Editing Hydrogeology of Sierra Leone

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[[File:CC-BY-SA_logo_88x31.png | frame | This work is licensed under a [https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License]]]
 
[[File:CC-BY-SA_logo_88x31.png | frame | This work is licensed under a [https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License]]]
 
Sierra Leone’s geography, including its dense tropical forest, influenced settlement and migration patterns from other areas in Africa. From the 15th century, European traders arrived, dealing primarily in slaves. By the 18th century Islam, spreading from the north and east, became widely adopted. In the late 18th century, Freetown was established as a settlement for freed slaves on land held by the British Sierra Leone company, but there was little interaction with local peoples in the interior. In the early 19th century more freed slaves were sold to the original freed slaves in what was called the ‘apprenticeship’ system. This ethnic mix created the Krio identity and language, which still dominates in Freetown. In the late 19th century the British divided Sierra Leone into a coastal colony and an inland protectorate, governing them separately until the country gained independence in 1961.
 
 
After independence Sierra Leone initially had a democratic government, but in the late 1960s increasing political authoritarianism and military coups were followed what was effectively a one-party state until 1991, with periods of military and civil unrest. A civil war began in 1991, linked to war in Liberia, which became a complex conflict between several sides. In 2002 the end of the civil war was followed by elections and a period of disarmament, justice and reconstruction. In 2014-16 Sierra Leone was severely affected by the Ebola epidemic.
 
 
The economy is dependent on mining, especially diamonds but also many other minerals and precious metals, which account for most export earnings. The proceeds of diamond mining were an incentive for the civil war and helped funded it. However, the livelihoods of most of the population rely on subsistence agriculture, with rice a key crop. Even before the civil war, mismanagement had led to economic decline, and the national economy and infrastructure was decimated by the 11 years of war. Post war reconstruction and development was set back during the Ebola outbreak.
 
 
Sierra Leone has relatively abundant water resources, but access to improved water supplies remains low. Rainfall is high although seasonal, and there are a number of major perennial rivers. However, river flow is also seasonal in response to rainfall, and surface water resources are under increasing pressure from pollution and increasing water demand. In the dry season, rural populations rely largely on groundwater.
 
 
  
 
==Authors==
 
==Authors==
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[[File:Sierra Leone_Political.png | right | frame | Sierra Leone. Map developed from USGS GTOPOPO30; GADM global administrative areas; and UN Revision of World Urbanization Prospects. For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geography | geography resource page]].]]   
 
[[File:Sierra Leone_Political.png | right | frame | Sierra Leone. Map developed from USGS GTOPOPO30; GADM global administrative areas; and UN Revision of World Urbanization Prospects. For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geography | geography resource page]].]]   
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===General===
  
===General===
 
  
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
|-
 
|-
|Capital city || Freetown
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|Estimated Population in 2013* || 6,092,075
 
|-
 
|-
|Region || Western Africa
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|Rural Population (% of total) (2013)* || 60.8%
 
|-
 
|-
|Border countries || Guinea, Liberia
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|Total Surface Area* || 72,180 sq km
 
|-
 
|-
|Total surface area* || km<sup>2</sup>  (19,671,000 ha)
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|Agricultural Land (% of total area) (2012)* || 56.8%
 
|-
 
|-
|Total population (2015)* || 15,129,000
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|Capital City || Freetown
 
|-
 
|-
|Rural population (2015)* ||8,585,000 (56%)
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|Region || Western Africa
 
|-
 
|-
|Urban population (2015)* || 6,544,000 (44%)
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|Border Countries || Guinea, Liberia
 
|-
 
|-
|UN Human Development Index (HDI) [highest = 1] (2014)*|| 0.4659
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|Annual Freshwater Withdrawal (2013)* || 212.2 Million cubic metres
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|-
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|Annual Freshwater Withdrawal for Agriculture (2013)* || 21.5%
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|-
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|Annual Freshwater Withdrawal for Domestic Use (2013)* || 52.3%
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|-
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|Annual Freshwater Withdrawal for Industry (2013)* || 26.2%
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|-
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|Rural Population with Access to Improved Water Source (2012)* || 42.4%
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|-
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|Urban Population with Access to Improved Water Source (2012)* || 87.1%
 
|}
 
|}
  
<nowiki>*</nowiki> Source: [http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/data/query/index.html?lang=en FAO Aquastat]
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<nowiki>*</nowiki> Source: World Bank
 
 
  
  

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