Difference between revisions of "Hydrogeology of Sudan"

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===Surface water===
 
===Surface water===
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The Nile rivers are the major perennial rivers in the country. The Blue Nile is joined by the Dinder and Rahad rivers between Sennar and Khartoum, and joins the White Nile at Khartoum to form the River Nile.
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There are several dams on the Blue and White Niles, including the Sennar and Roseires Dams on the Blue Nile, and the Jebel Aulia Dam on the White Nile. There is also Lake Nubia on the Sudanese-Egyptian border.
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The Ministry of Irrigation monitors river flows, and stores dataset going back several decades.
  
 
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| [[File: Sudan_Hydrology.png | right | frame | Surface Water Map of Sudan (For more information on the datasets used in the map see the [[Surface water | surface water resources section]])]]
| [[File: Sudan_Hydrology.png | frame | Surface Water Map of Sudan (For more information on the datasets used in the map see the [[Surface water | surface water resources section]])]]
 
 
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Revision as of 10:58, 8 July 2015

Africa Groundwater Atlas >> Hydrogeology by country >> Hydrogeology of Sudan

Authors

Abdel Hafiz Gadelmula, University of Khartoum, Sudan

Kirsty Upton, Brighid Ó Dochartaigh, British Geological Survey, UK

Geographical Setting

Map of Sudan (For more information on the datasets used in the map see the geography resources section)

General

Estimated Population in 2013* 37,964,306
Rural Population (% of total) (2013)* 66.5%
Total Surface Area* 2,376,000 sq km
Agricultural Land (% of total area) (2012)* 47.4%
Capital City Khartoum
Region Northern Africa
Border Countries Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, South Sudan, Central African Republic, Chad, Libya.
Annual Freshwater Withdrawal (2013)* 26,930 Million cubic metres
Annual Freshwater Withdrawal for Agriculture (2013)* 96.2%
Annual Freshwater Withdrawal for Domestic Use (2013)* 3.5%
Annual Freshwater Withdrawal for Industry (2013)* 0.3%
Rural Population with Access to Improved Water Source (2012)* 50.2%
Urban Population with Access to Improved Water Source (2012)* 66%

* Source: World Bank

Climate

Rainfall time-series and graphs of monthly average rainfall and temperature for each individual climate zone can be found on the Sudan Climate Page.


Average monthly precipitation for COUNTRY showing minimum and maximum (light blue), 25th and 75th percentile (blue), and median (dark blue) rainfall Average monthly temperature for COUNTRY showing minimum and maximum (orange), 25th and 75th percentile (red), and median (black) temperature Quarterly precipitation over the period 1950-2012 Monthly precipitation (blue) over the period 2000-2012 compared with the long term monthly average (red)

For further detail on the climate datasets used see the climate resources section.

Surface water

The Nile rivers are the major perennial rivers in the country. The Blue Nile is joined by the Dinder and Rahad rivers between Sennar and Khartoum, and joins the White Nile at Khartoum to form the River Nile.

There are several dams on the Blue and White Niles, including the Sennar and Roseires Dams on the Blue Nile, and the Jebel Aulia Dam on the White Nile. There is also Lake Nubia on the Sudanese-Egyptian border.

The Ministry of Irrigation monitors river flows, and stores dataset going back several decades.

Surface Water Map of Sudan (For more information on the datasets used in the map see the surface water resources section)

Soil

Soil Map of Sudan (For map key and more information on the datasets used in the map see the soil resources section)

Land cover

Land Cover Map of Sudan (For map key and more information on the datasets used in the map see the land cover resources section)


Geology

This section provides a summary of the geology of Sudan. More detail can be found in the references listed at the bottom of this page. Many of these references can be accessed through the Africa Groundwater Literature Archive.

The geology map on this page shows a simplified version of the geology at a national scale (see the Geology resources page for more details). The map is available to download as a shapefile (.shp) for use in GIS packages. Other published geological maps are listed in the Key Geology References section below.


Geological Environments
Key Formations Period Lithology Structure
Quaternary to Tertiary Sedimentary deposits
Gezira Formation, Alatshan Formation, Gash deposits, Um Ruwaba Formation Quaternary to Tertiary The Gezira and Alatshan and Gash formations are unconsolidated deposits, with thickness just less than 100 m.

The Um Ruwaba Formation is between 150 m and 500 m thick.

Tertiary Sedimentary Rocks
Consolidated Hudi Chert, Jabya Formation, Red Sea littoral zone deposits, Mukwar Formation, Hamamit Formation, Abu Imamma Formation, Dungunab Formation, Abu Shagra Formation Tertiary The Hudi Chert Formation is non-marine and fossiliferous, containing very thin cherts - not more than a few metres - and found in and around the Atbara region.

The other named formations are a series of undeformed sedimentary rocks occupying 10-40 km width along the coast. Their thickness can exceed 2 km.

Mesozoic Sedimentary Rocks
Nubian Sandstone, Kabbabish and Wadi Hower formations, Gedaref Sandstones, Bentue Aradaiba, Zarga, Abu Gabra Mainly Cretaceous Nubian Sandstone is found in the Khartoum basin, Kufra basin, Atbara basin, Blue Nile basin, Gedaref basins, Sag elnaam basin and in Darfur. In the Khartoum basin, they exceed 3 km in thickness.

The Kababish Formation is composed of siltstones, mudstones and fine grained sandstones, and is around 100 m thick.. The Wadi Hower Formation is composed of sandstones, and is around 200 m thick.

The Gedaref Sandstones are located in northwest Sudan. Their thickness exceeds 100 m.

The Bentue, Aradaiba and Zarga formations are sandstones and mudstones of continental origin, and their thickness can exceed 5 km.

The Abu Gabra is a sedimentary formation found in central-western Sudan.

Major faults are recognised in the Nubian Sandstone, sometimes displacing more than 2 km of sedimentary rocks, including the Jaulia fault.
Palaeozoic Sedimentary Rocks
Erde Ente, Nawa Formation, Sedimentary rocks of NW Sudan Palaeozoic Outcrops of unmetamorphosed sedimentary rock occur along the Chad border. Argillaceous sedimentary strata overlie the basement complex in central Kordofan. Silurian deposits occur in northwestern Sudan. Devonian and Carboniferous rocks occur around Uweinat, Sudan.
Precambrian Basement
Precambrian Undiffereniated basement rocks are exposed over almost half of the area of Sudan, composed of metamorphosed igneous,sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. NE-SW and NW-SE fractures are common


Hydrogeology

This section provides a summary of the hydrogeology of the main aquifers in Sudan. More information is available in the references listed at the bottom of this page. Many of these references can be accessed through the Africa Groundwater Literature Archive. The hydrogeology map on this page shows a simplified version of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the Aquifer properties resource page for more details). The map is available to download as a shapefile (.shp) for use in GIS packages.

File:Sudan Hydrogeology.png Hydrogeology Key.png


Unconsolidated

Named Aquifers General Description Water quantity issues Water quality issues Recharge

Sedimentary - Intergranular Flow

Named Aquifers General Description Water quantity issues Water quality issues Recharge

Sedimentary - Intergranular & Fracture Flow

Named Aquifers General Description Water quantity issues Water quality issues Recharge

Sedimentary - Fracture Flow

Named Aquifers General Description Water quantity issues Water quality issues Recharge

Basement

Named Aquifers General Description Water quantity issues Water quality issues Recharge


Groundwater Status

Groundwater quantity

Groundwater quality

Groundwater use and management

Groundwater use

Groundwater management

Groundwater monitoring

Transboundary aquifers

For further information about transboundary aquifers, please see the Transboundary aquifers resources page


References

The following references provide more information on the geology and hydrogeology of Sudan. These, and others, can be accessed through the Africa Groundwater Literature Archive


Geology: key references

Maps:

GRAS (Geological Research Authority of the Sudan). 1964. Geological map of Sudan. Scale 1:10,000,000

GRAS (Geological Research Authority of the Sudan). 1980. Geological map of Sudan. Scale 1:5,000,000

Robertson Research Institute. 1981. Geological map of Sudan, Scale 1:1,000,000

Vail, jr. 1971. Geological map of Sudan. Scale 1:2,000,000

GRAS (Geological Research Authority of the Sudan). 2005. Geological map of Sudan.

SFB. 1991. Geological map of Northern Sudan.

Hydrogeology: key references

Most of the following are MSc theses from the University of Khartoum and can be accessed through the university.


Adam HAM. 2007. Assessment of Ground Water Quality in Khartoum and Khartoum North. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum

Al Haj MMI. 2014. Determination and Removal of Nitrates from Ground Water of Kassala Town - Sudan. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum

Al Hasana K. 2011. Assessment of Ground Water Quality of Balola Area in South Kordofan. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum

Ali ALM. 1977. Geology and Hydrogeology of the Sedimentary Basin of the Blue Nile and Its Tributaries between Wad Medani and Abu Huggar. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum

Ali AOH. 2011. Assessment of Ground Water Quality in Al Kalakla - Al Shagra, Khartoum State, Sudan. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum

Babiker EM. 2008. Characteristics, Assessment and Management of Ground Water Resources of the Coastal Aquifer in Tokar Delta, Eastern Sudan. PhD Thesis, University of Khartoum

Babiker SSA. 1991. Removal of Nitrates from Groundwater by Granular Activated Charcoal in Rural Area. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum

Bakhit NAAE. 2010. Impact of Ground Water Quality on Soil Properties and Okra Productivity in Three Locations in Khartoum State. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum

El Dali M. 2003. Aspects of the Geology and Hydrogeology of Omdurman Formation. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum

El Hasan REM. 2011. Assessment of Ground Water Quality in East Kassala Town - Kassalla State - Sudan. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum

El Karim AA. 1995. The Hydrogeology of the Area Between Abu Qouta and Managil (Central Sudan). MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum

Godat MDS. 2008. Groundwater Resource Assessment of the Area Between Medani and Sennar. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum

Haddad Maha A. 1996. Ground water pollution of the Khartoum State. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum

Ibrahim ASH. 2012. Groundwater Quality and Suitability for Irrigation in Khartoum State, Sudan. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum

Ibrahim SME. 2004. Groundwater as a Source of Water Supply in Eastern Khartoum State, Geological Control and Quality Constraints. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum

Imad F. 1993. Chemical Characteristics and Quality of Groundwater in Khartoum Province and Northern Gezira. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum

Kaskos H. 1991. Hydrogeology of Sag El Naam Basin, Western Sudan. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum

Kheir OM. 1981. Contribution to the hydrogeology of the Gefaref Basin, Eastern Sudan. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum

Klitsch, Sonntag, Weistroffer and Elshazely. 1976. Grundwasser der zentralsahara Fossile vorraete. Geol.Rdsch, 65, 264-287, Stuttgart.

Magboul AB. 1993. Hydrogeology of the Northern Gezira Area (Central Sudan). MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum

Medd MEMA. 2007. Assessment of Ground Water Quality in Omdurman City. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum

Medani AYA. 2004. Determination of Trace Elements in Ground Water by Two Precocncentration Methods Using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum

Mohammed FKE. 2008. Appraisal of Ground Water Used for Irrigation in Khartoum State. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum

Mubarak BM. 1973. Geology and Hydrogeology of East Kordofan arae. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum

Mukhtar IAH. 2000. Impact of Urbanization and Land-Use on Quality of Ground Water for Drinking Use Nitrate Content as Indicator. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum

Ragab ER, Mustafa E and Adam OA. 1983. Groundwater investigation Elseleim and Al Khawi basin project, Northern State, Sudan. Ground water Administration unpublished report.

Rahman HIAA. 2009. Groundwater Management of Wadi Nyala Using Visual Modflow Model. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum

Rahman MGAA. 2013. Impact of Effluent from Wad Dafiaa (Khartoum North) Wastewater Treatment Plant on Soil and Ground Water Quality. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum

Razig SA. 1999. Groundwater, hydrogeology and sanitation, Northern Sudan. PhD Thesis, University of Khartoum

Razig SAA. 1990. Assessment of Groundwater Potential in Lower River Atbara and its Role in Combating Desertification. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum

Rodwan Rashid A. 2000. Hydrogeology of the area between Kamlin and El Masid, east of the Blue Nile. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum

Saeed EM. 1976. Hydrogeology of Khartoum province and northern Gezira. Bull no. 29, Geological Research Authority, Khartoum.

Sheriff YA. 1993. An Investigation Into the Principal Causes of Groundwater Depletion at Wadi El Bangadeed, El Obeid Area, Kordofan State. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum

Suluiaman OASI. 2014. Groundwater Assessment in the State of Khartoum Using Water Quality Index. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum

Tayall AM. 1995. Ground water hydrogeology east of Sennar. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum

Tear Fund / GAD Consult. A Geophysical study for siting water wells at Abu Hadid Region in Eastern Darfur State.

Wani NHO. 1994. A Study on Groundwater Quality in the Eastern Bank of the White Nile - Khartoum State - Sudan. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum

Yousif TYM. 2002. Ground water quality and pollution in Sinnar State, Sudan. MSc Thesis, University of Khartoum


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Africa Groundwater Atlas >> Hydrogeology by country >> Hydrogeology of Sudan