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[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Tunisia
 
[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Tunisia
  
  '''Lire cette page en français: [[Hydrogéologie de la Tunisie | Hydrogéologie de la Tunisie]]''' [[File: flag_of_france.png  | 50px]]
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'''Lire cette page en français: [[Hydrogéologie de la Tunisie | Hydrogéologie de la Tunisie]]''' [[File: flag_of_france.png  | 50px]]
 
 
[[File:CC-BY-SA_logo_88x31.png | frame | This work is licensed under a [https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License]]]
 
 
 
Tunisia was historically inhabited by Berbers, becoming the seat of Carthage and later part of the Roman empire. Arab dynasties ruled between the 8th and 13th centuries, followed by the Ottomans from the 16th to the 19th century and then by French colonisation until independence in 1957. It had a relatively stable democracy until civil unrest in 2011, which saw a change in government, and an a return to more stable conditions. 
 
 
 
Tunisia’s economy is dominated by the service sector (accounting for over 60% of GDP), including tourism. Petroleum products account for over 11% of exports. Other inmportant sectors are industry (25% of GDP) agriculture (around 11% of GDP) and mining.
 
 
 
Tunisia has the highest access rates to water supply and sanitation in the Middle East and North Africa. Access to safe drinking water became close to universal, approaching 100% in urban areas and 94% in rural areas. With its semi-arid to arid climate, surface water resources are scarce in the south of the country, but the northern coastal region has relatively abundant rainfall and surface water resources .  Groundwater is the main source of water – both shallow renewable and deep, often non-renewable groundwater. Over 75% of groundwater is used by agriculture; most of the rest is for domestic supply. Uncontrolled over-abstraction of groundwater, largely for irrigation by small farmers, is causing over-exploitation of aquifers in some areas.
 
 
 
 
  
 
==Authors==
 
==Authors==
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'''Kirsty Upton''' & '''Brighid Ó Dochartaigh''', British Geological Survey, UK
 
'''Kirsty Upton''' & '''Brighid Ó Dochartaigh''', British Geological Survey, UK
  
'''Imogen Bellwood-Howard''', Institute of Development Studies, UK
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Please cite this page as: Ben Ammar, Mekni, Upton & Ó Dochartaigh, 2016.
  
Please cite this page as: Ben Ammar, Mekni, Upton, Ó Dochartaigh and Bellwood-Howard, 2018.
+
Bibliographic reference: Ben Ammar, S., Mekni, A., Upton, K. & Ó Dochartaigh, B.É. 2016. Africa Groundwater Atlas: Hydrogeology of Tunisia. British Geological Survey. Accessed [date you accessed the information]. http://earthwise.bgs.ac.uk/index.php/Hydrogeology_of_Tunisia
 
 
Bibliographic reference: Ben Ammar, S., Mekni, A., Upton, K., Ó Dochartaigh, B.É. and Bellwood-Howard, I. 2018. Africa Groundwater Atlas: Hydrogeology of Tunisia. British Geological Survey. Accessed [date you accessed the information]. http://earthwise.bgs.ac.uk/index.php/Hydrogeology_of_Tunisia
 
  
 
==Terms and conditions==
 
==Terms and conditions==
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Tunisia has a long coastline onto the Mediterranean Sea. In the north of the country is the Tunisian Dorsale mountain chain, which rises to 1,554 m. In the centre of the country are a series of east-west trending depressions, called chotts. The south of Tunisia is dominated by the Sahara.  
 
Tunisia has a long coastline onto the Mediterranean Sea. In the north of the country is the Tunisian Dorsale mountain chain, which rises to 1,554 m. In the centre of the country are a series of east-west trending depressions, called chotts. The south of Tunisia is dominated by the Sahara.  
 
  
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
|-
 
|-
|Capital city || Tunis
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|Estimated Population in 2013* || 10,886,500
 
|-
 
|-
|Region || Northern Africa
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|Rural Population (% of total) (2013)* || 33.5%
 
|-
 
|-
|Border countries || Algeria, Libya
+
|Total Surface Area* || 155,360 sq km
 
|-
 
|-
|Total surface area* ||163,610 km<sup>2</sup>  (16,361,000 ha)
+
|Agricultural Land (% of total area) (2012)* || 64.9%
 
|-
 
|-
|Total population (2015)* || 11,254,000
+
|Capital City || Tunis
 
|-
 
|-
|Rural population (2015)* ||3,744,000 (33%)
+
|Region || Northern Africa
 
|-
 
|-
|Urban population (2015)* ||7,510,000 (67%)
+
|Border Countries || Algeria, Libya
 
|-
 
|-
|UN Human Development Index (HDI) [highest = 1] (2014)*|| 0.721
+
|Annual Freshwater Withdrawal (2013)* || 2850 Million cubic metres
 +
|-
 +
|Annual Freshwater Withdrawal for Agriculture (2013)* || 76.0%
 +
|-
 +
|Annual Freshwater Withdrawal for Domestic Use (2013)* || 12.8%
 +
|-
 +
|Annual Freshwater Withdrawal for Industry (2013)* || 3.9%
 +
|-
 +
|Rural Population with Access to Improved Water Source (2012)* || 90.5%
 +
|-
 +
|Urban Population with Access to Improved Water Source (2012)* || 100%
 
|}
 
|}
  
<nowiki>*</nowiki> Source: [http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/data/query/index.html?lang=en FAO Aquastat]
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<nowiki>*</nowiki> Source: World Bank
 +
 
  
 
===Climate===
 
===Climate===
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|
 
|
 
|}
 
|}
 
===Water statistics===
 
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
| || 2000 ||2006||2011||2012||2014||2015
 
|-
 
|Rural population with access to safe drinking water (%) || || ||  || || ||93.2
 
|-
 
|Urban population with access to safe drinking water (%) || || ||  || || ||100
 
|-
 
|Population affected by water related disease ||No data || No data || No data  || No data || No data ||No data
 
|-
 
|Total internal renewable water resources (cubic metres/inhabitant/year) || || ||  || ||372.8 ||
 
|-
 
|Total exploitable water resources (Million cubic metres/year) || || || ||3,625|| ||
 
|-
 
|Freshwater withdrawal as % of total renewable water resources || || ||69.71 || || ||
 
|-
 
|Total renewable groundwater (Million cubic metres/year) ||  || || || ||1,595 ||
 
|-
 
|Exploitable: Regular renewable groundwater (Million cubic metres/year) || || ||  ||1,150 || ||
 
|-
 
|Groundwater produced internally (Million cubic metres/year) || || ||  || ||1,495 ||
 
|-
 
|Fresh groundwater withdrawal (primary and secondary) (Million cubic metres/year) |||| ||2,066 || || ||
 
|-
 
|Groundwater: entering the country (total) (Million cubic metres/year) || || ||  || ||100 ||
 
|-
 
|Groundwater: leaving the country to other countries (total) (Million cubic metres/year) || || ||0 || || ||
 
|-
 
|Industrial water withdrawal (all water sources) (Million cubic metres/year) || || || 165|| || ||
 
|-
 
| Municipal water withdrawal (all water sources) (Million cubic metres/year)  || || ||496 || || ||
 
|-
 
|Agricultural water withdrawal (all water sources) (Million cubic metres/year) || || ||2,644 || || ||
 
|-
 
|Irrigation water withdrawal (all water sources)<sup>1</sup> (Million cubic metres/year) ||No data || No data || No data  || No data || No data ||No data
 
|-
 
|Irrigation water requirement (all water sources)<sup>1</sup> (Million cubic metres/year) ||1,552 || ||  || || ||
 
|-
 
|Area of permanent crops (ha) || || ||  || ||2,330,000 ||
 
|-
 
|Cultivated land (arable and permanent crops) (ha) || || ||  || ||5,232,000 ||
 
|-
 
|Total area of country cultivated (%) || || ||  || ||31.98 ||
 
|-
 
|Area equipped for irrigation by groundwater (ha) || ||271,800||  || || ||
 
|-
 
|Area equipped for irrigation by mixed surface water and groundwater (ha) ||13,000 || ||  || || ||
 
|}
 
 
These statistics are sourced from [http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/main/index.stm FAO Aquastat]. More information on the derivation and interpretation of these statistics can be seen on the FAO Aquastat website.
 
 
Further water and related statistics can be accessed at the [http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/data/query/index.html?lang=en Aquastat Main Database].
 
 
<sup>1</sup> More information on [http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/water_use_agr/index.stm irrigation water use and requirement statistics]
 
  
 
==Geology==
 
==Geology==
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The geology map on this page shows a simplified overview of the geology at a national scale (see the [[Geology | Geology resource page]] for more details).  
 
The geology map on this page shows a simplified overview of the geology at a national scale (see the [[Geology | Geology resource page]] for more details).  
 
[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html '''Download a GIS shapefile of the Tunisia geology and hydrogeology map'''].
 
  
 
More detailed geological maps are published by the Service Geologique de Tunisie (at 1:500,000 scale) and the National Office of Mines (ONM) (at 1:50,000 and 1:100,000 scale) (see Geology: Key References, below).
 
More detailed geological maps are published by the Service Geologique de Tunisie (at 1:500,000 scale) and the National Office of Mines (ONM) (at 1:50,000 and 1:100,000 scale) (see Geology: Key References, below).
  
[[File:Tunisia_Geology4.png | center | thumb| 500px | Geology of Tunisia at 1:5 million scale. Based on map described by Persits et al. 2002/Furon and Lombard 1964. For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geology | geology resource page]]. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html Download a GIS shapefile of the Tunisia geology and hydrogeology map].]]
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[[File:Tunisia_Geology2.png | center | thumb| 500px | Geology of Tunisia at 1:5 million scale. Developed from USGS map (Persits et al. 2002). For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geology | geology resource page]].]]
  
 
'''Summary'''
 
'''Summary'''
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This section provides a summary of the hydrogeology of the main aquifers in Tunisia.  More information is available in the references listed at the bottom of this page. Many of these references can be accessed through the [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/index.cfm Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].
 
This section provides a summary of the hydrogeology of the main aquifers in Tunisia.  More information is available in the references listed at the bottom of this page. Many of these references can be accessed through the [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/index.cfm Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].
  
The hydrogeology map on this page shows a simplified overview of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | Hydrogeology map resource page]] for more details).
+
The hydrogeology map on this page shows a simplified overview of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the [[Hydrogeology Map | Hydrogeology map resource page]] for more details).  
 
 
[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html '''Download a GIS shapefile of the Tunisia geology and hydrogeology map'''].
 
  
 
A more detailed hydrogeological map at 1:500,000 scale is published by the DGRE (Zebidi 1991), and a different simplified map is published by SEMIDE (see Hydrogeology: Key References, below).
 
A more detailed hydrogeological map at 1:500,000 scale is published by the DGRE (Zebidi 1991), and a different simplified map is published by SEMIDE (see Hydrogeology: Key References, below).
  
[[File:Tunisia_Hydrogeology4.png | center | thumb| 500px | Hydrogeology of Tunisia at 1:5 million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | Hydrogeology map]] resource page. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html Download a GIS shapefile of the Tunisia geology and hydrogeology map].]].
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[[File:Tunisia_Hydrogeology2.png | center | thumb| 500px | Hydrogeology of Tunisia at 1:5 million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Hydrogeology Map | Hydrogeology map]] resource page]].
  
  
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'''Deep aquifers''' - more than 50 m deep.
 
'''Deep aquifers''' - more than 50 m deep.
  
In the following summary and in the hydrogeology map above, most of the aquifers are classified as dominantly unconsolidated, in which groundwater flow and storage is entirely intergranular. The Complex Terminal and Continental Intercalaire aquifers - the principal aquifers in southern Tunisia - are treated separately; these aquifers have a mix of intergranular and fracture flow.  
+
In the following summary and in the hydrogeology map above, the aquifers are classified by their hydrogeological environment and the way that groundwater flow and storage occur: either unconsolidated, in which groundwater flow and storage is entirely intergranular; or, in consolidated aquifers, a mixture of intergranular and fracture flow.  
  
  
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{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
|Named Aquifers||General Description||Water quantity issues||Water quality issues||Recharge
 
|Named Aquifers||General Description||Water quantity issues||Water quality issues||Recharge
 +
|-
 +
|Continental Intercalaire (CI) (Lower Cretaceous)
 +
||The Continental Intercalaire (CI) aquifer in southern Tunisia is of Lower Cretaceous age (Neocomian, Barremian, Aptian and Albian). It comprises detrital and continental formations, between 125 and 150 m thick, which are buried at depths of 1500 to at least 2400 m. The aquifer is confined, and piezometric water levels range from 500 to 3500 m depth.
 +
 +
Aquifer transmissivity values range from 0.8 to 170 x 10<sup>-3</sup> m<sup>2</sup>/sec. Storativity values range from 0.2 to 1.4 x 10<sup>-4</sup>.
 +
||Annual abstraction from the CI aquifer in 2000 was 83.1 million cubic metres (Mm³).
 +
||Total dissolved solids in groundwater in the CI aquifer aquifer are between 1.5 and 4 g/l.
 +
||Recharge to the aquifer comes from the Algerian Atlas mountains. 
 +
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Sfax basin (Tertiary)
 
|Sfax basin (Tertiary)
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||Total dissolved solids in groundwater in the Sfax basin aquifer range from 2.5 to 10.5 g/l.  
 
||Total dissolved solids in groundwater in the Sfax basin aquifer range from 2.5 to 10.5 g/l.  
 
||There is recent recharge to the aquifer in the upstream region. In the downstream region, stable isotope and radiocarbon data have shown that there is no active recharge.
 
||There is recent recharge to the aquifer in the upstream region. In the downstream region, stable isotope and radiocarbon data have shown that there is no active recharge.
 +
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Kairouan plain (Tertiary - Quaternary)
 
|Kairouan plain (Tertiary - Quaternary)
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Maliki MA (2000); Maliki et al. (2000); Nazoumou (2002); Ben Ammar (2007); Ben Ammar et al. (2009); Leduc et al. (2007); Ben Ammar et al. (2006); Jeribi (2004).
 
Maliki MA (2000); Maliki et al. (2000); Nazoumou (2002); Ben Ammar (2007); Ben Ammar et al. (2009); Leduc et al. (2007); Ben Ammar et al. (2006); Jeribi (2004).
  
 
+
==== Sedimentary - Intergranular & Fracture Flow====
====Complex Terminal and Continental Intercalaire (Sedimentary - Intergranular (including unconsolidated) & Mixed Intergranular/Fracture Flow)====
 
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
|Named Aquifers||General Description||Water quantity issues||Water quality issues||Recharge
 
|Named Aquifers||General Description||Water quantity issues||Water quality issues||Recharge
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||Total dissolved solids in groundwater from the CT aquifer are between 0.7 and 7 g/l.  
 
||Total dissolved solids in groundwater from the CT aquifer are between 0.7 and 7 g/l.  
 
||Recharge to the aquifer comes from the Algerian Atlas mountains; from the Dahar uplands in southeast Tunisia; and from mountains in the northern part of the Chott.  
 
||Recharge to the aquifer comes from the Algerian Atlas mountains; from the Dahar uplands in southeast Tunisia; and from mountains in the northern part of the Chott.  
|-
 
|Continental Intercalaire (CI) (Lower Cretaceous)
 
||The Continental Intercalaire (CI) aquifer in southern Tunisia is of Lower Cretaceous age (Neocomian, Barremian, Aptian and Albian). It comprises detrital and continental formations, between 125 and 150 m thick, which are buried at depths of 1500 to at least 2400 m. The aquifer is confined, and piezometric water levels range from 500 to 3500 m depth.
 
 
Aquifer transmissivity values range from 0.8 to 170 x 10<sup>-3</sup> m<sup>2</sup>/sec. Storativity values range from 0.2 to 1.4 x 10<sup>-4</sup>.
 
||Annual abstraction from the CI aquifer in 2000 was 83.1 million cubic metres (Mm³).
 
||Total dissolved solids in groundwater in the CI aquifer aquifer are between 1.5 and 4 g/l.
 
||Recharge to the aquifer comes from the Algerian Atlas mountains. 
 
|-
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
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===Groundwater quality===
 
===Groundwater quality===
  
Salinisation of groundwater is widespread in Tunisia, linked to intensive exploitation; to the geochemical nature of geological deposits; and sometimes to leaching of irrigation water. Salinity generally increases towards the south and in older (fossil) groundwater: much of the groundwater in the south and parts of the centre of the country has total dissolved solids (TDS) of more than 3 g/l; and in much of the centre and north groundwater TDS is typically between 1.5 and 3 g/l. Saline intrusion in the coastal aquifers is also problematic.
+
Salinisation of groundwater is widespread in Tunisia, linked to intensive exploitation; to the geochemical nature of geological deposits; and sometimes to leaching of irrigation water. Salinity generally increases towards the south and in older (fossil) groundwater: much of the groundwater in the south and parts of the centre of the country has total dissolved solids (TDS) of more than 3 g/l; and in much of the centre and north groundwater TDS is typically between 1.5 and 3 g/l.
  
 
==Groundwater use and management==
 
==Groundwater use and management==
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* Tourism 0.4%
 
* Tourism 0.4%
  
Irrigation in Tunisia uses 2.14 billion m³/year (data from 2012), of which 74% comes from groundwater. Much irrigation is based on a system of family farms using thousands of shallow wells, many of which are uncontrolled by the Ministry of Agriculture. This is leading to aquifer over-exploitation, especially as wells and boreholes are increasingly converted to use electric pumps.
+
Irrigation in Tunisia uses 2.14 billion m³/year (data from 2012), of which 74% comes from groundwater. Much irrigation is based on a system of family farms using thousands of shallow wells, many of which are uncontrolled by the Ministry of Agriculture. This is leading to aquifer over-exploitation, especially as wells and boreholes are increasingly converted to use electric pumps.  
 
 
The Tunisian government portal of the Euro-Mediterranean information system on know-how in the water sector ([http://www.semide.tn/ SEMIDE]) gives the following estimate of Tunisia’s groundwater potential and abstraction rate:
 
 
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|-
 
!
 
!Total groundwater resource (millions m<sup>3</sup>)
 
!Volume that can be used (millions m<sup>3</sup>/year)
 
! Groundwater abstraction (millions m<sup>3</sup>/year)
 
!Ratio of abstraction to total resource (%)
 
|-
 
|Shallow aquifers
 
|745
 
|745
 
|780
 
|105
 
|-
 
|Deep aquifers
 
|1380
 
|1380
 
|1100
 
|80
 
|-
 
|Total
 
|4825
 
|4295
 
|3680
 
|86
 
|}
 
  
 
===Groundwater management===
 
===Groundwater management===
  
Tunisia has invested heavily in monitoring, mobilizing and managing groundwater resources. Four water master plan have been successively put in place since the 1960s. The key institutions involved in groundwater management are:  
+
Tunisia has invested heavily in monitoring, mobilizing and managing groundwater resources. The key institutions involved in groundwater management are:  
  
 
The '''Direction Générale des Ressources en Eau (DGRE)''' / General Direction of Water Resources. This institution has a representation in all 24 departments in the country.
 
The '''Direction Générale des Ressources en Eau (DGRE)''' / General Direction of Water Resources. This institution has a representation in all 24 departments in the country.
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The legal framework for groundwater management falls under the Law No. 16-75 of 31 March 1975 on the promulgation of the Water Code. A [http://www.semide.tn/CDE072014.pd revised version of the Law] is under preparation.  
 
The legal framework for groundwater management falls under the Law No. 16-75 of 31 March 1975 on the promulgation of the Water Code. A [http://www.semide.tn/CDE072014.pd revised version of the Law] is under preparation.  
  
A permit from the DGRE is required for drilling any borehole or well exceeding 50 m in depth. Private abstraction from shallow aquifers less than 50 m deep is not regulated, and as a result, many are over-exploited.
+
A permit from the DGRE is required for drilling any borehole or well exceeding 50 m in depth.  
  
 
Some river basins suffering from overexploitation or/and pollution are protected, and no drilling permit is allowed in these basins.  
 
Some river basins suffering from overexploitation or/and pollution are protected, and no drilling permit is allowed in these basins.  
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Domestic water is treated by the [http://www.onas.nat.tn ONAS (Office National d’Assanissement)] / National Sanitation Utility.
 
Domestic water is treated by the [http://www.onas.nat.tn ONAS (Office National d’Assanissement)] / National Sanitation Utility.
 
Irrigation schemes are managed by Agricultural Development Groups, of which there were over 2800 in 2009. A minority of these deal only with groundwater irrigation.
 
  
 
===Artificial recharge===
 
===Artificial recharge===
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====Groundwater level monitoring====
 
====Groundwater level monitoring====
  
Groundwater level monitoring is done twice a year by different departments of the DGRE (there are 24 departments covering the country), using a piezometric network of more than 2,000 shallow wells and more than 1,100 deep boreholes ([http://www.semide.tn/ SEMIDE]). DGRE publish an annual report on the piezometric monitoring of deep aquifers, and a 5-yearly report on the piezometric monitoring of the phreatic aquifers. See also Horriche & Besbes (2006).  
+
Groundwater level monitoring is done twice a year by different departments of the DGRE (there are 24 departments covering the country). DGRE publish an annual report on the piezometric monitoring of deep aquifers, and a 5-yearly report on the piezometric monitoring of the phreatic aquifers. See also Horriche & Besbes (2006).
  
 
====Groundwater quality monitoring====
 
====Groundwater quality monitoring====
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The DGRE publishes the monitoring results in regular (annual or 5-yearly) reports. The [https://www.semide.tn SEMIDE] programme also publishes monitoring results online.  
 
The DGRE publishes the monitoring results in regular (annual or 5-yearly) reports. The [https://www.semide.tn SEMIDE] programme also publishes monitoring results online.  
  
Boreholes from which groundwater is abstracted for domestic use by SONEDE are monitored monthly. SONEDE analysed 55,886 water samples in 2013. These results are published online by [https://www.sonede.com.tn/index.php?id=43 SONEDE].
+
Boreholes from which groundwater is abstracted for domestic use by SONEDE are monitored monthly. SONEDE analysed 55,886 water sampels in 2013. These results are published online by [https://www.sonede.com.tn/index.php?id=43 SONEDE].
  
 
=== Transboundary aquifers===
 
=== Transboundary aquifers===
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The following references provide more information on the geology and hydrogeology of Tunisia.
 
The following references provide more information on the geology and hydrogeology of Tunisia.
These, and others, can be accessed through the [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africaGroundwaterAtlas/atlas.cfc?method=listResults&title_search=&author_search=&category_search=&country_search=TN&placeboolean=AND&singlecountry=1 Africa Groundwater Literature Archive]
+
These, and others, can be accessed through the [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/searchResults.cfm?title_search=&author_search=&category_search=&country_search=TN&placeboolean=AND&singlecountry=1 Africa Groundwater Literature Archive]
  
 
===Geology: key references===
 
===Geology: key references===
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DGRE (Direction Generale des Ressources en Eau). 2004. [http://www.hydrosciences.fr/sierem/produits/biblio/annales/TN/2003-2004.pdf Annuaire Hydrologique de Tunisie 2003-2004].  
 
DGRE (Direction Generale des Ressources en Eau). 2004. [http://www.hydrosciences.fr/sierem/produits/biblio/annales/TN/2003-2004.pdf Annuaire Hydrologique de Tunisie 2003-2004].  
 
Ecole nationale d’ingénieurs de Sfax. [http://tcdc2.undp.org/GSSDAcademy/SIE/Docs/Vol11/SIE.v11_CH18.pdf Mapping groundwater resources: Tunisia].
 
  
 
Horriche F et Besbes M. 2006. [http://www.researchgate.net/publication/263241220_ANALYSE_DU_RSEAU_PIZOMTRIQUE_NATIONAL_TUNISIEN Analyse du réseau piézométrique national tunisien]. Journal of Water Science, 19 (4), 347-363.  
 
Horriche F et Besbes M. 2006. [http://www.researchgate.net/publication/263241220_ANALYSE_DU_RSEAU_PIZOMTRIQUE_NATIONAL_TUNISIEN Analyse du réseau piézométrique national tunisien]. Journal of Water Science, 19 (4), 347-363.  
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Zebidi H. 1991. Carte des Ressources en Eau de la Tunisie; echelle 1:500,000. Direction Generale des Ressources en Eau.
 
Zebidi H. 1991. Carte des Ressources en Eau de la Tunisie; echelle 1:500,000. Direction Generale des Ressources en Eau.
  
 +
==Return to the index pages==
  
 
Return to the index pages:
 
 
[[Overview of Africa Groundwater Atlas | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Tunisia
 
[[Overview of Africa Groundwater Atlas | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Tunisia
  

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