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[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Togo
 
[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Togo
  
  '''Lire cette page en français: [[Hydrogéologie du Togo | Hydrogéologie du Togo ]]''' [[File: flag_of_france.png  | 50px]]
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Lire cette page en français: [[Hydrogéologie du Togo | Hydrogéologie du Togo ]]  [[File: flag_of_france.png  | 50px]]
 
 
[[File:CC-BY-SA_logo_88x31.png | frame | This work is licensed under a [https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License]]]
 
 
 
In historical times, present-day Togo lay between the powerful kingdoms of Ashanti and Dahomey. From the 11th to 16th centuries, various peoples migrated there from neighbouring regions, including Ewe people from the area of present-day Nigeria, who comprise the majority ethnic group today. European slave trading posts were established on the coast in the 16th century. In the late 19th century German claimed control over what was called Togoland, and after World War I this was claimed and divided by Britain and France. British Togoland voted to join the Gold Coast, becoming independent as part of the nation of Ghana in 1957. French Togoland remained separate and became independent as the Togolose Republic in 1960.
 
A military coup in 1963 replaced an elected government, and another coup in 1967 saw Gnassingbé Eyadéma assume the presidency, maintaining a one-party state until 1991, when under political pressure, opposition parties were legalised. Eyadéma remained in power until he died in 2005, and amidst further unrest was replaced by his son, who has won elections since. Anti-government protests that began in August 2017 have faced government suppression.
 
 
 
Togo’s economy is based on exports of phosphate and commercial plantation agricultural crops, including coffee, cocoa and groundnuts. The phosphate industry was nationalised in the 1970s, but has declined since the 1990s, in part due to falling world prices and increasing foreign competition. Tourism has become less important to the economy since the 1990s because of political issues.
 
 
 
Togo has relatively high, but seasonal, rainfall. There are no major rivers in much of the country, and many smaller rivers are ephemeral. Groundwater supplies most public water schemes in the country, including many major cities. Groundwater is also widely used in the phosphate and other industries.
 
  
  
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'''Kpadja Agouda''', Department of Water Resources, Togo
 
'''Kpadja Agouda''', Department of Water Resources, Togo
 
   
 
   
'''Dr Kirsty Upton''', '''Brighid Ó Dochartaigh''', British Geological Survey, UK
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'''Kirsty Upton''', '''Brighid Ó Dochartaigh''', British Geological Survey, UK
  
'''Dr Imogen Bellwood-Howard''', Institute of Development Studies, UK
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Please cite this page as: Gnazou, Sabi, Tauirou, Akakpo, Agouda, Upton & Ó Dochartaigh, 2016.
  
Please cite this page as: Gnazou, Sabi, Tauirou, Akakpo, Agouda, Upton, Ó Dochartaigh and Bellwood-Howard, 2018.
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Bibliographic reference: Gnazou, M.D-T., Sabi, E.B., Tairou, S.M., Akakpo, W., Agouda, K., Upton, K. & Ó Dochartaigh, B.É. 2016. Africa Groundwater Atlas: Hydrogeology of Togo. British Geological Survey. Accessed [date you accessed the information]. http://earthwise.bgs.ac.uk/index.php/Hydrogeology_of_Togo
 
 
Bibliographic reference: Gnazou MD-T., Sabi EB, Tairou SM, Akakpo W, Agouda K, Upton K, Ó Dochartaigh BÉ and Bellwood-Howard, I. 2018. Africa Groundwater Atlas: Hydrogeology of Togo. British Geological Survey. Accessed [date you accessed the information]. http://earthwise.bgs.ac.uk/index.php/Hydrogeology_of_Togo
 
  
 
==Terms and conditions==
 
==Terms and conditions==
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===General===
 
===General===
 
Togo is a narrow country extending from the border with Burkina Faso in the north to the Atlantic Ocean (Gulf of Guinea) in the south. The north of the country is dominated by savannah while the coast is generally a low lying plain with numerous lagoons and marshes. The Togo Mountains extend from the south west border with Ghana to the north east border with Benin, reaching a maximum elevation of over 900 m.
 
  
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
|-
 
|-
|Capital city || Lome
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|Estimated Population in 2013* || 6,816,982
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|-
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|Rural Population (% of total)* || 61%
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|-
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|Total Surface Area* || 54,390 sq km
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|-
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|Agricultural Land (% of total area)* || 71%
 +
|-
 +
|Capital City || Lome
 +
|-
 +
|Region || West Africa
 
|-
 
|-
|Region || Western Africa
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|Border Countries || Benin, Burkina Faso, Ghana
 
|-
 
|-
|Border countries || Benin, Burkina Faso, Ghana
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|Annual Freshwater Withdrawal (2013)* || 169 Million cubic metres
 
|-
 
|-
|Total surface area* || 56,790 km<sup>2</sup>  (5,679,000 ha)
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|Annual Freshwater Withdrawal for Agriculture* || 45%
 
|-
 
|-
|Total population (2015)* || 7,305,000
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|Annual Freshwater Withdrawal for Domestic Use* || 53%
 
|-
 
|-
|Rural population (2015)* ||4,439,000 (61%)
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|Annual Freshwater Withdrawal for Industry* || 2%
 
|-
 
|-
|Urban population (2015)* ||2,866,000 (39%)
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|Rural Population with Access to Improved Water Source* || 40%
 
|-
 
|-
|UN Human Development Index (HDI) [highest = 1] (2014)*|| 0.4835
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|Urban Population with Access to Improved Water Source* || 91%
 
|}
 
|}
  
<nowiki>*</nowiki> Source: [http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/data/query/index.html?lang=en FAO Aquastat]
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<nowiki>*</nowiki> Source: World Bank
  
  
 
===Climate===
 
===Climate===
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 +
Togo is a narrow country extending from the border with Burkina Faso in the north to the Atlantic Ocean (Gulf of Guinea) in the south. The north of the country is dominated by savannah while the coast is generally a low lying plain with numerous lagoons and marshes. The Togo Mountains extend from the south west border with Ghana to the north east border with Benin, reaching a maximum elevation of over 900 m.
  
 
The climate of Togo is classified as Tropical Savannah. Annual average temperatures are slightly higher in the north and lower in the south. They also decrease with altitude in the mountainous regions. Precipitation is generally lower in the north and higher in the south but also increases slightly over the mountainous regions.
 
The climate of Togo is classified as Tropical Savannah. Annual average temperatures are slightly higher in the north and lower in the south. They also decrease with altitude in the mountainous regions. Precipitation is generally lower in the north and higher in the south but also increases slightly over the mountainous regions.
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|}
 
|}
  
===Water statistics===
 
  
{| class = "wikitable"
 
| || 1996 ||2002||2005||2014||2015
 
|-
 
|Rural population with access to safe drinking water (%) || || ||  || || 44.2
 
|-
 
|Urban population with access to safe drinking water (%) || || ||  || || 91.4
 
|-
 
|Population affected by water related disease || No data || No data || No data  || No data || No data
 
|-
 
|Total internal renewable water resources (cubic metres/inhabitant/year) || || ||  ||1574 ||
 
|-
 
|Total exploitable water resources (Million cubic metres/year) || No data || No data || No data  || No data || No data
 
|-
 
|Freshwater withdrawal as % of total renewable water resources || ||1.15 || || ||
 
|-
 
|Total renewable groundwater (Million cubic metres/year) ||  || || ||5,700 ||
 
|-
 
|Exploitable: Regular renewable groundwater (Million cubic metres/year) || No data || No data || No data  || No data || No data
 
|-
 
|Groundwater produced internally (Million cubic metres/year) || || ||  ||5,700 ||
 
|-
 
|Fresh groundwater withdrawal (primary and secondary) (Million cubic metres/year) || No data || No data || No data  || No data || No data
 
|-
 
|Groundwater: entering the country (total) (Million cubic metres/year) || No data || No data || No data  || No data || No data
 
|-
 
|Groundwater: leaving the country to other countries (total) (Million cubic metres/year) || No data || No data || No data  || No data || No data
 
|-
 
|Industrial water withdrawal (all water sources) (Million cubic metres/year) || || ||6.3|| ||
 
|-
 
|Municipal water withdrawal (all water sources) (Million cubic metres/year)  || || ||140.7|| ||
 
|-
 
|Agricultural water withdrawal (all water sources) (Million cubic metres/year) || || 76|| || ||
 
|-
 
|Irrigation water withdrawal (all water sources) <sup>1</sup> (Million cubic metres/year) || ||46||  || ||
 
|-
 
|Irrigation water requirement (all water sources) <sup>1</sup> (Million cubic metres/year) ||6.6 || ||  || ||
 
|-
 
|Area of permanent crops (ha) || || ||  ||170,000 ||
 
|-
 
|Cultivated land (arable and permanent crops) (ha) || || ||  ||2,820,000 ||
 
|-
 
|Total area of country cultivated (%) || || ||  || 49.66||
 
|-
 
|Area equipped for irrigation by groundwater (ha) || No data || No data || No data  || No data || No data
 
|-
 
|Area equipped for irrigation by mixed surface water and groundwater (ha) || No data || No data || No data  || No data || No data
 
|}
 
 
These statistics are sourced from [http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/main/index.stm FAO Aquastat]. They are the most recent available information in the Aquastat database. More information on the derivation and interpretation of these statistics can be seen on the FAO Aquastat website.
 
  
Further water and related statistics can be accessed at the [http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/data/query/index.html?lang=en Aquastat Main Database].
 
 
<sup>1</sup> More information on [http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/water_use_agr/index.stm irrigation water use and requirement statistics]
 
  
 
==Geology==
 
==Geology==
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The geology map on this page shows a simplified overview of the geology at a national scale (see the [[Geology | Geology resource page]] for more details).  
 
The geology map on this page shows a simplified overview of the geology at a national scale (see the [[Geology | Geology resource page]] for more details).  
 
[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html '''Download a GIS shapefile of the Togo geology and hydrogeology map'''].
 
 
   
 
   
  
[[File:Togo_Geology4.png | center | thumb| 500px | Geology of Togo at 1:5 million scale. Based on map described by Persits et al. 2002/Furon and Lombard 1964. For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geology | geology resource page]]. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html Download a GIS shapefile of the Togo geology and hydrogeology map].]]
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[[File:Togo_Geology2.png | center | thumb| 500px | Geology of Togo at 1:5 million scale. Developed from USGS map (Persits et al. 2002). For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geology | geology resource page]].]]
  
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
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|Key Formations||Period||Lithology||Structure
 
|Key Formations||Period||Lithology||Structure
 
|-
 
|-
!colspan="4"| Coastal Basin Sedimentary
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!colspan="4"| Sedimentary – Coastal Basin
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Coastal Basin
 
|Coastal Basin
||Cretaceous – Pleistocene (Quaternary)
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||Cretaceous – Pleistocene  
 
||Basal unconsolidated sands, limestone, marl, phospharenite, continental sediments and Quaternary sands.  
 
||Basal unconsolidated sands, limestone, marl, phospharenite, continental sediments and Quaternary sands.  
 
||Sequence deposited in a compartment of the Adina Fault in the south of Togo.
 
||Sequence deposited in a compartment of the Adina Fault in the south of Togo.
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|}
 
|}
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==Hydrogeology==
 
==Hydrogeology==
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This section provides a summary of the hydrogeology of the main aquifers in Togo.  More information is available in the references listed at the bottom of this page. Many of these references can be accessed through the [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/index.cfm Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].
 
This section provides a summary of the hydrogeology of the main aquifers in Togo.  More information is available in the references listed at the bottom of this page. Many of these references can be accessed through the [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/index.cfm Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].
  
The hydrogeology map on this page shows a simplified overview of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | Hydrogeology map resource page]] for more details).
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The hydrogeology map on this page shows a simplified overview of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the [[Hydrogeology Map | Hydrogeology map resource page]] for more details).  
 
 
[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html '''Download a GIS shapefile of the Togo geology and hydrogeology map'''].
 
  
 
There are three main hydrogeological environments in Togo:
 
There are three main hydrogeological environments in Togo:
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[[File:Togo_Hydrogeology4.png | center | thumb| 500px | Hydrogeology of Togo at 1:5 million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | Hydrogeology map]] resource page. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html Download a GIS shapefile of the Togo geology and hydrogeology map].]].
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[[File:Togo_Hydrogeology2.png | center | thumb| 500px | Hydrogeology of Togo at 1:5 million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Hydrogeology Map | Hydrogeology map]] resource page]].
  
  
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==References==
 
==References==
Many of the references below, and others relating to the hydrogeology of Togo, can be found in the [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=listResults&title_search=&author_search=&category_search=&country_search=TG&placeboolean=AND&singlecountry=1 Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].
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Many of the references below, and others relating to the hydrogeology of Togo, can be found in the [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/searchResults.cfm?title_search=&author_search=&category_search=&country_search=TG&placeboolean=AND&singlecountry=1 Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].
  
 
===Key Geology References===
 
===Key Geology References===

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