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[[Overview of Africa Groundwater Atlas | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Somalia
 
[[Overview of Africa Groundwater Atlas | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Somalia
 
[[File:CC-BY-SA_logo_88x31.png | frame | This work is licensed under a [https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License]]]
 
  
 
In history, the area of present-day Somalia was the site of several powerful empires, and an important commercial centre, including trading in spices with merchants from India. Islam arrived before the 9th century, and Islamic sultanates dominated the region into European colonial times, making treaties with European forces from the 17th century onwards. In the late 19th century Britain and Italy gained control of British Somaliland in the south and Italian Somaliland in the north, respectively. Ethiopia and France also laid claims to part of present-day Somalia. Italian Somaliland was taken by Britain in 1941, later becoming a UN trusteeship under Italian administration. In 1960 the two regions united to become the independent Somali Republic.  
 
In history, the area of present-day Somalia was the site of several powerful empires, and an important commercial centre, including trading in spices with merchants from India. Islam arrived before the 9th century, and Islamic sultanates dominated the region into European colonial times, making treaties with European forces from the 17th century onwards. In the late 19th century Britain and Italy gained control of British Somaliland in the south and Italian Somaliland in the north, respectively. Ethiopia and France also laid claims to part of present-day Somalia. Italian Somaliland was taken by Britain in 1941, later becoming a UN trusteeship under Italian administration. In 1960 the two regions united to become the independent Somali Republic.  
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The geology map on this page shows a simplified overview of the geology at a national scale (see [[Geology | the Geology resources page]] for more details).  
 
The geology map on this page shows a simplified overview of the geology at a national scale (see [[Geology | the Geology resources page]] for more details).  
 
[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html '''Download a GIS shapefile of the Somalia geology and hydrogeology map'''].
 
  
 
A more detailed geological map at 1:1,500,000 has also been published (see Geology: key references, below).
 
A more detailed geological map at 1:1,500,000 has also been published (see Geology: key references, below).
  
  
[[File:Somalia_Geology4.png | center | thumb| 400px | Geology of Somalia at 1:5 million scale. Based on map described by Persits et al. 2002/Furon and Lombard 1964. For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geology | geology resource page]]. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html Download a GIS shapefile of the Somalia geology and hydrogeology map].]]
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[[File:Somalia_Geology2.png | center | thumb| 500px | Geology of Somalia at 1:5 million scale. Based on map described by Persits et al. 2002/Furon and Lombard 1964. For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geology | geology resource page]].]]
  
 
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This section provides a summary of the hydrogeology of the main aquifers in Somalia.  More information is available in the references listed at the bottom of this page. Many of these references can be accessed through the [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/index.cfm Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].
 
This section provides a summary of the hydrogeology of the main aquifers in Somalia.  More information is available in the references listed at the bottom of this page. Many of these references can be accessed through the [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/index.cfm Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].
  
The hydrogeology map on this page shows a simplified overview of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | Hydrogeology map resource page]] for more details).  
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The hydrogeology map on this page shows a simplified overview of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the [[Hydrogeology Map | Hydrogeology map resource page]] for more details).  
  
[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html '''Download a GIS shapefile of the Somalia geology and hydrogeology map'''].
 
  
[[File:Somalia_Hydrogeology4.png | center | thumb| 450px | Hydrogeology of Somalia at 1:5 million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | Hydrogeology map]] resource page. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html Download a GIS shapefile of the Somalia geology and hydrogeology map].]].
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[[File:Somalia_Hydrogeology3.png | center | thumb| 500px | Hydrogeology of Somalia at 1:5 million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Hydrogeology Map | Hydrogeology map]] resource page]].
  
 
'''Summary'''
 
'''Summary'''
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Groundwater quality is a major issue. Most groundwater sources have salinity levels above 2,000 µS/cm. Many of the shallow wells are also unprotected and vulnerable to microbiological and other contamination (FAO/SWALIM 2012).
 
Groundwater quality is a major issue. Most groundwater sources have salinity levels above 2,000 µS/cm. Many of the shallow wells are also unprotected and vulnerable to microbiological and other contamination (FAO/SWALIM 2012).
  
A number of studies have laid down a good base for further hydrogeological works (see Hydrogeology: key references, below and other references in the [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=listResults&title_search=&author_search=&category_search=&country_search=SO&placeboolean=AND&singlecountry=1 Africa Groundwater Literature Archive]). Numerous NGOs have also worked in the region and supported urban centres and local rural and semi-urban communities by drilling water wells or conducting geophysical surveys. However, although many water projects have been implemented or supported in the region, water well drilling has commonly been conducted without adequate project feasibility studies, and to date, no systematic data collection has been carried on groundwater exploitation, capacity, and especially on groundwater level fluctuations. However, during the last few years,the [http://www.faoswalim.org/ FAO/SWALIM] project (Somalia Water and Land Information Management) has done extensive work relating to water resources, including preparing more accurate and adequate hydrogeological maps of the northern part of Somalia, which are essential for planning any groundwater exploration and exploitation (FAO/SWALIM 2012).  
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A number of studies have laid down a good base for further hydrogeological works (see Hydrogeology: key references, below and other references in the [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/searchResults.cfm?title_search=&author_search=&category_search=&country_search=SO&placeboolean=AND&singlecountry=1 Africa Groundwater Literature Archive]). Numerous NGOs have also worked in the region and supported urban centres and local rural and semi-urban communities by drilling water wells or conducting geophysical surveys. However, although many water projects have been implemented or supported in the region, water well drilling has commonly been conducted without adequate project feasibility studies, and to date, no systematic data collection has been carried on groundwater exploitation, capacity, and especially on groundwater level fluctuations. However, during the last few years,the [http://www.faoswalim.org/ FAO/SWALIM] project (Somalia Water and Land Information Management) has done extensive work relating to water resources, including preparing more accurate and adequate hydrogeological maps of the northern part of Somalia, which are essential for planning any groundwater exploration and exploitation (FAO/SWALIM 2012).  
  
  
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The following references provide more information on the geology and hydrogeology of Somalia.
 
The following references provide more information on the geology and hydrogeology of Somalia.
These, and others, can be accessed through the [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=listResults&title_search=&author_search=&category_search=&country_search=SO&placeboolean=AND&singlecountry=1 Africa Groundwater Literature Archive]
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These, and others, can be accessed through the [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/searchResults.cfm?title_search=&author_search=&category_search=&country_search=SO&placeboolean=AND&singlecountry=1 Africa Groundwater Literature Archive]
  
 
===Geology: key references===
 
===Geology: key references===
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UNICEF. 1983-1986. Rural water supply and sanitation  programme in the  Northern  Regions",  Internal  Reports,  Hargeysa
 
UNICEF. 1983-1986. Rural water supply and sanitation  programme in the  Northern  Regions",  Internal  Reports,  Hargeysa
  
United Nations. 1989. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060020 Groundwater in Eastern, Central and Southern Africa: Somalia]. United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development. Natural Resources/Water Series No. 19, ST/TCD/6.
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United Nations. 1989. [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/fulldetails.cfm?id=AGLA060020 Groundwater in Eastern, Central and Southern Africa: Somalia]. United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development. Natural Resources/Water Series No. 19, ST/TCD/6.
  
 
Van der Plac MC. 2001. Burao water supply project XB=SOM-00-X01, Hydrogeological Site Investigations, Togdheer Region (Somaliland), UNCHS (Habitat)  
 
Van der Plac MC. 2001. Burao water supply project XB=SOM-00-X01, Hydrogeological Site Investigations, Togdheer Region (Somaliland), UNCHS (Habitat)  
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Return to the index pages:
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==Return to the index pages==
 
[[Overview of Africa Groundwater Atlas | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Somalia
 
[[Overview of Africa Groundwater Atlas | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Somalia
  

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