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[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Uganda
 
[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Uganda
  
[[File:CC-BY-SA_logo_88x31.png | frame | This work is licensed under a [https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License]]]
 
  
 
Uganda has been inhabited for thousands of years. Some of the earliest farmers were Bantu speakers, who gradually cleared forest to develop agricultural land for cultivation, and maintained a kinship-organised system of government that expanded by around 1000 AD to much larger polities, some governing over a million people. At the same time there were also large pastoralist groups, including both Nilotic and Bantu-descended peoples, with a complex interaction between pastoralist and agriculturalist societies. In the mid 19th century, Uganda came in increasing contact with outside influences, including from Egypt, Britain, France, Germany and Zanzibar-based Arab Muslims, often with military conflict. Uganda came under British colonial rule in 1894, gaining independence in 1962. Since then it has seen a number of periods of political and social unrest, some country-wide and some focussed in particular areas. Since the 1980s, a civil war between the Ugandan state and the Lord’s Resistance Army in northern Uganda, and participation in the Second Congo War, among other things, have had severe impacts on the development of infrastructure, including water supply.
 
Uganda has been inhabited for thousands of years. Some of the earliest farmers were Bantu speakers, who gradually cleared forest to develop agricultural land for cultivation, and maintained a kinship-organised system of government that expanded by around 1000 AD to much larger polities, some governing over a million people. At the same time there were also large pastoralist groups, including both Nilotic and Bantu-descended peoples, with a complex interaction between pastoralist and agriculturalist societies. In the mid 19th century, Uganda came in increasing contact with outside influences, including from Egypt, Britain, France, Germany and Zanzibar-based Arab Muslims, often with military conflict. Uganda came under British colonial rule in 1894, gaining independence in 1962. Since then it has seen a number of periods of political and social unrest, some country-wide and some focussed in particular areas. Since the 1980s, a civil war between the Ugandan state and the Lord’s Resistance Army in northern Uganda, and participation in the Second Congo War, among other things, have had severe impacts on the development of infrastructure, including water supply.
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|Freshwater withdrawal as % of total renewable water resources || ||1.06 || || || ||
 
|Freshwater withdrawal as % of total renewable water resources || ||1.06 || || || ||
 
|-
 
|-
|Total renewable groundwater (Million cubic metres/year) ||  || || || ||29,000 ||
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|Renewable groundwater resources (Million cubic metres/year) || No data || No data || No data || No data || No data || No data
|-
 
|Exploitable: Regular renewable groundwater (Million cubic metres/year) || No data || No data || No data || No data || No data || No data
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
|Groundwater produced internally (Million cubic metres/year) || || ||  || ||29,000 ||
 
|Groundwater produced internally (Million cubic metres/year) || || ||  || ||29,000 ||
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This section provides a summary of the geology of Uganda. The geology map on this page shows a simplified overview of the geology at a national scale (see the [[Geology | Geology resource page]] for more details).  
 
This section provides a summary of the geology of Uganda. The geology map on this page shows a simplified overview of the geology at a national scale (see the [[Geology | Geology resource page]] for more details).  
 
[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html '''Download a GIS shapefile of the Uganda geology and hydrogeology map'''].
 
  
 
A higher resolution national geological map, at 1: 1 million scale, was published in 2014 by the Geological Survey of Finland ([http://tupa.gtk.fi/kartta/erikoiskartta/ek_094.pdf Lehto et al. 2014]), with detailed supporting information in an accompanying report ([http://tupa.gtk.fi/julkaisu/specialpaper/sp_055.pdf Westerhof et al. 2014]).
 
A higher resolution national geological map, at 1: 1 million scale, was published in 2014 by the Geological Survey of Finland ([http://tupa.gtk.fi/kartta/erikoiskartta/ek_094.pdf Lehto et al. 2014]), with detailed supporting information in an accompanying report ([http://tupa.gtk.fi/julkaisu/specialpaper/sp_055.pdf Westerhof et al. 2014]).
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Further information can be found in the references listed at the bottom of this page. Many of these references can be accessed through the [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/index.cfm Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].
 
Further information can be found in the references listed at the bottom of this page. Many of these references can be accessed through the [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/index.cfm Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].
  
[[File:Uganda_Geology3.png | center | thumb| 500px | Geology of Uganda at 1:5 million scale. Based on map described by Persits et al. 2002/Furon and Lombard 1964. For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geology | geology resource page]]. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html Download a GIS shapefile of the Uganda geology and hydrogeology map].]]
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[[File:Uganda_Geology.png | center | thumb| 500px | Geology of Uganda at 1:5 million scale. Based on map described by Persits et al. 2002/Furon and Lombard 1964. For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geology | geology resource page]].]]
 
 
  
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
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This section provides a summary of the hydrogeology of the main aquifers in Uganda.  More information is available in the references listed at the bottom of this page. Many of these references can be accessed through the [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/index.cfm Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].
 
This section provides a summary of the hydrogeology of the main aquifers in Uganda.  More information is available in the references listed at the bottom of this page. Many of these references can be accessed through the [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/index.cfm Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].
  
The hydrogeology map on this page shows a simplified overview of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps | Hydrogeology map resource page]] for more details).
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The hydrogeology map on this page shows a simplified overview of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the [[Hydrogeology Map | Hydrogeology map resource page]] for more details).  
 
 
[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html '''Download a GIS shapefile of the Uganda geology and hydrogeology map'''].
 
  
 
Other hydrogeological maps at different scales have been produced in different formats, including:
 
Other hydrogeological maps at different scales have been produced in different formats, including:
  
:- A 1989 national hydrogeological map of Uganda, which can be viewed on the [https://fishy.bgr.de/whymis/images/country/uganda_1989.jpg WHYMAP] website. The [https://fishy.bgr.de/whymis/images/country/uganda_1989_legend.jpg legend] for this map can be viewed separately.
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:- A 1989 national hydrogeological map of Uganda, which can be viewed on the https://fishy.bgr.de/whymis/images/country/uganda_1989.jpg WHYMAP] website.  
 
:- A series of national and district (e.g. at scales of 1:160 000) groundwater maps, which were produced through the EU-funded '''Mapping of Groundwater Resources Programme'''. These include maps of water supply coverage, hydrogeological characteristics, groundwater potential, water quality and groundwater development technology options. An introduction to this programme can be found in [http://wedc.lboro.ac.uk/resources/conference/30/Tindimugaya.pdf Tindimugaya] (2004). Many outputs from the programme, including maps and reports, can be found on the [http://www.mwe.go.ug/index.php?option=com_docman&task=cat_view&gid=27&Itemid=223 Ministry of Water and Environment website].
 
:- A series of national and district (e.g. at scales of 1:160 000) groundwater maps, which were produced through the EU-funded '''Mapping of Groundwater Resources Programme'''. These include maps of water supply coverage, hydrogeological characteristics, groundwater potential, water quality and groundwater development technology options. An introduction to this programme can be found in [http://wedc.lboro.ac.uk/resources/conference/30/Tindimugaya.pdf Tindimugaya] (2004). Many outputs from the programme, including maps and reports, can be found on the [http://www.mwe.go.ug/index.php?option=com_docman&task=cat_view&gid=27&Itemid=223 Ministry of Water and Environment website].
  
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[[File:Uganda_Hydrogeology3.png | center | thumb | 500px | Hydrogeology of Uganda at 1:5 million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Hydrogeology Map | Hydrogeology map]] resource page. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html Download a GIS shapefile of the Uganda geology and hydrogeology map].]]  
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[[File:Uganda_Hydrogeology.png]] [[File: Hydrogeology_Key.png | 500x195px]]
  
  
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|Named Aquifers||General Description||Water quality issues||Recharge
 
|Named Aquifers||General Description||Water quality issues||Recharge
 
|-
 
|-
|Alluvial (fluvial) ||Unconsolidated sedimentary aquifers in Uganda are mostly found along current river channels or palaeochannels in which fluvial/alluvial gravel, sand and silt have been deposited. For example, in southwest Uganda at Rukungiri there are pockets of palaeochannel alluvial gravels tens of metres thick, which have very high aquifer productivity (Tindimugaya 2008).
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|Alluvial (fluvial) ||Unconsolidated sedimentary aquifers in Uganda are mostly found along current river channels or palaeochannels in which fluvial/alluvial gravel, sand and silt have been deposited.  
  
 
Yields of more than 50 m³/hour are possible in the unconsolidated fluvial aquifers. Hydraulic conductivity typically varies between 0.02 and 15 m/day, while average transmissivity is 34 m²/day. Average storage is 0.1.  
 
Yields of more than 50 m³/hour are possible in the unconsolidated fluvial aquifers. Hydraulic conductivity typically varies between 0.02 and 15 m/day, while average transmissivity is 34 m²/day. Average storage is 0.1.  
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Tindimugaya C. 2004. [http://wedc.lboro.ac.uk/resources/conference/30/Tindimugaya.pdf Groundwater mapping and its implications for rural water supply coverage in Uganda]. Presentation at 30th WEDC International Conference, Vientane, Lao PDR.  
 
Tindimugaya C. 2004. [http://wedc.lboro.ac.uk/resources/conference/30/Tindimugaya.pdf Groundwater mapping and its implications for rural water supply coverage in Uganda]. Presentation at 30th WEDC International Conference, Vientane, Lao PDR.  
 
Tindimugaya C. 2004. [https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320263629_Groundwater_flow_and_storage_in_weathered_crystalline_rock_aquifer_systems_of_Uganda Groundwater flow and storage in weathered crystalline rock aquifer systems of Uganda]. PhD Thesis, University College London, UK.
 
 
Traoré U. 2019. [http://www.rural-water-supply.net/en/resources/details/875 Challenges of Water Well Drillers & Water Well Drillers Associations: Case Studies of Six Countries (Angola, Burkina Faso, Mozambique, Nigeria, United States of America, and Uganda)]. Skat Foundation and the Rural Water Supply Network, St. Gallen Switzerland, September 2019.
 
  
 
UNESCO. 2006.  [http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001467/146760e.pdf  Water, a shared responsibility]. National Water Development Report: Uganda, prepared for the 2nd UN World Water Development Report.
 
UNESCO. 2006.  [http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001467/146760e.pdf  Water, a shared responsibility]. National Water Development Report: Uganda, prepared for the 2nd UN World Water Development Report.

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