Difference between revisions of "Hydrogeology of Somalia"

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===Land cover===
 
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The far north of Somalia is desert or semi-desert, with semi-arid scrubland through much of the north and centre, and
 
 
 
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|The far north of Somalia is desert or semi-desert, with semi-arid land showing sparse vegetation through much of the north and centre, and grassland and sparse forest throughout much of the south.
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| [[File: Somalia_LandCover.png | frame | Land Cover Map of Somalia (For map key and more information on the datasets used in the map see the [[Land cover | land cover resources section]])]]
 
| [[File: Somalia_LandCover.png | frame | Land Cover Map of Somalia (For map key and more information on the datasets used in the map see the [[Land cover | land cover resources section]])]]
 
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Revision as of 08:48, 9 July 2015

Africa Groundwater Atlas >> Hydrogeology by country >> Hydrogeology of Somalia

Authors

Author 1, Affiliation

Author 2, Affiliation


Geographical Setting

Map of Somalia (For more information on the datasets used in the map see the geography resources section)

General

Estimated Population in 2013* 10,495,583
Rural Population (% of total) (2013)* 61.4%
Total Surface Area* 627,340 sq km
Agricultural Land (% of total area) (2012)* 70.3%
Capital City Mogadishu
Region Eastern Africa
Border Countries Ethiopia, Djibouti, Kenya
Annual Freshwater Withdrawal (2013)* 3,298 Million cubic metres
Annual Freshwater Withdrawal for Agriculture (2013)* 99.48%
Annual Freshwater Withdrawal for Domestic Use (2013)* 0.45%
Annual Freshwater Withdrawal for Industry (2013)* 0.06%

* Source: World Bank


Climate

Much of the north and centre of Somalia have an arid climate; and much of the rest of the north and south of the country are semi arid. Only small areas in the south have a humid climate. Annual rainfall in the north and northeast is less than 100 mm, rising to 200 mm to 300 mm in the central plateaus, and between 500 mm and 600 mm in the northwest and southwest.

The little seasonal variation in climate is largely related to changes in wind patterns. There is a main monsoonal wet season in April and May, and a smaller wet season in October and November.


Rainfall time-series and graphs of monthly average rainfall and temperature for each individual climate zone can be found on the Somalia Climate Page.


Average monthly precipitation for Somalia showing minimum and maximum (light blue), 25th and 75th percentile (blue), and median (dark blue) rainfall Average monthly temperature for COUNTRY showing minimum and maximum (orange), 25th and 75th percentile (red), and median (black) temperature Quarterly precipitation over the period 1950-2012 Monthly precipitation (blue) over the period 2000-2012 compared with the long term monthly average (red)

For further detail on the climate datasets used see the climate resources section.

Surface water

Somalia has two permanent rivers, the Jubba and the Shabele, both of which begin in the Ethiopian Highlands and flow southwards.











Surface Water Map of Somalia (For more information on the datasets used in the map see the surface water resources section)

Soil

Most of the soils in Somalia have low nutrient and moisture availability, including calcisols, gypsisols, arenosols and solonchak and solonetz type soils that cover much of the country.

The adjacent map shows data from the Soil Map of Africa, available from the European Soil Portal; other soil data are available from the FAO Soils Portal









Soil Map of Somalia (For map key and more information on the datasets used in the map see the soil resources section)

Land cover

The far north of Somalia is desert or semi-desert, with semi-arid land showing sparse vegetation through much of the north and centre, and grassland and sparse forest throughout much of the south.







Land Cover Map of Somalia (For map key and more information on the datasets used in the map see the land cover resources section)


Geology

This section provides a summary of the geology of Somalia. More detail can be found in the references listed at the bottom of this page. Many of these references can be accessed through the Africa Groundwater Literature Archive.

The geology map on this page shows a simplified version of the geology at a national scale (see the Geology resources page for more details). The map is available to download as a shapefile (.shp) for use in GIS packages. A more detailed geological map at 1:1,500,000 is also published (see Geology: key references, below).


Geological Environments
Key Formations Period Lithology Structure
Geological Environment 1
Name of formation1 Time period Description Structure
Geological Environment 2
Geological Environment 3


Hydrogeology

This section provides a summary of the hydrogeology of the main aquifers in Somalia. More information is available in the references listed at the bottom of this page. Many of these references can be accessed through the Africa Groundwater Literature Archive. The hydrogeology map on this page shows a simplified version of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the Aquifer properties resource page for more details). The map is available to download as a shapefile (.shp) for use in GIS packages.

File:Somalia Hydrogeology.png Hydrogeology Key.png


Unconsolidated

Named Aquifers General Description Water quantity issues Water quality issues Recharge

Sedimentary - Intergranular Flow

Named Aquifers General Description Water quantity issues Water quality issues Recharge

Sedimentary - Intergranular & Fracture Flow

Named Aquifers General Description Water quantity issues Water quality issues Recharge

Sedimentary - Fracture Flow

Named Aquifers General Description Water quantity issues Water quality issues Recharge

Basement

Named Aquifers General Description Water quantity issues Water quality issues Recharge


Groundwater Status

Groundwater quantity

Groundwater quality

Groundwater use and management

Groundwater use

Groundwater management

Groundwater monitoring

Transboundary aquifers

For further information about transboundary aquifers, please see the Transboundary aquifers resources page


References

The following references provide more information on the geology and hydrogeology of Somalia. These, and others, can be accessed through the Africa Groundwater Literature Archive

Geology: key references

Abbate E, Sagri M & Sassi FP (with the collaboration of Aden IH, Arush MA, Yusuf OS). 1994. The geological map of Somalia 1:1,500,000. University of Florence, SELCA, Florence


Hydrogeology: key references

Faillace C, Faillace ER. 1986. Water quality data book of Somalia. Hydrogeology and water quality of northern Somalia, Vol. 1, Text. GTZ & WDA, Rosdorf

FAO/SWALIM. 2011. Water sources inventory for northern Somalia, Technical Report No. W-12, January 2009, Nairobi

FAO-SWALIM (Balint Z, Stevanovic Z, Gadain H et al.). 2012. Hydrogeological Survey and Assessment of Selected Areas in Somaliland and Puntland. Technical Report No. W-20, FAO-SWALIM (GCP/SOM/049/EC) Project, Nairobi, Kenya. http://www.faoswalim.org/content/w-20-hydrogeological-survey-and-assessment-selected-areas-somaliland-and-puntland-report-no

GKW. 1977. Water resource development project in Somalia. New water supply system in Burco, Hydrogeological Report, Mannheim

Humphreys H & Sons. 1960. Hargeysa water supply investigation. Westminster and Nairobi.

Macfadyen WA. 1951. Water supply and geology of parts of British Somaliland. Hargeysa

Petrucci B. 2007. Rehabilitation and improvement of Hargeysa urban water supply system. Hydrogeological Monitoring. Final report, January 2007, Water & Land, Hargeysa

Popov AP, Kidwai AL and Karrani SA. 1973: Mineral and ground water survey (Phase II), ground water in the Somali Democratic Republic. Vol. III - Technical Report, UNDP, New York

SHAAC Co. 2006. 13 sites, Hydrogeological site investigation report, UNDP, New York SOGREAH, 1982/83: North-West region agricultural development project. Technical Report 16, Hydrogeology, Grenoble

UNICEF. 1983-1986. Rural water supply and sanitation programme in the Northern Regions", Internal Reports, Hargeysa

Water Supply Survey Team of the People's Republic of China. 1983. Survey report on the possibility of the second water source of Hargeysa City of Somali Democratic Republic, Beijing

Wilson G. 1958. Ground water geology in Somalia, Mogadishu


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Africa Groundwater Atlas >> Hydrogeology by country >> Hydrogeology of Somalia