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[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Sudan
 
[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Sudan
  
[[File:CC-BY-SA_logo_88x31.png | frame | This work is licensed under a [https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License]]]
 
  
 
The area of present-day Sudan formed the powerful kingdom of Kush from around 1000 BC to the 4th century AD. After the decline of Kush, various successor Nubian kingdoms were established as separate polities. Christianity arrived in the region around 500 AD, and Islam was gradually introduced into the north from the 7th century, influenced by close relationships between the Nubian kingdoms and Egypt. In the 16th century the Funj empire became the main power in in southern Nubia, lasting until invasion by Egypt in the early 19th century. In the late 19th century the Mahdist group resisted Egyptian forces and gained control of most of Sudan. The British eventually helped Egypt regain control, and Sudan became nominally a British-Egyptian concern, although in actuality governed mainly by Britain, from 1899 until independence in 1956.  
 
The area of present-day Sudan formed the powerful kingdom of Kush from around 1000 BC to the 4th century AD. After the decline of Kush, various successor Nubian kingdoms were established as separate polities. Christianity arrived in the region around 500 AD, and Islam was gradually introduced into the north from the 7th century, influenced by close relationships between the Nubian kingdoms and Egypt. In the 16th century the Funj empire became the main power in in southern Nubia, lasting until invasion by Egypt in the early 19th century. In the late 19th century the Mahdist group resisted Egyptian forces and gained control of most of Sudan. The British eventually helped Egypt regain control, and Sudan became nominally a British-Egyptian concern, although in actuality governed mainly by Britain, from 1899 until independence in 1956.  
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This section provides a summary of the geology of Sudan. More detail can be found in the references listed at the bottom of this page. Many of these references can be accessed through the [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/index.cfm Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].
 
This section provides a summary of the geology of Sudan. More detail can be found in the references listed at the bottom of this page. Many of these references can be accessed through the [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/index.cfm Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].
  
The geology maps on this page show a simplified overview of the geology at a national scale (see the [[Geology | Geology resource page]] for more details).  
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The geology map on this page shows a simplified overview of the geology at a national scale (see the [[Geology | Geology resource page]] for more details). Other published geological maps are listed in the Geology: Key references section, below.
  
[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html '''Download a GIS shapefile of the Sudan geology and hydrogeology map'''].
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A [https://esdac.jrc.ec.europa.eu/content/geological-map-sudan geological map of Sudan at 1:10 million scale] was published in 1981 and is available to download as a scanned image.  
  
Other published geological maps are listed in the Geology: Key references section, below. In particular, a [https://esdac.jrc.ec.europa.eu/content/geological-map-sudan geological map of Sudan at 1:10 million scale] was published in 1981 and is available to download as a scanned image.
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[[File:Sudan_Geology3.png | center | thumb| 500px | Geology of Sudan at 1:5 million scale. Based on map described by Persits et al. 2002/Furon and Lombard 1964. For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geology | geology resource page]].]]
 
 
[[File:Sudan_UnconsolidatedGeology.png | 350 px | left| thumb| Unconsolidated (superficial) geology of Sudan at 1:5 million scale. Based on map described by Persits et al. 2002 / Furon and Lombard 1964. For more information on the dataset used to develop the map see the [[Geology | geology resource page]]. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html Download a GIS shapefile of the Sudan geology and hydrogeology map].]]
 
 
 
[[File:Sudan_Geology4.png | center | thumb| 500px | Geology of Sudan at 1:5 million scale. Based on map described by Persits et al. 2002 / Furon and Lombard 1964. For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geology | geology resource page]]. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html Download a GIS shapefile of the Sudan geology and hydrogeology map].]]
 
  
 
'''Summary'''
 
'''Summary'''
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During the Mesozoic, Nubian Sandstone deposits were laid down, preserved in basins within the basement and Palaeozoic rocks. Tectonic movements of the Rift system in the middle and late Tertiary led to the formation of vast structural basins, such as the Bara, Dinder and Baggara. A volcanic phase throughout the late Tertiary and into the early Quaternary produced the Jabel Mara and Meidobe basalts and the basaltic flows of the Bayoda desert and the Gedarif region.  
 
During the Mesozoic, Nubian Sandstone deposits were laid down, preserved in basins within the basement and Palaeozoic rocks. Tectonic movements of the Rift system in the middle and late Tertiary led to the formation of vast structural basins, such as the Bara, Dinder and Baggara. A volcanic phase throughout the late Tertiary and into the early Quaternary produced the Jabel Mara and Meidobe basalts and the basaltic flows of the Bayoda desert and the Gedarif region.  
  
In the Plio-Pleistocene period, these Tertiary basins became infilled with extensive and thick unconsolidated sediments, mostly alluvial and lacustrine deposits, including the Um Ruwaba formation (UN 1988). These now cover a large part of the country, overlying older bedrock aquifers. The main outcrops of unconsolidated sediments are shown on the separate map of unconsolidated geology, above.  
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In the Plio-Pleistocene period, these Tertiary basins received thick alluvial and lacustrine deposits, of the Um Ruwaba formation (UN 1988).  
  
 
A major shear zone, the Central African Shear Zone, runs through the central part of Sudan.  
 
A major shear zone, the Central African Shear Zone, runs through the central part of Sudan.  
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|Erde Ente, Nawa Formation, sedimentary rocks of NW Sudan
 
|Erde Ente, Nawa Formation, sedimentary rocks of NW Sudan
 
||Cambrian to Carboniferous
 
||Cambrian to Carboniferous
||Relatively small outcrops of unmetamorphosed sandstones of Palaeozoic age occur in the west of Sudan, along the Chad border.  
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||Outcrops of unmetamorphosed sandstones occur in the west of the country, along the Chad border.  
  
Argillaceous Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks overlie Precambrian basement in central Kordofan.  
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Argillaceous sedimentary strata overlie the basement complex in central Kordofan.  
  
Silurian strata, largely fluvial-deltaic sandstones, occur in northwestern Sudan (UN 1988).  
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Silurian deposits, alrgely fluvial-deltaic sandstones (UN 1988) occur in northwestern Sudan.  
  
 
Devonian and Carboniferous rocks, including the Nawa Formation, occur around Uweinat, Sudan. They consist mainly of sandstones with schists (UN 1988).  
 
Devonian and Carboniferous rocks, including the Nawa Formation, occur around Uweinat, Sudan. They consist mainly of sandstones with schists (UN 1988).  
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The hydrogeology map on this page shows a simplified overview of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | Hydrogeology map resource page]] for more details).  
 
The hydrogeology map on this page shows a simplified overview of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | Hydrogeology map resource page]] for more details).  
  
[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html '''Download a GIS shapefile of the Sudan geology and hydrogeology map'''].
 
  
 
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  [[File:Sudan_Hydrogeology3.png | center | thumb| 500px | Hydrogeology of Sudan at 1:5 million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | Hydrogeology map]] resource page]].
  [[File:Sudan_Hydrogeology4.png | center | thumb| 500px | Hydrogeology of Sudan at 1:5 million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | Hydrogeology map]] resource page. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html Download a GIS shapefile of the Sudan geology and hydrogeology map].]].
 
  
 
====Unconsolidated====
 
====Unconsolidated====
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||Water quality is generally brackish.
 
||Water quality is generally brackish.
 
||Recharge is low.
 
||Recharge is low.
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|-
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|
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||Low to Moderate Productivity
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||This group includes all the small outcrops of Palaeozic sedimentary rocks in western Sudan. They do not form major aquifers, and little is known about them. Aquifer productivity is likely to be low and groundwater flow and storage only through fractures.
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|}
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==== Consolidated Sedimentary - Intergranular Flow: Nubian Sandstone Aquifer====
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{| class = "wikitable"
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|Named Aquifers||Aquifer Productivity||General Description||Water quantity issues||Water quality issues||Recharge
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Nubian Sandstone Formation
 
|Nubian Sandstone Formation
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||Groundwater quality is generally fresh, although salinity increases down-gradient and there are local pockets of higher salinity.  
 
||Groundwater quality is generally fresh, although salinity increases down-gradient and there are local pockets of higher salinity.  
 
||Recharge occurs by  direct rainfall infiltration and via wadi runoff, and occasionally via leakage from the Nile rivers. Annual recharge to the Baggara basin is estimated at 30 million m³, and to the Bara basin esatimated at 15 million m³.
 
||Recharge occurs by  direct rainfall infiltration and via wadi runoff, and occasionally via leakage from the Nile rivers. Annual recharge to the Baggara basin is estimated at 30 million m³, and to the Bara basin esatimated at 15 million m³.
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|
 
||Low to Moderate Productivity
 
||This group includes all the small outcrops of Palaeozic sedimentary rocks in western Sudan. They do not form major aquifers, and little is known about them. Aquifer productivity is likely to be low and groundwater flow and storage only through fractures.
 
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The following references provide more information on the geology and hydrogeology of Sudan.
 
The following references provide more information on the geology and hydrogeology of Sudan.
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Some of these, and others can be accessed through the [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=listResults&title_search=&author_search=&category_search=&country_search=SD&placeboolean=AND&singlecountry=1 Africa Groundwater Literature Archive]
  
Some of these, and others, can be accessed through the Sudan country page of the [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=listResults&title_search=&author_search=&category_search=&country_search=SD&placeboolean=AND&singlecountry=1 '''Africa Groundwater Literature Archive'''].
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===Geology: key references===
 
 
===Geology===
 
  
''Maps''
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''Maps:''
  
 
GRAS (Geological Research Authority of the Sudan). 1981. [https://esdac.jrc.ec.europa.eu/content/geological-map-sudan Geological  map of Sudan]. Scale 1:10,000,000
 
GRAS (Geological Research Authority of the Sudan). 1981. [https://esdac.jrc.ec.europa.eu/content/geological-map-sudan Geological  map of Sudan]. Scale 1:10,000,000
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Worrell GA. 1957. [https://www.jstor.org/stable/41710729 A simple introduction to the geology of the Sudan]. Sudan Notes and Records, Vol. 38, pp 2-9. University of Khartoum.
 
Worrell GA. 1957. [https://www.jstor.org/stable/41710729 A simple introduction to the geology of the Sudan]. Sudan Notes and Records, Vol. 38, pp 2-9. University of Khartoum.
  
===Hydrogeology===
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===Hydrogeology: key references===
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''Most of the following are MSc theses from the University of Khartoum and can be accessed through the university.''
  
 
More information on groundwater is also available from the Ministry of Irrigation and Ministry of Dams.
 
More information on groundwater is also available from the Ministry of Irrigation and Ministry of Dams.
  
''General''
 
 
ACSAD. 1987. Hydrogeological Investigations of the Nubian Sandstone Formation (Lower Atbara Basin) Sudan
 
ACSAD-BGS-NAW, Damascus.
 
 
Adam A, Kotoub S, Rasoul AW and Beidoun A. 1987. Geoelectrical Investigation of the Nubian Sandstone Formation (Lower Atbara Basin) Sudan. ACSAD-BGS-NAW, Damascus.
 
 
Ahmed FD and Abu Sin MD. 1982. Water supply problems in the Butana Teion-Central Sudan with special emphasis on Jebel Qeili area: a study in semi-arid resource use. Geojournal 6 (1).
 
 
Almond DC. 1980. [https://doi.org/10.1016/0301-9268(80)90058-3 Precambrian events at Sabaloka, near Khartoum, and their significance in the chronology of the basement complex of North-East Africa]. Precambrian Res. 13, 43-62. doi: 10.1016/0301-9268(80)90058-3
 
 
Darling WG, Edmunds WM, Kinniburgh DG and Kotoub S. Sources of recharge to the Basal Nubian sandstone aquifer, Butana region, Sudan. IAEA (Ed.), Isotope Techniques in Water Resources Development, IAEA, Vienna.
 
 
Edmunds WM, Darling WG, Kinniburgh DG, Katoub A and Mahgoub S. 1992. [https://ac.els-cdn.com/002216949290211D/1-s2.0-002216949290211D-main.pdf?_tid=7e49aafe-962b-4b84-8eb5-b9d34fb987dd&acdnat=1552989526_d9eb50da45230a5c2a8c442f8935b8b4 Sources of recharge at Abu Delaig, Sudan]. J. Hydrol., 131, 1-24
 
 
Edmunds WM, Darling WG and Kinniburgh DG. 1987. [http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/id/eprint/505568/ Estimation of Aquifer Recharge Using Geochemical Techniques: Final Report of the Lower Atbara River Basin Project]. British Geological Survey Report WD/OS/87/001
 
 
Farah EA, Mustafa EMA, and Kumai H. [https://doi.org/10.1007/s002540050479 Sources of groundwater recharge at the confluence of the Niles, Sudan]. Environ. Geol., 39 (6), 667-672. doi: 10.1007/s002540050479
 
 
Klitsch, Sonntag, Weistroffer and Elshazely. 1976. Grundwasser der zentralsahara Fossile vorraete.
 
Geol.Rdsch, 65, 264-287, Stuttgart.
 
 
Kotoub S. 1986. Groundwater Resources Investigation in Lower Atbara Basin in Sudan. Hydrogeology. ACSAD: Joint ACSAD-BGS-NAW Technical Report.
 
 
Lanzoni M. 2012. Groundwater Use in Sudan: Is Groundwater Use Sustainable? a Re-examination of Aquifer Storage, Consumption, and Recharge in Abu Deleig. MSc Thesis, University of Oxford
 
 
Lanzoni M, Darling WG and Edmunds WM. 2018. [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeochem.2018.10.020 Groundwater in Sudan: An improved understanding of wadi-directed recharge]. Applied Geochemistry 99, 55-64. doi: 10.1016/j.apgeochem.2018.10.020
 
 
Omer AM. 2008. [https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032107000056 Water resources and freshwater ecosystems in Sudan]. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 12(8), 2066-2091.
 
 
Ragab ER, Mustafa E and Adam OA. 1983. Groundwater investigation Elseleim and Al Khawi basin project, Northern State, Sudan. Ground water Administration unpublished report.
 
 
Saeed EM. 1976. Hydrogeology of Khartoum province and northern Gezira. Bull no. 29, Geological Research Authority, Khartoum.
 
 
Tear Fund / GAD Consult. A Geophysical study for siting water wells at Abu Hadid Region in Eastern Darfur State.
 
 
United Nations. 1988. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060049 Groundwater in North and West Africa: Sudan]. United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development and Economic Commission for Africa/Natural Resources/Water Series No. 18, ST/TCD/5.
 
 
 
''University Theses - PhD, MSc or BSc''
 
 
Most of these were completed at the University of Khartoum and can be accessed through the university.
 
  
 
Adam HAM. 2007. Assessment of Ground Water Quality in Khartoum and Khartoum North. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum  
 
Adam HAM. 2007. Assessment of Ground Water Quality in Khartoum and Khartoum North. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum  
 
Adam NEHA. 2010. An Integrated Approach of Hydrological and Geophysical Exploration in Abu Deleig Area Sudan. BSc Honours Thesis, Al Neelain University, Sudan.
 
  
 
Al Haj MMI. 2014. Determination and Removal of Nitrates from Ground Water of Kassala Town - Sudan. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum  
 
Al Haj MMI. 2014. Determination and Removal of Nitrates from Ground Water of Kassala Town - Sudan. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum  
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Kheir OM. 1981. Contribution to the hydrogeology of the Gefaref Basin, Eastern Sudan. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum
 
Kheir OM. 1981. Contribution to the hydrogeology of the Gefaref Basin, Eastern Sudan. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum
  
Kheiralla MK. 1966. A Study of the Nubian Sandstone Formation of the Nile Valley between Lat. 14 N and 17 42' N, with Reference to Groundwater Geology. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum
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Klitsch, Sonntag, Weistroffer and Elshazely. 1976. Grundwasser der zentralsahara Fossile vorraete.  
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Geol.Rdsch, 65, 264-287, Stuttgart.
  
 
Magboul AB. 1993. Hydrogeology of the Northern Gezira Area (Central Sudan). MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum
 
Magboul AB. 1993. Hydrogeology of the Northern Gezira Area (Central Sudan). MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum
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Mukhtar IAH. 2000. Impact of Urbanization and Land-Use on Quality of Ground Water for Drinking Use Nitrate Content as Indicator. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum
 
Mukhtar IAH. 2000. Impact of Urbanization and Land-Use on Quality of Ground Water for Drinking Use Nitrate Content as Indicator. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum
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Omer AM. 2008. [https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032107000056 Water resources and freshwater ecosystems in Sudan]. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 12(8), 2066-2091.
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Ragab ER, Mustafa E and Adam OA. 1983. Groundwater investigation Elseleim and Al Khawi basin project, Northern State, Sudan. Ground water Administration unpublished report.
  
 
Rahman HIAA. 2009. Groundwater Management of Wadi Nyala Using Visual Modflow Model. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum
 
Rahman HIAA. 2009. Groundwater Management of Wadi Nyala Using Visual Modflow Model. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum
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Rodwan Rashid A. 2000. Hydrogeology of the area between Kamlin and El Masid, east of the Blue Nile. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum
 
Rodwan Rashid A. 2000. Hydrogeology of the area between Kamlin and El Masid, east of the Blue Nile. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum
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Saeed EM. 1976. Hydrogeology of Khartoum province and northern Gezira. Bull no. 29, Geological Research Authority, Khartoum.
  
 
Sheriff YA. 1993. An Investigation Into the Principal Causes of Groundwater Depletion at Wadi El Bangadeed, El Obeid Area, Kordofan State. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum  
 
Sheriff YA. 1993. An Investigation Into the Principal Causes of Groundwater Depletion at Wadi El Bangadeed, El Obeid Area, Kordofan State. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum  
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Suluiaman OASI. 2014. Groundwater Assessment in the State of Khartoum Using Water Quality Index. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum
 
Suluiaman OASI. 2014. Groundwater Assessment in the State of Khartoum Using Water Quality Index. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum
  
El Tahir SEM. 2003. Groundwater As a Source Of Water Supply in Eastern Khartoum State: Geological Control and Quality Constraints. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum  
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Tayall AM. 1995. Ground water hydrogeology east of Sennar. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum
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Tear Fund / GAD Consult. A Geophysical study for siting water wells at Abu Hadid Region in Eastern Darfur State.
  
Tayall AM. 1995. Ground water hydrogeology east of Sennar. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum
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United Nations. 1988. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060049 Groundwater in North and West Africa: Sudan]. United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development and Economic Commission for Africa/Natural Resources/Water Series No. 18, ST/TCD/5.
  
 
Wani NHO. 1994. A Study on Groundwater Quality in the Eastern Bank of the White Nile - Khartoum State - Sudan. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum  
 
Wani NHO. 1994. A Study on Groundwater Quality in the Eastern Bank of the White Nile - Khartoum State - Sudan. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum  
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Yousif TYM. 2002. Ground water quality and pollution in Sinnar State, Sudan. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum
 
Yousif TYM. 2002. Ground water quality and pollution in Sinnar State, Sudan. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum
  
 
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==Return to the index pages==
 
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[[Overview of Africa Groundwater Atlas | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Sudan
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[[Overview of Africa Groundwater Atlas | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]]  
 
  
  

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