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[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Tanzania
 
[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Tanzania
  
[[File:CC-BY-SA_logo_88x31.png | frame | This work is licensed under a [https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License]]]
 
  
 
The area of present-day Tanzania has been inhabited since pre-historic times, first by hunter-gatherers, and since at least 2000 years ago by farmers. Travellers and traders from the Persian Gulf and India began visiting coastal areas in the early 1st millennium AD, and Arab trading posts were set up long before the 14th century. Portugal took control of some coastal areas and parts of Zanzibar from the 15th century, before Omani Arabs claimed Zanzibar in the mid 19th century, which subsequently played an important role in Arab-controlled slave and spice trades. The mainland part of Tanzania was part of German East Africa from 1884, while Britain took control of Zanzibar. After World War I, the part of German East Africa that became Tanzania (then called Tanganyika) was claimed by Britain. Tanganyika became independent in 1961, and Zanzibar in 1963, and they merged in 1964 to become Tanzania.  
 
The area of present-day Tanzania has been inhabited since pre-historic times, first by hunter-gatherers, and since at least 2000 years ago by farmers. Travellers and traders from the Persian Gulf and India began visiting coastal areas in the early 1st millennium AD, and Arab trading posts were set up long before the 14th century. Portugal took control of some coastal areas and parts of Zanzibar from the 15th century, before Omani Arabs claimed Zanzibar in the mid 19th century, which subsequently played an important role in Arab-controlled slave and spice trades. The mainland part of Tanzania was part of German East Africa from 1884, while Britain took control of Zanzibar. After World War I, the part of German East Africa that became Tanzania (then called Tanganyika) was claimed by Britain. Tanganyika became independent in 1961, and Zanzibar in 1963, and they merged in 1964 to become Tanzania.  
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|Freshwater withdrawal as % of total renewable water resources ||5.385 || ||  
 
|Freshwater withdrawal as % of total renewable water resources ||5.385 || ||  
 
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|Total renewable groundwater (Million cubic metres/year) ||  ||30,000 ||
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|Renewable groundwater resources (Million cubic metres/year) || No data || No data || No data
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|Exploitable: Regular renewable groundwater (Million cubic metres/year) || No data || No data || No data  
 
 
 
 
|-
 
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|Groundwater produced internally (Million cubic metres/year) || ||30,000 ||   
 
|Groundwater produced internally (Million cubic metres/year) || ||30,000 ||   
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The geology map on this page shows a simplified overview of the geology of Tanzania at a national scale (see the [[Geology | Geology resource page]] for more details).  
 
The geology map on this page shows a simplified overview of the geology of Tanzania at a national scale (see the [[Geology | Geology resource page]] for more details).  
  
[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html '''Download a GIS shapefile of the Tanzania geology and hydrogeology map'''].
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Other geological maps at various scales are produced by the [http://www.gst.go.tz/ Geological Survey of Tanzania], which hosts a [http://www.gmis-tanzania.com/ '''Geological and Mineral Information System'''] that shows paper geological maps available for sale, and also provides a geology map to download as a shapefile to use in GIS.
 
 
Other geological maps at various scales are produced by the [http://www.gst.go.tz/ Geological Survey of Tanzania], which hosts a [http://www.gmis-tanzania.com/ '''Geological and Mineral Information System'''] that shows paper geological maps available for sale, and also provides a '''digital geology map''' at a scale of 1:2 million, which is downloadable in shapefile format.
 
  
  
[[File:Tanzania_Geology3.png | center | thumb| 400px | Geology of Tanzania at 1:5 million scale. Based on map described by Persits et al. 2002/Furon and Lombard 1964. For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geology | geology resource page]]. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html Download a GIS shapefile of the Tanzania geology and hydrogeology map].]]
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[[File:Tanzania_Geology.png | center | thumb| 500px | Geology of Tanzania at 1:5 million scale. Based on map described by Persits et al. 2002/Furon and Lombard 1964. For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geology | geology resource page]].]]
  
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
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This section provides a summary of the hydrogeology of the main aquifers in Tanzania.  More information is available in the references listed at the bottom of this page. Many of these references can be accessed through the [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/index.cfm Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].
 
This section provides a summary of the hydrogeology of the main aquifers in Tanzania.  More information is available in the references listed at the bottom of this page. Many of these references can be accessed through the [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/index.cfm Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].
  
The hydrogeology map on this page shows a simplified overview of the type and productivity of the main aquifers in Tanzania, at 1:5,000,000 scale (see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | Hydrogeology map resource page]] for more details).
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The hydrogeology map on this page shows a simplified overview of the type and productivity of the main aquifers in Tanzania, at 1:5,000,000 scale (see the [[Hydrogeology Map | Hydrogeology map resource page]] for more details).  
 
 
[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html '''Download a GIS shapefile of the Tanzania geology and hydrogeology map'''].
 
  
 
Tanzania is also covered by the SADC hydrogeological map and atlas (2010), available through the [https://ggis.un-igrac.org/ggis-viewer/viewer/sadcgip/public/default SADC Groundwater Information Portal].
 
Tanzania is also covered by the SADC hydrogeological map and atlas (2010), available through the [https://ggis.un-igrac.org/ggis-viewer/viewer/sadcgip/public/default SADC Groundwater Information Portal].
  
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[[File:Tanzania_Hydrogeology.png]] [[File: Hydrogeology_Key.png | 500x195px]]
  
[[File:Tanzania_Hydrogeology3.png | center | thumb| 500px | Map of hydrogeology (aquifer type and productivity) of  Tanzania at 1:5 million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | Hydrogeology map]] resource page. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html Download a GIS shapefile of the Tanzania geology and hydrogeology map].]].
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====Unconsolidated====
 
 
 
 
====Unconsolidated Sedimentary====
 
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
|Named Aquifers||General Description||Water quantity issues||Water quality issues||Recharge
 
|Named Aquifers||General Description||Water quantity issues||Water quality issues||Recharge
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||
 
||
 
|-
 
|-
|Karoo Sandstone Aquifer
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|Karroo Sandstone Aquifer
||Sandstones and conglomerates of the Karoo System are characterised by intergranular flow and storage, which can be locally enhanced by secondary fracture permeability.  
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||Sandstones and conglomerates of the Karroo System are characterised by intergranular flow and storage, which can be locally enhanced by secondary fracture permeability.  
  
 
The aquifer is generally unconfined.  
 
The aquifer is generally unconfined.  
  
Boreholes commonly provide yields of 0.1 to 5 l/s, but yields up to 15 l/s have also been reported.
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Boreholes commonly provide yields of 0.1-5 l/s, but yields up to 15 l/s have also been reported.
||The aquifer generally varies in thickness from 5 - 30m. The water table typically sits at a depth of 10 - 35 m. Boreholes are not normally drilled below a depth of 80 m.  
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||The aquifer generally varies in thickness from 5-30m. The water table typically sits at a depth of 10-35 m. Boreholes are not normally drilled below a depth of 80 m.  
 
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==References==
 
==References==
  
Many of the references below, and others relating to the hydrogeology of Tanzania, can be seen in the [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=listResults&title_search=&author_search=&category_search=&country_search=TZ&placeboolean=AND&singlecountry=1 Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].  
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Many of the references below, and others relating to the hydrogeology of Tanzania, can be seen in the [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/searchResults.cfm?title_search=&author_search=&category_search=&country_search=TZ&placeboolean=AND&singlecountry=1 Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].  
  
 
===General online resources===
 
===General online resources===
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===Key Hydrogeology References===
 
===Key Hydrogeology References===
  
AB Brokonsult. 1980. Tabora Region Water Master Plan: Hydrogeological Studies. Ministry of Water Tanzania
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Shindo S. 1989. The study on the Recharge Mechanism and Development of Groundwater in the Inland Area of Tanzania. Progress report of the Japan-Tanzania joint Research 4. Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.
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SADC. 2010. Hydrogeological Map of Tanzania.
  
 
Carl Bro, Cowi Consult, Kampax-Kruger. 1982. Regional Water Master Plans for Iringa, Ruvuma and Mbeya Regions, Hydrogeology Vol 9. Ministry of Water for Tanzania.
 
Carl Bro, Cowi Consult, Kampax-Kruger. 1982. Regional Water Master Plans for Iringa, Ruvuma and Mbeya Regions, Hydrogeology Vol 9. Ministry of Water for Tanzania.
  
 
Coster FM. 1960. Underground water in Tanganyika
 
Coster FM. 1960. Underground water in Tanganyika
 
DHV. 1984. Regional Water Master Plans for Morogoro. Ministry of Water Tanzania
 
 
Mato. 2002. Groundwater Pollution in Urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Assessing Vulnerability and Protection Priorities. Technical University, Eindhoven
 
  
 
Mjemah IC. 2007. Hydrogeological and Hydrogeochemical Investigation of a Coastal Aquifer in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. Laboratory for Applied Geology and Hydrogeology, Geological Institute, Ghent University.  
 
Mjemah IC. 2007. Hydrogeological and Hydrogeochemical Investigation of a Coastal Aquifer in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. Laboratory for Applied Geology and Hydrogeology, Geological Institute, Ghent University.  
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Mjemah IC, Van Camp MC and Walraevens K. Groundwater exploitation and recharge rate estimation of a quaternary sand aquifer in Dar-es-Salaam area, Tanzania.
 
Mjemah IC, Van Camp MC and Walraevens K. Groundwater exploitation and recharge rate estimation of a quaternary sand aquifer in Dar-es-Salaam area, Tanzania.
  
SADC. 2010. Hydrogeological Map of Tanzania.
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Mato. 2002. Groundwater Pollution in Urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: Assessing Vulnerability and Protection Priorities. Technical University, Eindhoven
 +
 
 +
AB Brokonsult. 1980. Tabora Region Water Master Plan: Hydrogeological Studies. Ministry of Water Tanzania
  
Shindo S. 1989. The study on the Recharge Mechanism and Development of Groundwater in the Inland Area of Tanzania. Progress report of the Japan-Tanzania joint Research 4. Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.
+
DHV. 1984. Regional Water Master Plans for Morogoro. Ministry of Water Tanzania
  
  

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