority have responsibility for managing water resources in Rwanda. The RNRA-IWRM is the institution with responsibility for monitoring groundwater resources.

A Rwanda Water Resources Master Plan (2014) contains detailed recommendations for future management of groundwater, including setting up and operating a groundwater monitoring network.

At present there is no systematic groundwater monitoring in Rwanda. Groundwater monitoring data (both levels and quality) are generally only collected during specific, temporary projects (RNRA 2014), such as the development of the Rwanda National Water Master plan, during which a few groundwater stations were monitored temporarily. At the moment, therefore, there is not enough information to assess the groundwater resources in Rwanda in terms of total volume available, water levels, essential water quality parameters, or annual recharge assessments, interactions with surface water resources, or current abstraction and used water infiltration rates (RNRA 2014).


Transboundary aquifers

For further information about transboundary aquifers, please see the Transboundary aquifers resources page.

References

References with more information on the geology and hydrogeology of Rwanda may be accessed through the Africa Groundwater Literature Archive.

Online resources

Information on Integrated Water Resource Management] in the Rwanda Natural Resources Authority



Return to the index pages

Africa Groundwater Atlas >> Hydrogeology by country >> Hydrogeology of Rwanda

Rwanda Natural Resources Authority (RNRA). 2014. Consultancy services for development of Rwanda National Water Resources Master Plan. Tender Number 021/RNRA/2011-2012. Master Plan Report: Main Volume. Final Version May 2014. Prepared by SHER Ingénieurs-Conseils s.a.

United Nations. 1989. Groundwater in Eastern, Central and Southern Africa: Rwanda. United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development.