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[[Overview of Africa Groundwater Atlas | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Sierra Leone
 
[[Overview of Africa Groundwater Atlas | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Sierra Leone
  
[[File:CC-BY-SA_logo_88x31.png | frame | This work is licensed under a [https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License]]]
 
  
 
Sierra Leone’s geography, including its dense tropical forest, influenced settlement and migration patterns from other areas in Africa. From the 15th century, European traders arrived, dealing primarily in slaves. By the 18th century Islam, spreading from the north and east, became widely adopted. In the late 18th century, Freetown was established as a settlement for freed slaves on land held by the British Sierra Leone company, but there was little interaction with local peoples in the interior. In the early 19th century more freed slaves were sold to the original freed slaves in what was called the ‘apprenticeship’ system. This ethnic mix created the Krio identity and language, which still dominates in Freetown. In the late 19th century the British divided Sierra Leone into a coastal colony and an inland protectorate, governing them separately until the country gained independence in 1961.  
 
Sierra Leone’s geography, including its dense tropical forest, influenced settlement and migration patterns from other areas in Africa. From the 15th century, European traders arrived, dealing primarily in slaves. By the 18th century Islam, spreading from the north and east, became widely adopted. In the late 18th century, Freetown was established as a settlement for freed slaves on land held by the British Sierra Leone company, but there was little interaction with local peoples in the interior. In the early 19th century more freed slaves were sold to the original freed slaves in what was called the ‘apprenticeship’ system. This ethnic mix created the Krio identity and language, which still dominates in Freetown. In the late 19th century the British divided Sierra Leone into a coastal colony and an inland protectorate, governing them separately until the country gained independence in 1961.  
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|Freshwater withdrawal as % of total renewable water resources ||5.699|| ||  
 
|Freshwater withdrawal as % of total renewable water resources ||5.699|| ||  
 
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|Total renewable groundwater (Million cubic metres/year) ||  ||25,000 ||
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|Renewable groundwater resources (Million cubic metres/year) || No data || No data || No data
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|Exploitable: Regular renewable groundwater (Million cubic metres/year) || No data || No data || No data
 
 
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|Groundwater produced internally (Million cubic metres/year) || ||3,500 ||   
 
|Groundwater produced internally (Million cubic metres/year) || ||3,500 ||   
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The geology map shows a simplified overview of the geology at a national scale (see the [[Geology | Geology resource page]] for more details).
 
The geology map shows a simplified overview of the geology at a national scale (see the [[Geology | Geology resource page]] for more details).
  
[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html '''Download a GIS shapefile of the Sierra Leone geology and hydrogeology map'''].
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More information is available in the report [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/fulldetails.cfm?id=AGLA060003 UN (1988)] (see References section, below).
 
 
More information is available in the report [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060003 UN (1988)] (see References section, below).
 
  
 
'''Summary'''
 
'''Summary'''
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Across the country, in river valleys there are often unconsolidated alluvial deposits laid down by rivers. Along the coastal belt are extensive outcrops of coastal, marine and estuarine unconsolidated deposits.  
 
Across the country, in river valleys there are often unconsolidated alluvial deposits laid down by rivers. Along the coastal belt are extensive outcrops of coastal, marine and estuarine unconsolidated deposits.  
  
[[File:Sierra Leone_Geology3.png | center | thumb| 500px | Geology of Sierra Leone at 1:5 million scale. Based on map described by Persits et al. 2002/Furon and Lombard 1964. For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geology | geology resource page]]. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html Download a GIS shapefile of the Sierra Leone geology and hydrogeology map].]]
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[[File:Sierra Leone_Geology2.png | center | thumb| 500px | Geology of Sierra Leone at 1:5 million scale. Developed from USGS map (Persits et al. 2002). For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geology | geology resource page]].]]
  
  
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||Crystalline granitic gneisses with supracrustal metamorphosed volcanic and sedimentary belts. The Marampa Group is dominated by metasedimentary and volcanic rocks; the Kasila Group is dominated by granulites, basement granites, gneisses and migmatites, volcanic greenstone, amphibolite and gneiss. The granitic basement has a well-developed fracture network (Lapworth et al. 2015).  
 
||Crystalline granitic gneisses with supracrustal metamorphosed volcanic and sedimentary belts. The Marampa Group is dominated by metasedimentary and volcanic rocks; the Kasila Group is dominated by granulites, basement granites, gneisses and migmatites, volcanic greenstone, amphibolite and gneiss. The granitic basement has a well-developed fracture network (Lapworth et al. 2015).  
 
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==Hydrogeology==
 
==Hydrogeology==
  
The hydrogeology map below shows a simplified overview  of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | Hydrogeology map resource page]] for more details).  
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The hydrogeology map below shows a simplified overview  of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the [[Hydrogeology Map | Hydrogeology map resource page]] for more details).  
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{|
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[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html '''Download a GIS shapefile of the Sierra Leone geology and hydrogeology map'''].
 
  
 
A comprehensive report on the [http://www.salgrid.org/final_report/Final_Report_20170822.pdf '''Hydrogeology of Sierra Leone'''] was published in 2017.
 
A comprehensive report on the [http://www.salgrid.org/final_report/Final_Report_20170822.pdf '''Hydrogeology of Sierra Leone'''] was published in 2017.
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Maps, data and more information on groundwater in Sierra Leone are also available through  [http://www.salgrid.org/# '''SALGRID'''] - the Salone Groundwater Resources Database portal, the official data portal and repository of hydrogeological information of the Government of Sierra Leone.
 
Maps, data and more information on groundwater in Sierra Leone are also available through  [http://www.salgrid.org/# '''SALGRID'''] - the Salone Groundwater Resources Database portal, the official data portal and repository of hydrogeological information of the Government of Sierra Leone.
  
Other sources with information on the hydrogeology of Sierra Leone are listed in the References section, below.
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Other references with information on the hydrogeology of Sierra Leone are listed in the References section, below.
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| [[File:HgOfSierraLeoneReportCover.png| right|thumb| 150px | Report cover of Hydrogeology of Sierra Leone (2017)]].
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[[File:HgOfSierraLeoneReportCover.png| right|thumb| 150px | Report cover of Hydrogeology of Sierra Leone (2017)]].
 
  
[[File:Sierra Leone_Hydrogeology3.png | center | thumb| 500px | Hydrogeology of Sierra Leone at 1:5 million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | Hydrogeology map]] resource page. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html Download a GIS shapefile of the Sierra Leone geology and hydrogeology map].]].
 
  
  
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[[File:Sierra Leone_Hydrogeology2.png | center | thumb| 500px | Hydrogeology of Sierra Leone at 1:5 million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Hydrogeology Map | Hydrogeology map]] resource page]].
  
 
'''Summary'''
 
'''Summary'''
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==References==
 
==References==
  
The following reports provide more information on the geology and hydrogeology of Sierra Leone. Some, and others, can be accessed through the [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=listResults&title_search=&author_search=&category_search=&country_search=SL&placeboolean=AND&singlecountry=1 Africa Groundwater Literature Archive]
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The following reports provide more information on the geology and hydrogeology of Sierra Leone. Some, and others, can be accessed through the [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/searchResults.cfm?title_search=&author_search=&category_search=&country_search=SL&placeboolean=AND&singlecountry=1 Africa Groundwater Literature Archive]
  
 
Camus Y and Cukor D. 2012. [http://www.poloresources.com/PDF/Nimini_Resource_Update_NI43-101.pdf NI 43-101 Technical Report on the Resource Update Nimini Gold Project, Kono Region, Sierra Leone]. SGS Canada Inc., submitted to Polo Resources Ltd.  
 
Camus Y and Cukor D. 2012. [http://www.poloresources.com/PDF/Nimini_Resource_Update_NI43-101.pdf NI 43-101 Technical Report on the Resource Update Nimini Gold Project, Kono Region, Sierra Leone]. SGS Canada Inc., submitted to Polo Resources Ltd.  
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Lapworth DJ, Carter RC, Pedley, S and MacDonald AM. 2015. [http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/510992/ Threats to groundwater supplies from contamination in Sierra Leone, with special reference to Ebola care facilities]. British Geological Survey Technical Report OR/15/009, Nottingham, UK, 87pp.  
 
Lapworth DJ, Carter RC, Pedley, S and MacDonald AM. 2015. [http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/510992/ Threats to groundwater supplies from contamination in Sierra Leone, with special reference to Ebola care facilities]. British Geological Survey Technical Report OR/15/009, Nottingham, UK, 87pp.  
  
United Nations. 1988. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060048 Groundwater in North and West Africa: Sierra Leone]. United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development and Economic Commission for Africa. Department of Technical Cooperation for Development and Economic Commission for Africa, Natural Resources/Water Series No. 18.  
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United Nations. 1988. [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/fulldetails.cfm?id=AGLA060048 Groundwater in North and West Africa: Sierra Leone]. United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development and Economic Commission for Africa. Department of Technical Cooperation for Development and Economic Commission for Africa, Natural Resources/Water Series No. 18.  
  
  
Return to the index pages:
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==Return to the index pages==
 
[[Overview of Africa Groundwater Atlas | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Sierra Leone
 
[[Overview of Africa Groundwater Atlas | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Sierra Leone
  

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