Editing Hydrogeology of Swaziland

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[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]]  >> Hydrogeology of Eswatini (Swaziland)
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[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]]  >> Hydrogeology of Swaziland  
  
  
'''This page has limited information. If you have more information on the hydrogeology of Eswatini, please get in touch!'''  
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'''This page has limited information and needs to be updated. If you have more information on the hydrogeology of Swaziland, please get in touch!'''  
  
[[File:CC-BY-SA_logo_88x31.png | frame | This work is licensed under a [https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License]]]
 
  
The earliest known inhabitants of present-day Eswatini (previously Swaziland) were Khoisan hunter gatherers, before Bantu people migrated into the area, possibly from the 4th century AD. Swazi people migrated in the 18th century, forming the present day kingdom in the mid-19th century. The ruling monarch granted land concessions to many Europeans in the late 19th century. From the late 19th century South Africa and later Britain held power, and the region was influenced by tensions between British and Boers over the area of present-day South Africa. Under King Sobhuza, who was crowned in 1921, British colonial rule and the influence of South Africa gradually weakened, and Swaziland became fully independent in 1968. Following independence, the King continued to rule as an absolute monarch, with no democratic political parties. The country was relatively stable and saw gradual economic development. Civil protests in the 1990s were followed by reforms and the first elections under a new constitution in 2008. There has been further civil pressure for more reform since. The country renamed itself the Kingdom of Eswatini in 2018.  
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The earliest known inhabitants of present-day Swaziland were Khoisan hunter gatherers, before Bantu people migrated into the area, possibly from the 4th century AD. Swazi people migrated in the 18th century, forming the present day kingdom in the mid-19th century. The ruling monarch granted land concessions to many Europeans in the late 19th century. From the late 19th century South Africa and later Britain held power, and Swaziland was influenced by tensions between British and Boers over the area of present-day South Africa. Under King Sobhuza, who was crowned in 1921, British colonial rule and the influence of South Africa gradually weakened, and Swaziland became fully independent in 1968. Following independence, the King continued to rule as an absolute monarch, with no democratic political parties. The country was relatively stable and saw gradual economic development. Civil protests in the 1990s were followed by reforms and the first elections under a new constitution in 2008. There has been further civil pressure for more reform since.  
  
The economy is fairly diverse, with agriculture, forestry, mining, services and manufacturing – particularly textiles – all contributing. The economy is closely linked to that of South Africa. The livelihoods of most of the population depend on subsistence smallholder arable and livestock farming, while large-scale commercial farming of crops such as sugar and citrus fruit generate export income. Remittances from South Africa, especially from the mining sector, are also important to the livelihoods of much of the population. Since the 1980s there has been little economic growth, related to various factors including government spending, reduction in tax receipts, reductions in textile exports to international markets, and the effect of HIV-AIDS – Eswatini has the highest HIV-AIDS infection rate in the world.  
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The economy is fairly diverse, with agriculture, forestry, mining, services and manufacturing – particularly textiles – all contributing. The economy is closely linked to that of South Africa. The livelihoods of most of the population depend on subsistence smallholder arable and livestock farming, while large-scale commercial farming of crops such as sugar and citrus fruit generate export income. Remittances from South Africa, especially from the mining sector, are also important to the livelihoods of much of the population. Since the 1980s there has been little economic growth, related to various factors including government spending, reduction in tax receipts, reductions in textile exports to international markets, and the effect of HIV-AIDS – Swaziland has the highest HIV-AIDS infection rate in the world.  
  
Eswatini has relatively abundant water resources, with relatively high rainfall in upland areas, and a number of permanent rivers, with many major dams used for irrigation, hydroelectricity and tourism. There are no major aquifers, but groundwater is widely used for domestic water supplies, especially in drier areas.  
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Swaziland has relatively abundant water resources, with relatively high rainfall in upland areas, and a number of permanent rivers, with many major dams used for irrigation, hydroelectricity and tourism. There are no major aquifers, but groundwater is widely used for domestic water supplies, especially in drier areas.  
  
  
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Please cite this page as: Upton, Ó Dochartaigh and Bellwood-Howard, 2018.
 
Please cite this page as: Upton, Ó Dochartaigh and Bellwood-Howard, 2018.
  
Bibliographic reference: Upton K, Ó Dochartaigh BÉ and Bellwood-Howard, I. 2018. Africa Groundwater Atlas: Hydrogeology of Eswatini. British Geological Survey. Accessed [date you accessed the information]. http://earthwise.bgs.ac.uk/index.php/Hydrogeology_of_Swaziland
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Bibliographic reference: Upton K, Ó Dochartaigh BÉ and Bellwood-Howard, I. 2018. Africa Groundwater Atlas: Hydrogeology of Swaziland. British Geological Survey. Accessed [date you accessed the information]. http://earthwise.bgs.ac.uk/index.php/Hydrogeology_of_Swaziland
  
 
==Terms and conditions==
 
==Terms and conditions==
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==Geographical Setting==
 
==Geographical Setting==
  
[[File:Swaziland_Political.png | right | frame | Eswatini. Map developed from USGS GTOPOPO30; GADM global administrative areas; and UN Revision of World Urbanization Prospects. For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geography | geography resource page]].]]
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[[File:Swaziland_Political.png | right | frame | Swaziland. Map developed from USGS GTOPOPO30; GADM global administrative areas; and UN Revision of World Urbanization Prospects. For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geography | geography resource page]].]]
  
 
===General===
 
===General===
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[[File:Swaziland_ClimateZones.png | 375x365px |Koppen Geiger Climate Zones]][[File:Swaziland_ClimatePrecip.png | 375x365px |Average Annual Precipitation]][[File:Swaziland_ClimateTemp.png | 375x365px |Average Temperature]]
 
[[File:Swaziland_ClimateZones.png | 375x365px |Koppen Geiger Climate Zones]][[File:Swaziland_ClimatePrecip.png | 375x365px |Average Annual Precipitation]][[File:Swaziland_ClimateTemp.png | 375x365px |Average Temperature]]
  
[[File:Swaziland_pre_Monthly.png| 255x124px| Average monthly precipitation for Eswatini showing minimum and maximum (light blue), 25th and 75th percentile (blue), and median (dark blue) rainfall]] [[File:Swaziland_tmp_Monthly.png| 255x124px| Average monthly temperature for Eswatini showing minimum and maximum (orange), 25th and 75th percentile (red), and median (black) temperature]] [[File:Swaziland_pre_Qts.png | 255x124px | Quarterly precipitation over the period 1950-2012]] [[File:Swaziland_pre_Mts.png|255x124px | Monthly precipitation (blue) over the period 2000-2012 compared with the long term monthly average (red)]]
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[[File:Swaziland_pre_Monthly.png| 255x124px| Average monthly precipitation for Swaziland showing minimum and maximum (light blue), 25th and 75th percentile (blue), and median (dark blue) rainfall]] [[File:Swaziland_tmp_Monthly.png| 255x124px| Average monthly temperature for Swaziland showing minimum and maximum (orange), 25th and 75th percentile (red), and median (black) temperature]] [[File:Swaziland_pre_Qts.png | 255x124px | Quarterly precipitation over the period 1950-2012]] [[File:Swaziland_pre_Mts.png|255x124px | Monthly precipitation (blue) over the period 2000-2012 compared with the long term monthly average (red)]]
  
More information on average rainfall and temperature for each of the climate zones in Eswatini can be seen at the [[Climate of Swaziland | Eswatini climate page]].
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More information on average rainfall and temperature for each of the climate zones in Swaziland can be seen at the [[Climate of Swaziland | Swaziland climate page]].
  
 
These maps and graphs were developed from the CRU TS 3.21 dataset produced by the Climatic Research Unit at the University of East Anglia, UK. For more information see the [[Climate | climate resource page]].
 
These maps and graphs were developed from the CRU TS 3.21 dataset produced by the Climatic Research Unit at the University of East Anglia, UK. For more information see the [[Climate | climate resource page]].
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| [[File:Swaziland_Hydrology.png | frame | major surface water features of Eswatini. Map developed from World Wildlife Fund HydroSHEDS; Digital Chart of the World drainage; and FAO Inland Water Bodies. For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Surface water | surface water resource page]].]]
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| [[File:Swaziland_Hydrology.png | frame | major surface water features of Swaziland. Map developed from World Wildlife Fund HydroSHEDS; Digital Chart of the World drainage; and FAO Inland Water Bodies. For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Surface water | surface water resource page]].]]
 
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| [[File:Swaziland_soil.png | frame | Soil Map of Eswatini, from the European Commission Joint Research Centre: European Soil Portal. For more information on the map see the [[Soil | soil resource page]].]]
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| [[File:Swaziland_soil.png | frame | Soil Map of Swaziland, from the European Commission Joint Research Centre: European Soil Portal. For more information on the map see the [[Soil | soil resource page]].]]
  
 
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| [[File:Swaziland_LandCover.png | frame | Land Cover Map of Eswatini, from the European Space Agency GlobCover 2.3, 2009. For more information on the map see the [[Land cover | land cover resource page]].]]
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| [[File:Swaziland_LandCover.png | frame | Land Cover Map of Swaziland, from the European Space Agency GlobCover 2.3, 2009. For more information on the map see the [[Land cover | land cover resource page]].]]
 
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|Groundwater produced internally (Million cubic metres/year) || || ||  || ||660 ||
 
|Groundwater produced internally (Million cubic metres/year) || || ||  || ||660 ||
 
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|-
|Fresh groundwater withdrawal (primary and secondary) (Million cubic metres/year) || No data || No data || No data || No data || No data||No data
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|Fresh groundwater withdrawal (primary and secondary) (Million cubic metres/year) || No data || No data || No data || No data || No data||
 
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|Groundwater: entering the country (total) (Million cubic metres/year) || No data || No data || No data || No data || No data||No data
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|Groundwater: entering the country (total) (Million cubic metres/year) || No data || No data || No data || No data || No data||
 
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|-
|Groundwater: leaving the country to other countries (total) (Million cubic metres/year) || No data || No data || No data || No data || No data||No data
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|Groundwater: leaving the country to other countries (total) (Million cubic metres/year) || No data || No data || No data || No data || No data||
 
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|Industrial water withdrawal (all water sources) (Million cubic metres/year) || || || ||20.7|| ||
 
|Industrial water withdrawal (all water sources) (Million cubic metres/year) || || || ||20.7|| ||
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|Area equipped for irrigation by groundwater (ha) || ||1,000 ||  || || ||
 
|Area equipped for irrigation by groundwater (ha) || ||1,000 ||  || || ||
 
|-
 
|-
|Area equipped for irrigation by mixed surface water and groundwater (ha) || No data || No data || No data || No data || No data||No data
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|Area equipped for irrigation by mixed surface water and groundwater (ha) || No data || No data || No data || No data || No data||
 
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| [[File:Swaziland_Geology.png | center | thumb| 500px | Geology of Eswatini at 1:5 million scale. Based on map described by Persits et al. 2002/Furon and Lombard 1964. For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geology | geology resource page]].]]
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| [[File:Swaziland_Geology.png | center | thumb| 500px | Geology of Swaziland at 1:5 million scale. Based on map described by Persits et al. 2002/Furon and Lombard 1964. For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geology | geology resource page]].]]
 
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==Hydrogeology==
 
==Hydrogeology==
  
The hydrogeology map below shows a simplified overview of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | Hydrogeology map resource page]] for more details).  
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The hydrogeology map below shows a simplified overview of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the [[Hydrogeology Map | Hydrogeology map resource page]] for more details).  
  
More information on the hydrogeology of Eswatini is available in the report [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060022 United Nations (1989)] (see References section, below).  
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More information on the hydrogeology of Swaziland is available in the report [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060022 United Nations (1989)] (see References section, below).  
  
Eswatini is also covered by the SADC hydrogeological map and atlas (2010), available through the [https://ggis.un-igrac.org/ggis-viewer/viewer/sadcgip/public/default SADC Groundwater Information Portal].
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Swaziland is also covered by the SADC hydrogeological map and atlas (2010), available through the [https://ggis.un-igrac.org/ggis-viewer/viewer/sadcgip/public/default SADC Groundwater Information Portal].
  
 
   
 
   
[[File:Swaziland_Hydrogeology.png | center | thumb | 500px | Hydrogeology of Eswatini at 1:5 million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | hydrogeology map]] resource page]]
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[[File:Swaziland_Hydrogeology.png]] [[File: Hydrogeology_Key.png | 500x195px]]
 
 
[[File: Hydrogeology_Key.png | 500x195px]]
 
  
  
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[http://www.sadc.int/themes/natural-resources/water/ General information on surface water and groundwater resources in SADC]
 
[http://www.sadc.int/themes/natural-resources/water/ General information on surface water and groundwater resources in SADC]
  
Project [http://www.adaptation-undp.org/projects/sccf-swaziland Adapting Water Resource Management In Eswatini To Manage Expected Climate Change]. Department of Water Affairs, Swaziland; United Nations Development Programme (UNDP); Global Environment Facility (GEF).
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Project [http://www.adaptation-undp.org/projects/sccf-swaziland Adapting Water Resource Management In Swaziland To Manage Expected Climate Change]. Department of Water Affairs, Swaziland; United Nations Development Programme (UNDP); Global Environment Facility (GEF).
  
 
[http://libguides.lib.uct.ac.za/GovtPubsWaterResources/WaterSwaziland Water Resources: Government Information: Library Guide: Swaziland]. University of Cape Town.
 
[http://libguides.lib.uct.ac.za/GovtPubsWaterResources/WaterSwaziland Water Resources: Government Information: Library Guide: Swaziland]. University of Cape Town.
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United Nations. 1989. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060022 Groundwater in Eastern, Central and Southern Africa: Swaziland]. United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development.
 
United Nations. 1989. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=ViewDetails&id=AGLA060022 Groundwater in Eastern, Central and Southern Africa: Swaziland]. United Nations Department of Technical Cooperation for Development.
  
 
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==Return to the index pages==
Return to the index pages:
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[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]]  >> Hydrogeology of Swaziland
[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]]   
 
  
  
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