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[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Sudan
 
[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Sudan
  
[[File:CC-BY-SA_logo_88x31.png | frame | This work is licensed under a [https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License]]]
 
  
 
The area of present-day Sudan formed the powerful kingdom of Kush from around 1000 BC to the 4th century AD. After the decline of Kush, various successor Nubian kingdoms were established as separate polities. Christianity arrived in the region around 500 AD, and Islam was gradually introduced into the north from the 7th century, influenced by close relationships between the Nubian kingdoms and Egypt. In the 16th century the Funj empire became the main power in in southern Nubia, lasting until invasion by Egypt in the early 19th century. In the late 19th century the Mahdist group resisted Egyptian forces and gained control of most of Sudan. The British eventually helped Egypt regain control, and Sudan became nominally a British-Egyptian concern, although in actuality governed mainly by Britain, from 1899 until independence in 1956.  
 
The area of present-day Sudan formed the powerful kingdom of Kush from around 1000 BC to the 4th century AD. After the decline of Kush, various successor Nubian kingdoms were established as separate polities. Christianity arrived in the region around 500 AD, and Islam was gradually introduced into the north from the 7th century, influenced by close relationships between the Nubian kingdoms and Egypt. In the 16th century the Funj empire became the main power in in southern Nubia, lasting until invasion by Egypt in the early 19th century. In the late 19th century the Mahdist group resisted Egyptian forces and gained control of most of Sudan. The British eventually helped Egypt regain control, and Sudan became nominally a British-Egyptian concern, although in actuality governed mainly by Britain, from 1899 until independence in 1956.  
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The geology maps on this page show a simplified overview of the geology at a national scale (see the [[Geology | Geology resource page]] for more details).  
 
The geology maps on this page show a simplified overview of the geology at a national scale (see the [[Geology | Geology resource page]] for more details).  
 
[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html '''Download a GIS shapefile of the Sudan geology and hydrogeology map'''].
 
  
 
Other published geological maps are listed in the Geology: Key references section, below. In particular, a [https://esdac.jrc.ec.europa.eu/content/geological-map-sudan geological map of Sudan at 1:10 million scale] was published in 1981 and is available to download as a scanned image.  
 
Other published geological maps are listed in the Geology: Key references section, below. In particular, a [https://esdac.jrc.ec.europa.eu/content/geological-map-sudan geological map of Sudan at 1:10 million scale] was published in 1981 and is available to download as a scanned image.  
  
  [[File:Sudan_UnconsolidatedGeology.png | 350 px | left| thumb| Unconsolidated (superficial) geology of Sudan at 1:5 million scale. Based on map described by Persits et al. 2002 / Furon and Lombard 1964. For more information on the dataset used to develop the map see the [[Geology | geology resource page]]. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html Download a GIS shapefile of the Sudan geology and hydrogeology map].]]
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  [[File:Sudan_UnconsolidatedGeology.png | 350 px | left| thumb| Unconsolidated (superficial) geology of Sudan at 1:5 million scale. Based on map described by Persits et al. 2002 / Furon and Lombard 1964. For more information on the dataset used to develop the map see the [[Geology | geology resource page]]]]
  
  [[File:Sudan_Geology4.png | center | thumb| 500px | Geology of Sudan at 1:5 million scale. Based on map described by Persits et al. 2002 / Furon and Lombard 1964. For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geology | geology resource page]]. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html Download a GIS shapefile of the Sudan geology and hydrogeology map].]]
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  [[File:Sudan_Geology4.png | center | thumb| 500px | Geology of Sudan at 1:5 million scale. Based on map described by Persits et al. 2002 / Furon and Lombard 1964. For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geology | geology resource page]].]]
  
 
'''Summary'''
 
'''Summary'''
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The hydrogeology map on this page shows a simplified overview of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | Hydrogeology map resource page]] for more details).  
 
The hydrogeology map on this page shows a simplified overview of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | Hydrogeology map resource page]] for more details).  
  
[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html '''Download a GIS shapefile of the Sudan geology and hydrogeology map'''].
 
  
 
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  [[File:Sudan_Hydrogeology4.png | center | thumb| 500px | Hydrogeology of Sudan at 1:5 million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | Hydrogeology map]] resource page]].
  [[File:Sudan_Hydrogeology4.png | center | thumb| 500px | Hydrogeology of Sudan at 1:5 million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | Hydrogeology map]] resource page. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html Download a GIS shapefile of the Sudan geology and hydrogeology map].]].
 
  
 
====Unconsolidated====
 
====Unconsolidated====
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The following references provide more information on the geology and hydrogeology of Sudan.
 
The following references provide more information on the geology and hydrogeology of Sudan.
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Some of these, and others can be accessed through the [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=listResults&title_search=&author_search=&category_search=&country_search=SD&placeboolean=AND&singlecountry=1 Africa Groundwater Literature Archive]
  
Some of these, and others, can be accessed through the Sudan country page of the [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=listResults&title_search=&author_search=&category_search=&country_search=SD&placeboolean=AND&singlecountry=1 '''Africa Groundwater Literature Archive'''].
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===Geology: key references===
 
 
===Geology===
 
  
''Maps''
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''Maps:''
  
 
GRAS (Geological Research Authority of the Sudan). 1981. [https://esdac.jrc.ec.europa.eu/content/geological-map-sudan Geological  map of Sudan]. Scale 1:10,000,000
 
GRAS (Geological Research Authority of the Sudan). 1981. [https://esdac.jrc.ec.europa.eu/content/geological-map-sudan Geological  map of Sudan]. Scale 1:10,000,000
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Worrell GA. 1957. [https://www.jstor.org/stable/41710729 A simple introduction to the geology of the Sudan]. Sudan Notes and Records, Vol. 38, pp 2-9. University of Khartoum.
 
Worrell GA. 1957. [https://www.jstor.org/stable/41710729 A simple introduction to the geology of the Sudan]. Sudan Notes and Records, Vol. 38, pp 2-9. University of Khartoum.
  
===Hydrogeology===
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===Hydrogeology: key references===
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''Most of the following are MSc theses from the University of Khartoum and can be accessed through the university.''
  
 
More information on groundwater is also available from the Ministry of Irrigation and Ministry of Dams.
 
More information on groundwater is also available from the Ministry of Irrigation and Ministry of Dams.
  
''General''
 
 
ACSAD. 1987. Hydrogeological Investigations of the Nubian Sandstone Formation (Lower Atbara Basin) Sudan
 
ACSAD-BGS-NAW, Damascus.
 
 
Adam A, Kotoub S, Rasoul AW and Beidoun A. 1987. Geoelectrical Investigation of the Nubian Sandstone Formation (Lower Atbara Basin) Sudan. ACSAD-BGS-NAW, Damascus.
 
 
Ahmed FD and Abu Sin MD. 1982. Water supply problems in the Butana Teion-Central Sudan with special emphasis on Jebel Qeili area: a study in semi-arid resource use. Geojournal 6 (1).
 
 
Almond DC. 1980. [https://doi.org/10.1016/0301-9268(80)90058-3 Precambrian events at Sabaloka, near Khartoum, and their significance in the chronology of the basement complex of North-East Africa]. Precambrian Res. 13, 43-62. doi: 10.1016/0301-9268(80)90058-3
 
 
Darling WG, Edmunds WM, Kinniburgh DG and Kotoub S. Sources of recharge to the Basal Nubian sandstone aquifer, Butana region, Sudan. IAEA (Ed.), Isotope Techniques in Water Resources Development, IAEA, Vienna.
 
 
Edmunds WM, Darling WG, Kinniburgh DG, Katoub A and Mahgoub S. 1992. [https://ac.els-cdn.com/002216949290211D/1-s2.0-002216949290211D-main.pdf?_tid=7e49aafe-962b-4b84-8eb5-b9d34fb987dd&acdnat=1552989526_d9eb50da45230a5c2a8c442f8935b8b4 Sources of recharge at Abu Delaig, Sudan]. J. Hydrol., 131, 1-24
 
 
Edmunds WM, Darling WG and Kinniburgh DG. 1987. [http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/id/eprint/505568/ Estimation of Aquifer Recharge Using Geochemical Techniques: Final Report of the Lower Atbara River Basin Project]. British Geological Survey Report WD/OS/87/001
 
 
Farah EA, Mustafa EMA, and Kumai H. [https://doi.org/10.1007/s002540050479 Sources of groundwater recharge at the confluence of the Niles, Sudan]. Environ. Geol., 39 (6), 667-672. doi: 10.1007/s002540050479
 
 
Klitsch, Sonntag, Weistroffer and Elshazely. 1976. Grundwasser der zentralsahara Fossile vorraete.
 
Geol.Rdsch, 65, 264-287, Stuttgart.
 
 
Kotoub S. 1986. Groundwater Resources Investigation in Lower Atbara Basin in Sudan. Hydrogeology. ACSAD: Joint ACSAD-BGS-NAW Technical Report.
 
 
Lanzoni M. 2012. Groundwater Use in Sudan: Is Groundwater Use Sustainable? a Re-examination of Aquifer Storage, Consumption, and Recharge in Abu Deleig. MSc Thesis, University of Oxford
 
 
Lanzoni M, Darling WG and Edmunds WM. 2018. [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeochem.2018.10.020 Groundwater in Sudan: An improved understanding of wadi-directed recharge]. Applied Geochemistry 99, 55-64. doi: 10.1016/j.apgeochem.2018.10.020
 
 
Omer AM. 2008. [https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032107000056 Water resources and freshwater ecosystems in Sudan]. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 12(8), 2066-2091.
 
 
Ragab ER, Mustafa E and Adam OA. 1983. Groundwater investigation Elseleim and Al Khawi basin project, Northern State, Sudan. Ground water Administration unpublished report.
 
 
Saeed EM. 1976. Hydrogeology of Khartoum province and northern Gezira. Bull no. 29, Geological Research Authority, Khartoum.
 
 
Tear Fund / GAD Consult. A Geophysical study for siting water wells at Abu Hadid Region in Eastern Darfur State.
 
 
United Nations. 1988. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060049 Groundwater in North and West Africa: Sudan]. United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development and Economic Commission for Africa/Natural Resources/Water Series No. 18, ST/TCD/5.
 
 
 
''University Theses - PhD, MSc or BSc''
 
 
Most of these were completed at the University of Khartoum and can be accessed through the university.
 
  
 
Adam HAM. 2007. Assessment of Ground Water Quality in Khartoum and Khartoum North. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum  
 
Adam HAM. 2007. Assessment of Ground Water Quality in Khartoum and Khartoum North. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum  
 
Adam NEHA. 2010. An Integrated Approach of Hydrological and Geophysical Exploration in Abu Deleig Area Sudan. BSc Honours Thesis, Al Neelain University, Sudan.
 
  
 
Al Haj MMI. 2014. Determination and Removal of Nitrates from Ground Water of Kassala Town - Sudan. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum  
 
Al Haj MMI. 2014. Determination and Removal of Nitrates from Ground Water of Kassala Town - Sudan. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum  
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Kheir OM. 1981. Contribution to the hydrogeology of the Gefaref Basin, Eastern Sudan. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum
 
Kheir OM. 1981. Contribution to the hydrogeology of the Gefaref Basin, Eastern Sudan. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum
  
Kheiralla MK. 1966. A Study of the Nubian Sandstone Formation of the Nile Valley between Lat. 14 N and 17 42' N, with Reference to Groundwater Geology. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum
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Klitsch, Sonntag, Weistroffer and Elshazely. 1976. Grundwasser der zentralsahara Fossile vorraete.  
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Geol.Rdsch, 65, 264-287, Stuttgart.
  
 
Magboul AB. 1993. Hydrogeology of the Northern Gezira Area (Central Sudan). MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum
 
Magboul AB. 1993. Hydrogeology of the Northern Gezira Area (Central Sudan). MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum
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Mukhtar IAH. 2000. Impact of Urbanization and Land-Use on Quality of Ground Water for Drinking Use Nitrate Content as Indicator. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum
 
Mukhtar IAH. 2000. Impact of Urbanization and Land-Use on Quality of Ground Water for Drinking Use Nitrate Content as Indicator. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum
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Omer AM. 2008. [https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032107000056 Water resources and freshwater ecosystems in Sudan]. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 12(8), 2066-2091.
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Ragab ER, Mustafa E and Adam OA. 1983. Groundwater investigation Elseleim and Al Khawi basin project, Northern State, Sudan. Ground water Administration unpublished report.
  
 
Rahman HIAA. 2009. Groundwater Management of Wadi Nyala Using Visual Modflow Model. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum
 
Rahman HIAA. 2009. Groundwater Management of Wadi Nyala Using Visual Modflow Model. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum
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Rodwan Rashid A. 2000. Hydrogeology of the area between Kamlin and El Masid, east of the Blue Nile. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum
 
Rodwan Rashid A. 2000. Hydrogeology of the area between Kamlin and El Masid, east of the Blue Nile. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum
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Saeed EM. 1976. Hydrogeology of Khartoum province and northern Gezira. Bull no. 29, Geological Research Authority, Khartoum.
  
 
Sheriff YA. 1993. An Investigation Into the Principal Causes of Groundwater Depletion at Wadi El Bangadeed, El Obeid Area, Kordofan State. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum  
 
Sheriff YA. 1993. An Investigation Into the Principal Causes of Groundwater Depletion at Wadi El Bangadeed, El Obeid Area, Kordofan State. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum  
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Suluiaman OASI. 2014. Groundwater Assessment in the State of Khartoum Using Water Quality Index. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum
 
Suluiaman OASI. 2014. Groundwater Assessment in the State of Khartoum Using Water Quality Index. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum
  
El Tahir SEM. 2003. Groundwater As a Source Of Water Supply in Eastern Khartoum State: Geological Control and Quality Constraints. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum  
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Tayall AM. 1995. Ground water hydrogeology east of Sennar. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum
  
Tayall AM. 1995. Ground water hydrogeology east of Sennar. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum
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Tear Fund / GAD Consult. A Geophysical study for siting water wells at Abu Hadid Region in Eastern Darfur State.
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United Nations. 1988. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060049 Groundwater in North and West Africa: Sudan]. United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development and Economic Commission for Africa/Natural Resources/Water Series No. 18, ST/TCD/5.
  
 
Wani NHO. 1994. A Study on Groundwater Quality in the Eastern Bank of the White Nile - Khartoum State - Sudan. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum  
 
Wani NHO. 1994. A Study on Groundwater Quality in the Eastern Bank of the White Nile - Khartoum State - Sudan. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum  
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[[Overview of Africa Groundwater Atlas | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Sudan
[[Overview of Africa Groundwater Atlas | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]]  
 
  
  

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