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[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Sudan
 
[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Sudan
  
[[File:CC-BY-SA_logo_88x31.png | frame | This work is licensed under a [https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License]]]
 
  
 
The area of present-day Sudan formed the powerful kingdom of Kush from around 1000 BC to the 4th century AD. After the decline of Kush, various successor Nubian kingdoms were established as separate polities. Christianity arrived in the region around 500 AD, and Islam was gradually introduced into the north from the 7th century, influenced by close relationships between the Nubian kingdoms and Egypt. In the 16th century the Funj empire became the main power in in southern Nubia, lasting until invasion by Egypt in the early 19th century. In the late 19th century the Mahdist group resisted Egyptian forces and gained control of most of Sudan. The British eventually helped Egypt regain control, and Sudan became nominally a British-Egyptian concern, although in actuality governed mainly by Britain, from 1899 until independence in 1956.  
 
The area of present-day Sudan formed the powerful kingdom of Kush from around 1000 BC to the 4th century AD. After the decline of Kush, various successor Nubian kingdoms were established as separate polities. Christianity arrived in the region around 500 AD, and Islam was gradually introduced into the north from the 7th century, influenced by close relationships between the Nubian kingdoms and Egypt. In the 16th century the Funj empire became the main power in in southern Nubia, lasting until invasion by Egypt in the early 19th century. In the late 19th century the Mahdist group resisted Egyptian forces and gained control of most of Sudan. The British eventually helped Egypt regain control, and Sudan became nominally a British-Egyptian concern, although in actuality governed mainly by Britain, from 1899 until independence in 1956.  
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This section provides a summary of the geology of Sudan. More detail can be found in the references listed at the bottom of this page. Many of these references can be accessed through the [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/index.cfm Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].
 
This section provides a summary of the geology of Sudan. More detail can be found in the references listed at the bottom of this page. Many of these references can be accessed through the [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/index.cfm Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].
  
The geology maps on this page show a simplified overview of the geology at a national scale (see the [[Geology | Geology resource page]] for more details).  
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The geology map on this page shows a simplified overview of the geology at a national scale (see the [[Geology | Geology resource page]] for more details). Other published geological maps are listed in the Geology: Key references section, below.
  
[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html '''Download a GIS shapefile of the Sudan geology and hydrogeology map'''].
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[[File:Sudan_Geology3.png | center | thumb| 500px | Geology of Sudan at 1:5 million scale. Based on map described by Persits et al. 2002/Furon and Lombard 1964. For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geology | geology resource page]].]]
 
 
Other published geological maps are listed in the Geology: Key references section, below. In particular, a [https://esdac.jrc.ec.europa.eu/content/geological-map-sudan geological map of Sudan at 1:10 million scale] was published in 1981 and is available to download as a scanned image.
 
 
 
[[File:Sudan_UnconsolidatedGeology.png | 350 px | left| thumb| Unconsolidated (superficial) geology of Sudan at 1:5 million scale. Based on map described by Persits et al. 2002 / Furon and Lombard 1964. For more information on the dataset used to develop the map see the [[Geology | geology resource page]]. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html Download a GIS shapefile of the Sudan geology and hydrogeology map].]]
 
 
 
[[File:Sudan_Geology4.png | center | thumb| 500px | Geology of Sudan at 1:5 million scale. Based on map described by Persits et al. 2002 / Furon and Lombard 1964. For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geology | geology resource page]]. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html Download a GIS shapefile of the Sudan geology and hydrogeology map].]]
 
  
 
'''Summary'''
 
'''Summary'''
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During the Mesozoic, Nubian Sandstone deposits were laid down, preserved in basins within the basement and Palaeozoic rocks. Tectonic movements of the Rift system in the middle and late Tertiary led to the formation of vast structural basins, such as the Bara, Dinder and Baggara. A volcanic phase throughout the late Tertiary and into the early Quaternary produced the Jabel Mara and Meidobe basalts and the basaltic flows of the Bayoda desert and the Gedarif region.  
 
During the Mesozoic, Nubian Sandstone deposits were laid down, preserved in basins within the basement and Palaeozoic rocks. Tectonic movements of the Rift system in the middle and late Tertiary led to the formation of vast structural basins, such as the Bara, Dinder and Baggara. A volcanic phase throughout the late Tertiary and into the early Quaternary produced the Jabel Mara and Meidobe basalts and the basaltic flows of the Bayoda desert and the Gedarif region.  
  
In the Plio-Pleistocene period, these Tertiary basins became infilled with extensive and thick unconsolidated sediments, mostly alluvial and lacustrine deposits, including the Um Ruwaba formation (UN 1988). These now cover a large part of the country, overlying older bedrock aquifers. The main outcrops of unconsolidated sediments are shown on the separate map of unconsolidated geology, above.  
+
In the Plio-Pleistocene period, these Tertiary basins received thick alluvial and lacustrine deposits, of the Um Ruwaba formation (UN 1988).  
  
 
A major shear zone, the Central African Shear Zone, runs through the central part of Sudan.  
 
A major shear zone, the Central African Shear Zone, runs through the central part of Sudan.  
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||Horizontally to gently dipping beds.  
 
||Horizontally to gently dipping beds.  
 
|-
 
|-
!colspan="4"|Mesozoic Sedimentary
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!colspan="4"| Mesozoic Sedimentary Rocks - mainly Cretaceous
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Nubian Sandstone Formation
 
|Nubian Sandstone Formation
||Upper Jurassic to Lower Cenozoic (mainly Cretaceous)s
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||Upper Jurassic to Lower Cenozoic (mainly Cretaceous)
||The Nubian Sandstone is a major regional sedimentary sequence, formed from the Lower Palaeozoic to the Cretaceous. In Sudan, the Nubian Sandstone is mainly of Cretaceous age. It covers almost one third of Sudan. It mainly comprises horizontal or gently dipping, well stratified sandstones, with layers of conglomerate and siltstone (UN 1988). It is found in the Khartoum basin, Kufra basin, Atbara basin, Blue Nile basin, Gedaref basins, Sag Elnaam basin and in Darfur. In the Khartoum basin, it exceeds 3 km in thickness. In the south, it is overlain by thick unconsolidated sediments of the Um Ruwaba Formation, while in the rest of the country it outcrops in plateaus or sub-crops below variable thicknesses of unconsolidated surface cover (UN 1988).  
+
||The Nubian Sandstone covers almost one third of Sudan. It mainly comprises horizontal or gently dipping, well stratified sandstones, with layers of conglomerate and siltstone (UN 1988). It is found in the Khartoum basin, Kufra basin, Atbara basin, Blue Nile basin, Gedaref basins, Sag Elnaam basin and in Darfur. In the Khartoum basin, it exceeds 3 km in thickness. In the south, it is overlain by thick unconsolidated sediments of the Um Ruwaba Formation, while in the rest of the country it outcrops in plateaus or sub-crops below variable thicknesses of unconsolidated surface cover (UN 1988).  
 
||Major faults are recognised in the Nubian Sandstone, including the Jaulia fault. Sometimes these faults displace more than 2 km of sedimentary rocks.
 
||Major faults are recognised in the Nubian Sandstone, including the Jaulia fault. Sometimes these faults displace more than 2 km of sedimentary rocks.
 
|-
 
|-
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|Erde Ente, Nawa Formation, sedimentary rocks of NW Sudan
 
|Erde Ente, Nawa Formation, sedimentary rocks of NW Sudan
 
||Cambrian to Carboniferous
 
||Cambrian to Carboniferous
||Relatively small outcrops of unmetamorphosed sandstones of Palaeozoic age occur in the west of Sudan, along the Chad border.  
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||Outcrops of unmetamorphosed sandstones occur in the west of the country, along the Chad border.  
  
Argillaceous Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks overlie Precambrian basement in central Kordofan.  
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Argillaceous sedimentary strata overlie the basement complex in central Kordofan.  
  
Silurian strata, largely fluvial-deltaic sandstones, occur in northwestern Sudan (UN 1988).  
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Silurian deposits, alrgely fluvial-deltaic sandstones (UN 1988) occur in northwestern Sudan.  
  
 
Devonian and Carboniferous rocks, including the Nawa Formation, occur around Uweinat, Sudan. They consist mainly of sandstones with schists (UN 1988).  
 
Devonian and Carboniferous rocks, including the Nawa Formation, occur around Uweinat, Sudan. They consist mainly of sandstones with schists (UN 1988).  
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The hydrogeology map on this page shows a simplified overview of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | Hydrogeology map resource page]] for more details).  
 
The hydrogeology map on this page shows a simplified overview of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | Hydrogeology map resource page]] for more details).  
  
[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html '''Download a GIS shapefile of the Sudan geology and hydrogeology map'''].
 
  
 
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  [[File:Sudan_Hydrogeology3.png | center | thumb| 500px | Hydrogeology of Sudan at 1:5 million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | Hydrogeology map]] resource page]].
  [[File:Sudan_Hydrogeology4.png | center | thumb| 500px | Hydrogeology of Sudan at 1:5 million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | Hydrogeology map]] resource page. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html Download a GIS shapefile of the Sudan geology and hydrogeology map].]].
 
  
 
====Unconsolidated====
 
====Unconsolidated====
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
|Named Aquifers||Aquifer Productivity||General Description||Water quantity issues||Water quality issues||Recharge
+
|Aquifer Productivity||Named Aquifers and General Description||Water quantity issues||Water quality issues||Recharge
 
|-
 
|-
|
+
|Low to High Productivity
||Low to High Productivity
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||These unconsolidated sedimentary deposits consist of unconsolidated alluvial sands, silts, gravels and clays of Quaternary to Late Tertiary age, including the Gezira, Atshan and Gash formations. Aquifer properties are variable, depending largely on lithology, but where the alluvium is dominated by coarser grained deposits, can be high. The aquifers are typically unconfined. Water table depth ranges from 15 m to 40 m. Boreholes range between 30 m and 150 m deep.  
||Undifferentiated unconsolidated sediments include alluvium, aeolian sands, and coastal sediments. Aquifer properties are variable, depending largely on their lithology and thickness, as well as recharge and connectivity with surface waters. Relatively thick, coarse grained sediments can form highly productive local aquifers. These aquifers are typically unconfined.
 
||
 
||
 
||
 
|-
 
|Gezira, Atshan and Gash formations
 
||Low to High Productivity
 
||These unconsolidated sediments consist of alluvial sands, silts, gravels and clays of Quaternary to Late Tertiary age. Aquifer properties are variable, depending largely on lithology, but where the alluvium is dominated by coarser grained deposits, can be high. The aquifers are typically unconfined. Water table depth ranges from 15 m to 40 m. Boreholes range between 30 m and 150 m deep.  
 
  
 
The Gash aquifer is generally around 60 m thick. Transmissivity values of 1000 m²/day have been reported (UN 1988).  
 
The Gash aquifer is generally around 60 m thick. Transmissivity values of 1000 m²/day have been reported (UN 1988).  
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||During high flow periods, significant recharge to the Gezira and Atshan aquifers occurs by leakage from Blue and White Nile rivers ; and to the Gash aquifer from the Gash river.  
 
||During high flow periods, significant recharge to the Gezira and Atshan aquifers occurs by leakage from Blue and White Nile rivers ; and to the Gash aquifer from the Gash river.  
 
|-
 
|-
|Um Ruwaba Formation
+
|Low to Moderate Productivity  
||Low to Moderate Productivity  
 
 
||The Um Ruwaba Formation forms an unconsolidated aquifer that covers a large area, and is generally of low to moderate productivity. The properties of the aquifer vary depending largely on lithology. Yields are generally lower than from consolidated sedimentary aquifers in Sudan. The aquifer can be unconfined, or locally semi-confined where permeable layers occur below clay strata at depth (UN 1988). Water table depth ranges from 10 m to 150 m.  
 
||The Um Ruwaba Formation forms an unconsolidated aquifer that covers a large area, and is generally of low to moderate productivity. The properties of the aquifer vary depending largely on lithology. Yields are generally lower than from consolidated sedimentary aquifers in Sudan. The aquifer can be unconfined, or locally semi-confined where permeable layers occur below clay strata at depth (UN 1988). Water table depth ranges from 10 m to 150 m.  
  
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====Igneous Volcanic - Fractured Aquifer====
 
====Igneous Volcanic - Fractured Aquifer====
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
|Named Aquifers ||Aquifer Productivity||General Description||Water quantity issues||Water quality issues||Recharge
+
|Aquifer Productivity||Named Aquifers and General Description||Water quantity issues||Water quality issues||Recharge
 
|-
 
|-
|Gedaref basalts, Jebel Mara volcanics
+
| Very Low to High Productivity
||Very Low to High Productivity
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||These aquifers include the Gedaref basalts and Jebel Mara volcanics. Groundwater occurs in fractured and weathered zones. They form variably thick and variably productive aquifers depending on the degree of permeability developed by fracture and weathering, from a few metres to several hundreds of metres thick, and from very low to high aquifer productivity. The aquifers are typically unconfined. Boreholes abstracting water from the aquifer range from 10 m to 300 m deep.
||Groundwater in these volcanic rock aquifers occurs in fractured and weathered zones. They form variably thick and variably productive aquifers depending on the degree of permeability developed by fracture and weathering, from a few metres to several hundreds of metres thick, and from very low to high aquifer productivity. The aquifers are typically unconfined. Boreholes abstracting water from the aquifer range from 10 m to 300 m deep.
 
 
||
 
||
 
||Groundwater quality is typically fresh in shallow zones to brackish in deeper aquifer zones.  
 
||Groundwater quality is typically fresh in shallow zones to brackish in deeper aquifer zones.  
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==== Consolidated Sedimentary - Intergranular & Fracture Flow====
 
==== Consolidated Sedimentary - Intergranular & Fracture Flow====
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
|Named Aquifers||Aquifer Productivity||General Description||Water quantity issues||Water quality issues||Recharge
+
|Aquifer Productivity||Named Aquifers and General Description||Water quantity issues||Water quality issues||Recharge
 
|-
 
|-
|Red Sea coastal/littoral
+
|Low to Moderate Productivity
||Low to Moderate Productivity
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||This group is the Red Sea coastal/littoral relatively consolidated marine sediments, sedimentary rocks that occur in a thin strip along the Red Sea coast. These are relatively consolidated marine sediments, including coral limestones. Aquifer permeability and storage is low. The saturated thickness of the aquifers is typically 5 m to 20 m, although the total thickness of the geological unit can exceed 1000 m. The aquifer is unconfined and the water table typically between 10 m and 30 m below the ground surface. Boreholes are generally between 10 m and 50 m deep.
||The Red Sea coastal/littoral aquifer comprises relatively consolidated marine sedimentary rocks that occur in a thin strip along the Red Sea coast, including coral limestones. Aquifer permeability and storage is low. The saturated thickness of the aquifers is typically 5 m to 20 m, although the total thickness of the geological unit can exceed 1000 m. The aquifer is unconfined and the water table typically between 10 m and 30 m below the ground surface. Boreholes are generally between 10 m and 50 m deep.
 
 
||
 
||
 
||Water quality is generally brackish.
 
||Water quality is generally brackish.
 
||Recharge is low.
 
||Recharge is low.
 +
 
|-
 
|-
|Nubian Sandstone Formation
+
|Low to Moderate Productivity
||Low to High Productivity
+
||This group includes all the small outcrops of Palaeozic sedimentary rocks in western Sudan. They do not form major aquifers, and little is known about them. Aquifer productivity is likely to be low and groundwater flow and storage only through fractures.
 +
||
 +
||
 +
||
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
==== Consolidated Sedimentary - Intergranular Flow: Nubian Sandstone Aquifer====
 +
{| class = "wikitable"
 +
|Aquifer Productivity||Named Aquifers and General Description||Water quantity issues||Water quality issues||Recharge
 +
|-
 +
|Low to High Productivity
 
||The Nubian Sandstone Formation is a major regional aquifer. The water-bearing sandstone strata have relatively high intergranular permeability and storage. Aquifer thickness ranges from 100 m to 2000 m. Transmissivity values generally range from 100 to 300 m²/day, although values of between 35 and 1500 m²/day have been recorded (UN 1988). Specific yield ranges from 0.01 to 0.2, and storage coefficient from 10<sup>-3</sup> to 10<sup>-4</sup>. The aquifer is semi confined to confined. In some cases, groundwater was traditionally discharged via springs. Piezometric (potentiometric) groundwater head varies from 6 m below ground surface at Wadi Howar to 100 m deep at Baggara Basin. Boreholes are generally between 40 m and 400 m deep. Recorded borehole yields are between a few m³/hour to 400 m³/hour.  
 
||The Nubian Sandstone Formation is a major regional aquifer. The water-bearing sandstone strata have relatively high intergranular permeability and storage. Aquifer thickness ranges from 100 m to 2000 m. Transmissivity values generally range from 100 to 300 m²/day, although values of between 35 and 1500 m²/day have been recorded (UN 1988). Specific yield ranges from 0.01 to 0.2, and storage coefficient from 10<sup>-3</sup> to 10<sup>-4</sup>. The aquifer is semi confined to confined. In some cases, groundwater was traditionally discharged via springs. Piezometric (potentiometric) groundwater head varies from 6 m below ground surface at Wadi Howar to 100 m deep at Baggara Basin. Boreholes are generally between 40 m and 400 m deep. Recorded borehole yields are between a few m³/hour to 400 m³/hour.  
  
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||Groundwater quality is generally fresh, although salinity increases down-gradient and there are local pockets of higher salinity.  
 
||Groundwater quality is generally fresh, although salinity increases down-gradient and there are local pockets of higher salinity.  
 
||Recharge occurs by  direct rainfall infiltration and via wadi runoff, and occasionally via leakage from the Nile rivers. Annual recharge to the Baggara basin is estimated at 30 million m³, and to the Bara basin esatimated at 15 million m³.
 
||Recharge occurs by  direct rainfall infiltration and via wadi runoff, and occasionally via leakage from the Nile rivers. Annual recharge to the Baggara basin is estimated at 30 million m³, and to the Bara basin esatimated at 15 million m³.
|-
 
|
 
||Low to Moderate Productivity
 
||This group includes all the small outcrops of Palaeozic sedimentary rocks in western Sudan. They do not form major aquifers, and little is known about them. Aquifer productivity is likely to be low and groundwater flow and storage only through fractures.
 
||
 
||
 
||
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
 
====Basement====
 
====Basement====
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
|Named Aquifers| Aquifer Productivity||General Description||Water quantity issues||Water quality issues||Recharge
+
|Aquifer Productivity||Named Aquifers and General Description||Water quantity issues||Water quality issues||Recharge
 
|-
 
|-
|
+
|Low Productivity
||Low Productivity
 
 
||Groundwater occurs in fractures and/or in shallow weathered zones in Precambrian bedrock, where permeability has been increased. These aquifer zones are typically between 5 m and 20 m thick, but can be thicker. Water table depths range from 4 m to 60 m depth, and groundwater is typically unconfined. Abstraction boreholes range from 10 m to 70 m, and borehole yields are generally low.  
 
||Groundwater occurs in fractures and/or in shallow weathered zones in Precambrian bedrock, where permeability has been increased. These aquifer zones are typically between 5 m and 20 m thick, but can be thicker. Water table depths range from 4 m to 60 m depth, and groundwater is typically unconfined. Abstraction boreholes range from 10 m to 70 m, and borehole yields are generally low.  
 
||The fractured/weathered aquifers have low storage potential and do not contain large amounts of groundwater.
 
||The fractured/weathered aquifers have low storage potential and do not contain large amounts of groundwater.
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The following references provide more information on the geology and hydrogeology of Sudan.
 
The following references provide more information on the geology and hydrogeology of Sudan.
 +
Others can be accessed through the [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=listResults&title_search=&author_search=&category_search=&country_search=SD&placeboolean=AND&singlecountry=1 Africa Groundwater Literature Archive]
  
Some of these, and others, can be accessed through the Sudan country page of the [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=listResults&title_search=&author_search=&category_search=&country_search=SD&placeboolean=AND&singlecountry=1 '''Africa Groundwater Literature Archive'''].
+
===Geology: key references===
  
===Geology===
+
''Maps:''
  
''Maps''
+
GRAS (Geological Research Authority of the Sudan). 1964. Geological  map of Sudan. Scale 1:10,000,000
  
GRAS (Geological Research Authority of the Sudan). 1981. [https://esdac.jrc.ec.europa.eu/content/geological-map-sudan Geological map of Sudan]. Scale 1:10,000,000
+
GRAS (Geological Research Authority of the Sudan). 1980. Geological map of Sudan. Scale 1:5,000,000
  
GRAS (Geological Research Authority of the Sudan). 1980. Geological map of Sudan. Scale 1:5,000,000
+
Robertson Research Institute. 1981. Geological map of Sudan, Scale 1:1,000,000  
  
 
Vail, jr. 1971. Geological  map of Sudan. Scale 1:2,000,000
 
Vail, jr. 1971. Geological  map of Sudan. Scale 1:2,000,000
 +
 +
GRAS (Geological Research Authority of the Sudan). 2005. Geological map of Sudan.
  
 
SFB. 1991. Geological map of Northern Sudan.
 
SFB. 1991. Geological map of Northern Sudan.
  
''Documents''
+
===Hydrogeology: key references===
  
Schlüter T. 2006. [http://www.geokniga.org/bookfiles/geokniga-geological-atlas-africa.pdf Geological Atlas of Africa]. Springer, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York.
+
''Most of the following are MSc theses from the University of Khartoum and can be accessed through the university.''
 
 
Worrell GA. 1957. [https://www.jstor.org/stable/41710729 A simple introduction to the geology of the Sudan]. Sudan Notes and Records, Vol. 38, pp 2-9. University of Khartoum.
 
 
 
===Hydrogeology===
 
  
 
More information on groundwater is also available from the Ministry of Irrigation and Ministry of Dams.
 
More information on groundwater is also available from the Ministry of Irrigation and Ministry of Dams.
  
''General''
 
 
ACSAD. 1987. Hydrogeological Investigations of the Nubian Sandstone Formation (Lower Atbara Basin) Sudan
 
ACSAD-BGS-NAW, Damascus.
 
 
Adam A, Kotoub S, Rasoul AW and Beidoun A. 1987. Geoelectrical Investigation of the Nubian Sandstone Formation (Lower Atbara Basin) Sudan. ACSAD-BGS-NAW, Damascus.
 
 
Ahmed FD and Abu Sin MD. 1982. Water supply problems in the Butana Teion-Central Sudan with special emphasis on Jebel Qeili area: a study in semi-arid resource use. Geojournal 6 (1).
 
 
Almond DC. 1980. [https://doi.org/10.1016/0301-9268(80)90058-3 Precambrian events at Sabaloka, near Khartoum, and their significance in the chronology of the basement complex of North-East Africa]. Precambrian Res. 13, 43-62. doi: 10.1016/0301-9268(80)90058-3
 
 
Darling WG, Edmunds WM, Kinniburgh DG and Kotoub S. Sources of recharge to the Basal Nubian sandstone aquifer, Butana region, Sudan. IAEA (Ed.), Isotope Techniques in Water Resources Development, IAEA, Vienna.
 
 
Edmunds WM, Darling WG, Kinniburgh DG, Katoub A and Mahgoub S. 1992. [https://ac.els-cdn.com/002216949290211D/1-s2.0-002216949290211D-main.pdf?_tid=7e49aafe-962b-4b84-8eb5-b9d34fb987dd&acdnat=1552989526_d9eb50da45230a5c2a8c442f8935b8b4 Sources of recharge at Abu Delaig, Sudan]. J. Hydrol., 131, 1-24
 
 
Edmunds WM, Darling WG and Kinniburgh DG. 1987. [http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/id/eprint/505568/ Estimation of Aquifer Recharge Using Geochemical Techniques: Final Report of the Lower Atbara River Basin Project]. British Geological Survey Report WD/OS/87/001
 
 
Farah EA, Mustafa EMA, and Kumai H. [https://doi.org/10.1007/s002540050479 Sources of groundwater recharge at the confluence of the Niles, Sudan]. Environ. Geol., 39 (6), 667-672. doi: 10.1007/s002540050479
 
 
Klitsch, Sonntag, Weistroffer and Elshazely. 1976. Grundwasser der zentralsahara Fossile vorraete.
 
Geol.Rdsch, 65, 264-287, Stuttgart.
 
 
Kotoub S. 1986. Groundwater Resources Investigation in Lower Atbara Basin in Sudan. Hydrogeology. ACSAD: Joint ACSAD-BGS-NAW Technical Report.
 
 
Lanzoni M. 2012. Groundwater Use in Sudan: Is Groundwater Use Sustainable? a Re-examination of Aquifer Storage, Consumption, and Recharge in Abu Deleig. MSc Thesis, University of Oxford
 
 
Lanzoni M, Darling WG and Edmunds WM. 2018. [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeochem.2018.10.020 Groundwater in Sudan: An improved understanding of wadi-directed recharge]. Applied Geochemistry 99, 55-64. doi: 10.1016/j.apgeochem.2018.10.020
 
 
Omer AM. 2008. [https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032107000056 Water resources and freshwater ecosystems in Sudan]. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 12(8), 2066-2091.
 
 
Ragab ER, Mustafa E and Adam OA. 1983. Groundwater investigation Elseleim and Al Khawi basin project, Northern State, Sudan. Ground water Administration unpublished report.
 
 
Saeed EM. 1976. Hydrogeology of Khartoum province and northern Gezira. Bull no. 29, Geological Research Authority, Khartoum.
 
 
Tear Fund / GAD Consult. A Geophysical study for siting water wells at Abu Hadid Region in Eastern Darfur State.
 
 
United Nations. 1988. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060049 Groundwater in North and West Africa: Sudan]. United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development and Economic Commission for Africa/Natural Resources/Water Series No. 18, ST/TCD/5.
 
 
 
''University Theses - PhD, MSc or BSc''
 
 
Most of these were completed at the University of Khartoum and can be accessed through the university.
 
  
 
Adam HAM. 2007. Assessment of Ground Water Quality in Khartoum and Khartoum North. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum  
 
Adam HAM. 2007. Assessment of Ground Water Quality in Khartoum and Khartoum North. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum  
 
Adam NEHA. 2010. An Integrated Approach of Hydrological and Geophysical Exploration in Abu Deleig Area Sudan. BSc Honours Thesis, Al Neelain University, Sudan.
 
  
 
Al Haj MMI. 2014. Determination and Removal of Nitrates from Ground Water of Kassala Town - Sudan. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum  
 
Al Haj MMI. 2014. Determination and Removal of Nitrates from Ground Water of Kassala Town - Sudan. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum  
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Kheir OM. 1981. Contribution to the hydrogeology of the Gefaref Basin, Eastern Sudan. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum
 
Kheir OM. 1981. Contribution to the hydrogeology of the Gefaref Basin, Eastern Sudan. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum
  
Kheiralla MK. 1966. A Study of the Nubian Sandstone Formation of the Nile Valley between Lat. 14 N and 17 42' N, with Reference to Groundwater Geology. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum
+
Klitsch, Sonntag, Weistroffer and Elshazely. 1976. Grundwasser der zentralsahara Fossile vorraete.  
 +
Geol.Rdsch, 65, 264-287, Stuttgart.
  
 
Magboul AB. 1993. Hydrogeology of the Northern Gezira Area (Central Sudan). MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum
 
Magboul AB. 1993. Hydrogeology of the Northern Gezira Area (Central Sudan). MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum
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Mukhtar IAH. 2000. Impact of Urbanization and Land-Use on Quality of Ground Water for Drinking Use Nitrate Content as Indicator. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum
 
Mukhtar IAH. 2000. Impact of Urbanization and Land-Use on Quality of Ground Water for Drinking Use Nitrate Content as Indicator. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum
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Omer AM. 2008. [https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032107000056 Water resources and freshwater ecosystems in Sudan]. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 12(8), 2066-2091.
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Ragab ER, Mustafa E and Adam OA. 1983. Groundwater investigation Elseleim and Al Khawi basin project, Northern State, Sudan. Ground water Administration unpublished report.
  
 
Rahman HIAA. 2009. Groundwater Management of Wadi Nyala Using Visual Modflow Model. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum
 
Rahman HIAA. 2009. Groundwater Management of Wadi Nyala Using Visual Modflow Model. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum
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Rodwan Rashid A. 2000. Hydrogeology of the area between Kamlin and El Masid, east of the Blue Nile. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum
 
Rodwan Rashid A. 2000. Hydrogeology of the area between Kamlin and El Masid, east of the Blue Nile. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum
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Saeed EM. 1976. Hydrogeology of Khartoum province and northern Gezira. Bull no. 29, Geological Research Authority, Khartoum.
  
 
Sheriff YA. 1993. An Investigation Into the Principal Causes of Groundwater Depletion at Wadi El Bangadeed, El Obeid Area, Kordofan State. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum  
 
Sheriff YA. 1993. An Investigation Into the Principal Causes of Groundwater Depletion at Wadi El Bangadeed, El Obeid Area, Kordofan State. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum  
Line 570: Line 515:
 
Suluiaman OASI. 2014. Groundwater Assessment in the State of Khartoum Using Water Quality Index. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum
 
Suluiaman OASI. 2014. Groundwater Assessment in the State of Khartoum Using Water Quality Index. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum
  
El Tahir SEM. 2003. Groundwater As a Source Of Water Supply in Eastern Khartoum State: Geological Control and Quality Constraints. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum  
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Tayall AM. 1995. Ground water hydrogeology east of Sennar. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum
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Tear Fund / GAD Consult. A Geophysical study for siting water wells at Abu Hadid Region in Eastern Darfur State.
  
Tayall AM. 1995. Ground water hydrogeology east of Sennar. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum
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United Nations. 1988. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060049 Groundwater in North and West Africa: Sudan]. United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development and Economic Commission for Africa/Natural Resources/Water Series No. 18, ST/TCD/5.
  
 
Wani NHO. 1994. A Study on Groundwater Quality in the Eastern Bank of the White Nile - Khartoum State - Sudan. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum  
 
Wani NHO. 1994. A Study on Groundwater Quality in the Eastern Bank of the White Nile - Khartoum State - Sudan. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum  
  
Yousif TYM. 2002. Ground water quality and pollution in Sinnar State, Sudan. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum
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Yousif TYM. 2002. Ground water quality and pollution in Sinnar State, Sudan. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum  
 
 
  
  
Return to::
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==Return to the index pages==
[[Overview of Africa Groundwater Atlas | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]]  
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[[Overview of Africa Groundwater Atlas | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Sudan
  
  

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