Editing Hydrogeology of Sudan

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The area of present-day Sudan formed the powerful kingdom of Kush from around 1000 BC to the 4th century AD. After the decline of Kush, various successor Nubian kingdoms were established as separate polities. Christianity arrived in the region around 500 AD, and Islam was gradually introduced into the north from the 7th century, influenced by close relationships between the Nubian kingdoms and Egypt. In the 16th century the Funj empire became the main power in in southern Nubia, lasting until invasion by Egypt in the early 19th century. In the late 19th century the Mahdist group resisted Egyptian forces and gained control of most of Sudan. The British eventually helped Egypt regain control, and Sudan became nominally a British-Egyptian concern, although in actuality governed mainly by Britain, from 1899 until independence in 1956.  
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formed the powerful kingdom of Kush from around 1000 BC to the 4th century AD. After the decline of Kush, various successor Nubian kingdoms were established as separate polities. Christianity arrived in the region around 500 AD, and Islam was gradually introduced into the north from the 7th century, influenced by close relationships between the Nubian kingdoms and Egypt. In the 16th century the Funj empire became the main power in in southern Nubia, lasting until invasion by Egypt in the early 19th century. In the late 19th century the Mahdist group resisted Egyptian forces and gained control of most of Sudan. The British eventually helped Egypt regain control, and Sudan became nominally a British-Egyptian concern, although in actuality governed mainly by Britain, from 1899 until independence in 1956.  
  
 
Two civil wars dominated the following decades: the first from 1955 to 1972, and the second from 1983 to 2005. A factor in both wars was the perceived marginalisation of the southern population by the northern-dominated government. The area of present-day Sudan has a dominantly Arab and Muslim identity, distinct from the traditionally Christian or animist Dinka, Nuer and other Nilotic peoples who make up much of South Sudan’s population. In 1972 South Sudan was designated an autonomous region, and a referendum in 2011 led to it seceding as an independent state. Controversy continues between the two countries over disputed oil-rich land. Other conflict has focused on the Darfur region in western Sudan, which had been largely autonomous until absorbed into British-ruled colonial Sudan. Conflict over its status erupted in 2003, linked to disagreements between ethnic and cultural groups identifying as Arabic and African, respectively. Conflicts between herding and arable agricultural livelihoods have also played a role.
 
Two civil wars dominated the following decades: the first from 1955 to 1972, and the second from 1983 to 2005. A factor in both wars was the perceived marginalisation of the southern population by the northern-dominated government. The area of present-day Sudan has a dominantly Arab and Muslim identity, distinct from the traditionally Christian or animist Dinka, Nuer and other Nilotic peoples who make up much of South Sudan’s population. In 1972 South Sudan was designated an autonomous region, and a referendum in 2011 led to it seceding as an independent state. Controversy continues between the two countries over disputed oil-rich land. Other conflict has focused on the Darfur region in western Sudan, which had been largely autonomous until absorbed into British-ruled colonial Sudan. Conflict over its status erupted in 2003, linked to disagreements between ethnic and cultural groups identifying as Arabic and African, respectively. Conflicts between herding and arable agricultural livelihoods have also played a role.

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