Editing Hydrogeology of Uganda

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====Groundwater Monitoring====
 
====Groundwater Monitoring====
  
There is a national groundwater level monitoring network, managed by the Directorate of Water Resources Management in Entebbe. Monitoring started in 1998. In 2017 the network consisted of 55 boreholes across a range of hydrogeological environments: 23 were already operational and 23 were newly drilled and awaiting instrumentation. Data are collected using chart recorders and pressure transducers, which are corrected against dip meter readings. Some of the monitoring boreholes are sited close to abstraction boreholes to monitor the effects of abstraction, but most are sited away from any major groundwater abstraction in order to monitor natural groundwater level fluctuations. At 21 of these sites there is also a rain gauge. An overview of groundwater monitoring is given in [http://www.mwe.go.ug/sites/default/files/library/Consolidated%20Hydrological%20YearBook%201978-2014%20for%20Uganda.pdf MWE] (2017]).
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There is a national groundwater monitoring network, which in 2017 consisted of 55 boreholes: 23 were already operational and 23 were newly drilled and awaiting instrumentation. Some of the monitoring boreholes are sited close to abstraction boreholes to monitor the effects of abstraction, but most are sited away from any major groundwater abstraction in order to monitor natural groundwater level fluctuations. At 21 of these sites there is also a rain gauge. An overview of groundwater monitoring is given in [http://www.mwe.go.ug/sites/default/files/library/Consolidated%20Hydrological%20YearBook%201978-2014%20for%20Uganda.pdf MWE] (2017]).
 
 
Groundwater quality is monitored nationally in the 8 major hydrological catchments of Uganda. This data is analysed and stored by the Directorate of Water Resources Management. Monitoring is carried out bi-weekly and the following data are collected:
 
*pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and hardness
 
*Major ions (e.g. Ca, Ma, K, Na, SO4, Cl, HCO3)
 
*Selected problem ions (e.g. Fe, NO3, F)
 
*Selected stable isotopes (e.g. 2H, 18O)
 
 
 
  
 
=== Transboundary aquifers===
 
=== Transboundary aquifers===
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=== Groundwater monitoring===
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The national groundwater level monitoring programme is managed by the Directorate of Water Resources Management in Entebbe. Monitoring started in 1998 and daily observations are available for 30 stations across a range of hydrogeological environments. Data are collected using chart recorders and pressure transducers, which are corrected against dip meter readings.
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Groundwater quality is monitored nationally by the 8 major hydrological catchments of Uganda. This data is analysed and stored by the Directorate of Water Resources Management. Monitoring is carried out bi-weekly and the following data are collected:
 +
*pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and hardness
 +
*Major ions (e.g. Ca, Ma, K, Na, SO4, Cl, HCO3)
 +
*Selected problem ions (e.g. Fe, NO3, F)
 +
*Selected stable isotopes (e.g. 2H, 18O)
  
 
===References===
 
===References===
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'''Literature'''
 
'''Literature'''
 
Directorate of Water Resources Management. 2012. [https://www.mwe.go.ug/library/kibaale-ground-water-maps-0 Kibaale Groundwater Maps and Report: Mapping Groundwater Resources in Uganda]. Ministry of Water and Environment, Uganda.
 
 
Directorate of Water Resources Management. 2012. [https://www.mwe.go.ug/sites/default/files/library/Kibaale%20Ground%20Water%20Map%20Report.pdf Kibaale District Groundwater Report: Mapping Groundwater Resources in Uganda]. Ministry of Water and Environment, Uganda.
 
  
 
Directorate of Water Resources Management. 2012. [http://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CCEQFjAAahUKEwjP8v_QpqbHAhUImBoKHX26DFU&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.mwe.go.ug%2Findex.php%3Foption%3Dcom_docman%26task%3Ddoc_download%26gid%3D406%26Itemid%3D223&ei=Aa7MVY_uJIiwav30sqgF&usg=AFQjCNFijhSpYVQm97AsnI29ueL5t2o0hA&sig2=z3WeTv2MuA1smDYm2uSe1g&bvm=bv.99804247,d.d2s Kole District Groundwater Report: Mapping Groundwater Resources in Uganda. Ministry of Water and Environment, Uganda].
 
Directorate of Water Resources Management. 2012. [http://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CCEQFjAAahUKEwjP8v_QpqbHAhUImBoKHX26DFU&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.mwe.go.ug%2Findex.php%3Foption%3Dcom_docman%26task%3Ddoc_download%26gid%3D406%26Itemid%3D223&ei=Aa7MVY_uJIiwav30sqgF&usg=AFQjCNFijhSpYVQm97AsnI29ueL5t2o0hA&sig2=z3WeTv2MuA1smDYm2uSe1g&bvm=bv.99804247,d.d2s Kole District Groundwater Report: Mapping Groundwater Resources in Uganda. Ministry of Water and Environment, Uganda].

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