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[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Zimbabwe
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[[Overview of Africa Groundwater Atlas | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Zimbabwe
 
 
[[File:CC-BY-SA_logo_88x31.png | frame | This work is licensed under a [https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License]]]
 
 
 
The area of present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms since the 11th century, as well as a major migration and trade route. It came under colonial British rule in the late 19th century, declaring unilateral independence in 1965. Over the next 15 years there was internal conflict between guerrilla forces and the predominantly white independent Rhodesian government. A 1979 settlement led to elections and the establishment of a biracial democracy, and following formally agreed independence from Britain in 1980, Robert Mugabe was elected head of state. Zimbabwe continued to experience interlinked economic, social and political difficulties, as well as natural pressures such as drought, and has high levels of poverty and poor health, low life expectancy. A particular issue was land redistribution, which after 2000 radically changed land ownership away from the minority white population who owned 70% of the most productive agricultural land, to black farmers. International sanctions in response to government policies has had significant impact on the country. The effective collapse of the economy was one factor leading to the relatively peaceful ousting in 2017 of Robert Mugabe after 37 years.
 
 
 
Minerals (particularly gold but also including platinum and diamonds) are Zimbabwe’s main foreign exports. Although the mining sector is very lucrative, corruption means that much revenue is lost to the state. Land distribution damaged the agricultural sector, once a source of export revenue, and today Zimbabwe is a net importer of food products. However, there have been recent improvements in the number of smallholders practising conservation agriculture and in crop yields.  Tourism is also important, but has declined since 2000, today contributing around 8% of GDP. Zimbabwe saw hyperinflaction from 2000, and in 2016 the government allowed trade to take place in US dollars and other hard currencies rather than the Zimbabwe dollar.
 
 
 
With relatively low rainfall and unequally distributed surface water resources, groundwater is the main drinking water source in rural areas. Groundwater is also used for irrigation on some commercial as well as smallholder farms. Groundwater is also used to supply some urban water supply systems. However, despite its widespread use, groundwater contributes not more than 10% of total water use.
 
 
 
  
 
==Authors==
 
==Authors==
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'''Emily Crane''', '''Kirsty Upton''', '''Brighid Ó Dochartaigh''', British Geological Survey, UK
 
'''Emily Crane''', '''Kirsty Upton''', '''Brighid Ó Dochartaigh''', British Geological Survey, UK
 
'''Imogen Bellwood-Howard''', Institute of Development Studies, UK
 
 
Please cite this page as: Mudimbo, Owen, Crane, Upton, Ó Dochartaigh and Bellwood-Howard, 2018.
 
 
Bibliographic reference: Mudimbo, D., Owen, R., Crane, E., Upton, K., Ó Dochartaigh, B.É. and Bellwood-Howard, I. 2018. Africa Groundwater Atlas: Hydrogeology of Zimbabwe. British Geological Survey. Accessed [date you accessed the information]. http://earthwise.bgs.ac.uk/index.php/Hydrogeology_of_Zimbabwe
 
 
==Terms and conditions==
 
 
The Africa Groundwater Atlas is hosted by the British Geological Survey (BGS) and includes information from third party sources. Your use of information provided by this website is at your own risk. If reproducing diagrams that include third party information, please cite both the Africa Groundwater Atlas and the third party sources. Please see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Terms of Use | Terms of use]] for more information.
 
  
 
==Geographical Setting==
 
==Geographical Setting==
  
Most of the country forms part of the central plateau, at an elevation of between 1200 and 1600 m. The east is mountainous, with the highest point at Mount Nyangani at 2592 m.
 
 
   
 
   
[[File:Zimbabwe_Political.png | right | frame | Zimbabwe. Map developed from USGS GTOPOPO30; GADM global administrative areas; and UN Revision of World Urbanization Prospects. For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geography | geography resources section]].]]
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[[File:Zimbabwe_Political.png | right | frame | Political Map of Zimbabwe (For more information on the datasets used in the map see the [[Geography | geography resources section]])]]
  
 
   
 
   
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{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
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|-
 +
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|Estimated Population in 2013* || 14149648
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|-
 
|-
|Capital city || Harare
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 +
|Rural Population (% of total)* || 67.4%
 +
 
 
|-
 
|-
|Region || Eastern Africa
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 +
|Total Surface Area* || 386850 sq km
 +
 
 
|-
 
|-
|Border countries || Mozambique, South Africa, Botswana, Namibia, Zambia
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 +
|Agricultural Land (% of total area)* || 41.9%
  
 
|-
 
|-
|Total surface area* ||390,760 km<sup>2</sup>  (39,076,000 ha)
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 +
|Capital City || Harare
 +
 
 
|-
 
|-
  
|Total population (2015)* || 15,603,000
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|Region || Eastern Africa
 +
 
 
|-
 
|-
|Rural population (2015)* ||10,732,000 (69%)
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 +
|Border Countries || Mozambique, South Africa, Botswana, Namibia, Zambia
 +
 
 
|-
 
|-
|Urban population (2015)* || 4,871,000 (31%)
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 +
|Annual Freshwater Withdrawal (2013)* || 4205 Million cubic metres
 +
 
 
|-
 
|-
|UN Human Development Index (HDI) [highest = 1] (2014)*|| 0.5087
 
|}
 
  
<nowiki>*</nowiki> Source: [http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/data/query/index.html?lang=en FAO Aquastat]
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|Annual Freshwater Withdrawal for Agriculture* || 78.9%
 +
 
 +
|-
  
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|Annual Freshwater Withdrawal for Domestic Use* || 14.0%
===Climate===
 
  
Zimbabwe has a tropical climate, with a dry season in which little rain falls, and a rainy season that usually lasts from late October to March. Local climate is moderated by altitude. Rainfall is lowest (less than 500 mm/year) in the south and southwest; between 600 and approximately 1000 mm/year across much of the centre of the country; and only exceeds 1000 mm/year in the mountains of the east.
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|-
  
[[File:Zimbabwe_ClimateZones.png | 375x365px |Koppen Geiger Climate Zones]][[File:Zimbabwe_ClimatePrecip.png | 375x365px |Average Annual Precipitation]][[File:Zimbabwe_ClimateTemp.png | 375x365px |Average Temperature]]
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|Annual Freshwater Withdrawal for Industry* || 7.1%
  
[[File:Zimbabwe_pre_Monthly.png| 255x124px| Average monthly precipitation for Zimbabwe showing minimum and maximum (light blue), 25th and 75th percentile (blue), and median (dark blue) rainfall]] [[File:Zimbabwe_tmp_Monthly.png| 255x124px| Average monthly temperature for Zimbabwe showing minimum and maximum (orange), 25th and 75th percentile (red), and median (black) temperature]] [[File:Zimbabwe_pre_Qts.png | 255x124px | Quarterly precipitation over the period 1950-2012]] [[File:Zimbabwe_pre_Mts.png|255x124px | Monthly precipitation (blue) over the period 2000-2012 compared with the long term monthly average (red)]]
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|-
  
More information on average rainfall and temperature for each of the climate zones in Zimbabwe can be seen at the [[Climate of Zimbabwe | Zimbabwe climate page]].
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|Rural Population with Access to Improved Water Source* || 68.7%
  
These maps and graphs were developed from the CRU TS 3.21 dataset produced by the Climatic Research Unit at the University of East Anglia, UK. For more information see the [[Climate | climate resource page]].
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|-
  
===Surface water===
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|Urban Population with Access to Improved Water Source* || 97.3%
  
 +
|}
 
   
 
   
{|
 
  
|-
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<nowiki>*</nowiki> Source: World Bank
  
|The four largest rivers in Zimbabwe are the Zambezi, Limpopo, Save and Pungwe. These are all transboundary rivers, which flow to the Indian Ocean. Two major smaller rivers are the Thuli and Mzingwane, which are tributaries of larger transboundary rivers.
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The Zimbabwe National Water Authority Hydrology Department manages information relating to surface water resources availability.
 
  
 +
===Climate===
  
  
 +
<gallery widths="375px" heights=365px mode=nolines>
  
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File:Zimbabwe_ClimateZones.png |Koppen Geiger Climate Zones
  
 +
File:Zimbabwe_ClimatePrecip.png |Average Annual Precipitation
  
 +
File:Zimbabwe_ClimateTemp.png |Average Temperature
  
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</gallery>
  
| [[File:Zimbabwe_Hydrology.png | frame | Major surface water features of Zimbabwe. Map developed from World Wildlife Fund HydroSHEDS; Digital Chart of the World drainage; and FAO Inland Water Bodies. For more information on map development and datasets see the [[Surface water | surface water resource page]].]]
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Rainfall time-series and graphs of monthly average rainfall and temperature for each individual climate zone can be found on the [[Climate of Zimbabwe | Zimbabwe Climate Page]].
 +
  
|}
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[[File:Zimbabwe_pre_Monthly.png| 255x124px| Average monthly precipitation for Zimbabwe showing minimum and maximum (light blue), 25th and 75th percentile (blue), and median (dark blue) rainfall]] [[File:Zimbabwe_tmp_Monthly.png| 255x124px| Average monthly temperature for Zimbabwe showing minimum and maximum (orange), 25th and 75th percentile (red), and median (black) temperature]] [[File:Zimbabwe_pre_Qts.png | 255x124px | Quarterly precipitation over the period 1950-2012]] [[File:Zimbabwe_pre_Mts.png|255x124px | Monthly precipitation (blue) over the period 2000-2012 compared with the long term monthly average (red)]]
  
 
   
 
   
 +
For further detail on the climate datasets used see the [[Climate | climate resources section]].
  
===Soil===
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 +
===Surface water===
  
 +
 
{|
 
{|
  
 
|-
 
|-
| [[File:Zimbabwe_soil.png | frame | Soil Map of Zimbabwe, from the European Commission Joint Research Centre: European Soil Portal. For more information on the map see the [[Soil | soil resource page]].]]
 
  
 
|
 
|
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| [[File:Zimbabwe_Hydrology.png | frame | Surface Water Map of Zimbabwe (For more information on the datasets used in the map see the [[Surface water | surface water resources section]])]]
  
 
|}
 
|}
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===Land cover===
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===Soil===
  
 
{|
 
{|
  
 
|-
 
|-
|  
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| [[File:Zimbabwe_soil.png | frame | Soil Map of Zimbabwe (For more information on the datasets used in the map see the [[Soil | soil resources section]])]]
  
|Most of the country is covered by savannah vegetation, with the wetter mountainous east supporting tropical evergreen and hardwood forests.
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|
  
 +
|}
  
 +
  
[[File:Zimbabwe_LandCover.png | frame | Land Cover Map of Zimbabwe, from the European Space Agency GlobCover 2.3, 2009. For more information on the map see the [[Land cover | land cover resource page]].]]
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===Land cover===
  
|}
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{|
 
 
===Water statistics===
 
  
{| class = "wikitable"
 
| || 1999 ||2002||2007||2012||2014||2015
 
 
|-
 
|-
|Rural population with access to safe drinking water (%) || || ||  || || ||67.3
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|  
|-
 
|Urban population with access to safe drinking water (%) || || ||  || || ||97
 
|-
 
|Population affected by water related disease || No data|| No data|| No data || No data || No data || No data
 
|-
 
|Total internal renewable water resources (cubic metres/inhabitant/year) || || ||  || ||785.7||
 
|-
 
|Total exploitable water resources (Million cubic metres/year) || No data|| No data|| No data || No data || No data || No data
 
|-
 
|Freshwater withdrawal as % of total renewable water resources || || || 17.85|| || ||
 
|-
 
|Total renewable groundwater (Million cubic metres/year) ||  || || || ||6,000 ||
 
|-
 
|Exploitable: Regular renewable groundwater (Million cubic metres/year) || || ||  ||1,500 || ||
 
|-
 
|Groundwater produced internally (Million cubic metres/year) || || ||  || ||6,000||
 
|-
 
|Fresh groundwater withdrawal (primary and secondary) (Million cubic metres/year) ||||420||  || || ||
 
|-
 
|Groundwater: entering the country (total) (Million cubic metres/year) || || ||  || || ||
 
|-
 
|Groundwater: leaving the country to other countries (total) (Million cubic metres/year) || || ||  || || ||
 
|-
 
|Industrial water withdrawal (all water sources) (Million cubic metres/year) || || ||215|| || ||
 
|-
 
| Municipal water withdrawal (all water sources) (Million cubic metres/year)  || || ||425|| || ||
 
|-
 
|Agricultural water withdrawal (all water sources) (Million cubic metres/year) || || ||2,930|| || ||
 
|-
 
|Irrigation water withdrawal (all water sources)<sup>1</sup> (Million cubic metres/year) || No data|| No data|| No data || No data || No data || No data
 
|-
 
|Irrigation water requirement (all water sources)<sup>1</sup> (Million cubic metres/year) ||836|| ||  || || ||
 
|-
 
|Area of permanent crops (ha) || || ||  || ||100,000 ||
 
|-
 
|Cultivated land (arable and permanent crops) (ha) || || ||  || ||4,100,000 ||
 
|-
 
|Total area of country cultivated (%) || || ||  || || ||
 
|-
 
|Area equipped for irrigation by groundwater (ha) ||20,000 || ||  || || ||
 
|-
 
|Area equipped for irrigation by mixed surface water and groundwater (ha) || No data|| No data|| No data || No data || No data || No data
 
|}
 
  
These statistics are sourced from [http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/main/index.stm FAO Aquastat]. More information on the derivation and interpretation of these statistics can be seen on the FAO Aquastat website.
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| [[File:Zimbabwe_LandCover.png | frame | Land Cover Map of Zimbabwe (For more information on the datasets used in the map see the [[Land cover | land cover resources section]])]]
  
Further water and related statistics can be accessed at the [http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/data/query/index.html?lang=en Aquastat Main Database].
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|}
  
<sup>1</sup> More information on [http://www.fao.org/nr/water/aquastat/water_use_agr/index.stm irrigation water use and requirement statistics]
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 +
  
 
==Geology==
 
==Geology==
  
This section provides a summary of the geology of Zimbabwe. More detail can be found in the references listed at the bottom of this page. Many of these references can be accessed through the [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/index.cfm Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].
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This section provides a summary of the geology of Zimbabwe. More detail can be found in the references listed at the bottom of this page. ''Many of these references can be accessed through the [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/index.cfm Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].''
 
 
The geology map on this page shows a simplified overview of the geology at a national scale (see the [[Geology | Geology resource page]] for more details).
 
  
[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html '''Download a GIS shapefile of the Zimbabwe geology and hydrogeology map'''].
+
The geology map on this page shows a simplified version of the geology at a national scale (see [[Geology | the Geology resources page]] for more details). ''The map is available to download as a shapefile (.shp) for use in GIS packages.''  
  
[[File:Zimbabwe_Geology3.png | center | thumb| 500px | Geology of Zimbabwe at 1:5 million scale. Based on map described by Persits et al. 2002/Furon and Lombard 1964. For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geology | geology resource page]]. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html Download a GIS shapefile of the Zimbabwe geology and hydrogeology map].]]
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[[File:Zimbabwe_Geology.png | right]]
  
 
   
 
   
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==Hydrogeology==
 
==Hydrogeology==
  
This section provides a summary of the hydrogeology of the main aquifers in Zimbabwe.  More information is available in the references listed at the bottom of this page. Many of these references can be accessed through the [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/index.cfm Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].
+
This section provides a summary of the hydrogeology of the main aquifers in Zimbabwe.  More information is available in the references listed at the bottom of this page. ''Many of these references can be accessed through the [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/index.cfm Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].''
  
The hydrogeology map on this page shows a simplified overview of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps  | Hydrogeology map resource page]] for more details).  
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The hydrogeology map on this page shows a simplified version of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see [[Aquifer properties| the Aquifer properties resource page]] for more details). ''The map is available to download as a shapefile (.shp) for use in GIS packages.''
  
[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html '''Download a GIS shapefile of the Zimbabwe geology and hydrogeology map'''].
 
  
Zimbabwe is also covered by the SADC hydrogeological map and atlas (2010), available through the [https://ggis.un-igrac.org/ggis-viewer/viewer/sadcgip/public/default SADC Groundwater Information Portal].
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[[File:Zimbabwe_Hydrogeology.png]] [[File: Hydrogeology_Key.png | 500x195px]]
 
 
[[File:Zimbabwe_Hydrogeology3.png| center | thumb| 500px | Hydrogeology of Zimbabwe at 1:5 million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps  | hydrogeology map]] resource page. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html '''Download a GIS shapefile of the Zimbabwe geology and hydrogeology map].]].
 
  
  
 
'''Groundwater development potential'''
 
'''Groundwater development potential'''
  
In the National Master Plan for Rural Supply, Interconsult (1986) classed aquifers in Zimbabwe by their groundwater development potential, as follows:
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In the National Master Plan for Rural Supply, Interconsult (1986) classed aquifers by their Groundwater development potential, as follows:
 
 
 
*High: Suitable for primary supply, piped supplies, and small and large-scale irrigation schemes
 
*High: Suitable for primary supply, piped supplies, and small and large-scale irrigation schemes
 
*Moderate: Suitable for primary supplies, small piped schemes and small-scale irrigation schemes
 
*Moderate: Suitable for primary supplies, small piped schemes and small-scale irrigation schemes
 
*Low: Suitable for primary supplied from boreholes.
 
*Low: Suitable for primary supplied from boreholes.
 
These groundwater development potential rankings are reflected in the hydrogeology map above, with a description of the aquifer type (hydrogeological environent) of each aquifer.
 
  
 
====Unconsolidated====
 
====Unconsolidated====
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|}
 
|}
  
====Basement Complex and Metavolcanics, including the Great Dyke====
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====Basement Complex and Metavolcanics====
  
 
{| class = "wikitable"
 
{| class = "wikitable"
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=== Groundwater use===
 
=== Groundwater use===
  
Groundwater is the main drinking water source in rural parts of Zimbabwe. According to the 2012 census, about 38% of a total of 3,059,016 Zimbabwean households fetched their water from boreholes and protected wells (Zimbabwe National Statistics Agency 2012). The total annual abstraction of groundwater in the rural areas, from an estimated 40,000 boreholes, is estimated at 35 x 10 6 m³.
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Groundwater is the main drinking water source in rural parts of Zimbabwe. According to the 2012 census, about 38% of a total of 3,059,016 Zimbabwean households fetched their water from boreholes and protected wells (Zimbabwe National Statistics Agency 2012).  
 
 
In addition to domestic use in rural and urban areas, groundwater supplies agriculture and industry in Zimbabwe. The total groundwater abstraction for the agricultural sector is estimated at 350 x 10 6 m³. Groundwater is also abstracted for emerging towns known as Growth Points (e.g. Gokwe), urban centres (e.g. Bulawayo) and rural institutions (e.g. schools, health and business centres).
 
 
 
Overall, groundwater presently contributes not more than 10% to the total water use in Zimbabwe (Sunguro et al. 2000).
 
  
'''Groundwater source types'''
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In addition to domestic use in rural and urban areas, groundwater supplies agriculture and industry in Zimbabwe.
  
In rural areas, water is mainly abstracted by boreholes fitted with a hand pump, due to limited electrification. The standard hand pump in Zimbabwe has traditionally been the unique ‘Zimbabwe bush pump’, which is relatively robust, but a lack of maintenance and support of all water supply infrastructure has led to increasing levels of failure.  
+
The total annual abstraction of groundwater in the rural areas, from  some 40,000 boreholes, is estimated at 35 x 10 6 m³ and the total groundwater abstraction for the agricultural sector is estimated at 350 x 10 6 m³. Groundwater is also abstracted for emerging towns known as Growth Points (e.g. Gokwe), urban centres (e.g. Bulawayo) and rural institutions (e.g. schools, health and business centres). Overall, groundwater presently contributes not more than 10% to the total water use in Zimbabwe (Sunguro et al. 2000).
  
Electric borehole pumps are more common in urban areas, although there has been an increase in the number of private urban boreholes where there is inadequate municipal water supply infrastructure.
+
In rural areas, water is mainly abstracted by boreholes fitted with a hand pump, due to limited electrification, while electric pumps are more common in urban areas.
  
 
=== Groundwater management===
 
=== Groundwater management===
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==References==
 
==References==
  
Many of the references below, and others relating to the hydrogeology of Zimbabwe, can be accessed through the [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/atlas.cfc?method=listResults&title_search=&titleboolean=AND&author_search=&category=&child_category=&country=ZW Africa Groundwater Literature Archive].
+
Many of the references below, and others relating to the hydrogeology of Zimbabwe, can be accessed through the [http://bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/searchResults.cfm?country_search=ZW African Groundwater Literature Archive].
 
 
 
 
===Online resources===
 
 
 
[https://ggis.un-igrac.org/ggis-viewer/viewer/sadcgip/public/default SADC Groundwater Information Portal]
 
 
 
[http://www.sadc.int/themes/natural-resources/water/ General information on surface water and groundwater resources in SADC]
 
 
 
  
 
===Key Geology References===
 
===Key Geology References===
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Zimbabwe Geological Survey Bulletins
 
Zimbabwe Geological Survey Bulletins
 
  
 
===Key Hydrogeology References===
 
===Key Hydrogeology References===
 
Chikodzi D. 2013. [https://www.omicsonline.org/scientific-reports/2157-7587-SR-629.pdf Groundwater resources of Zimbabwe: An assessment of fluctuations]. International Journal of Scientific Reports, 2, 629. 
 
 
Davies J and Burgess W G. 2014. [http://gwd.org.za/sites/gwd.org.za/files/04%20J%20Davies_%20Zimbabwe%20paper%20final.pdf Can groundwater sustain the future development of rural Zimbabwe?]
 
 
Derman B and Manzungu E. 2016. [http://www.water-alternatives.org/index.php/alldoc/articles/vol9/v9issue3/331-a9-3-8/file The complex politics of water and power in Zimbabwe: IWRM in the Catchment Councils of Manyame, Mazowe and Sanyati (1993-2001)]. Water Alternatives 9(3): 513-53.
 
 
Dube T. 2013. [https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2346802 Emerging issues on the sustainability of the community based rural water resources management approach in Zimbabwe: A case study of Gwanda District].
 
 
Erpf K. 1998. [http://www.rural-water-supply.net/en/implementation/public-domain-handpumps/bush-pump The Bush Pump-the National Standard Handpump of Zimbabwe. A review by SKAT/HTN to find out what had made this pump so popular in Zimbabwe]. Skat, RWSN (incl. HTN), St Gallen, Switzerland. 
 
 
Hove T, Derman B and Manzungu, E. 2016. [http://www.water-alternatives.org/index.php/alldoc/articles/vol9/v9issue3/329-a9-3-10/file  Land, farming and IWRM: A case study of the middle Manyame Sub-Catchment]. Water Alternatives 9(3): 531-548
 
  
 
IGRAC. 2013. [http://www.un-igrac.org/dynamics/modules/SFIL0100/view.php?fil_Id=242 Groundwater Monitoring in the SADC Region].  
 
IGRAC. 2013. [http://www.un-igrac.org/dynamics/modules/SFIL0100/view.php?fil_Id=242 Groundwater Monitoring in the SADC Region].  
  
 
Interconsult. 1985. [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/sadc/fulldetails.cfm?id=ZW2024&country=Zimbabwe National Master Plan for Rural Water Supply and Sanitation]. Volume 22 Hydrogeology.  Ministry of Energy and Water Resources Development, Zimbabwe.  
 
Interconsult. 1985. [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/sadc/fulldetails.cfm?id=ZW2024&country=Zimbabwe National Master Plan for Rural Water Supply and Sanitation]. Volume 22 Hydrogeology.  Ministry of Energy and Water Resources Development, Zimbabwe.  
 
Morgan P and Chimbunde E. 1991. [https://www.ircwash.org/sites/default/files/Morgan-1991-Upgrading.pdf  Upgrading family wells in Zimbabwe]. Waterlines, 9(3), 10-12.
 
 
Morgan P, Chimbunde E, Mtakwa N and Waterkeyn A. 1996. [https://www.ircwash.org/sites/default/files/Morgan-1996-Now.pdf Now in my backyard—Zimbabwe's upgraded family well programme]. Waterlines, 14(4), 8-11.
 
 
Morgan P and Kanyemba A. 2012. [http://www.rural-water-supply.net/en/resources/details/468 A preliminary study of training artisans in upgradeable techniques for family owned wells]. Aquamor.
 
 
Morgan P. 2015. [http://www.rural-water-supply.net/_ressources/documents/default/1-751-54-1456905931.pdf Self-Supply as a means of bringing water to the people of Zimbabwe and its relation to the hand pump program]. Aquamor
 
  
 
Rusinga F and Taigbenu  AE. 2005. Groundwater resource evaluation of urban Bulawayo aquifer. Water SA Vol. 31 No. 1 January 2005. ISSN 0378-4738.
 
Rusinga F and Taigbenu  AE. 2005. Groundwater resource evaluation of urban Bulawayo aquifer. Water SA Vol. 31 No. 1 January 2005. ISSN 0378-4738.
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UN-IGRAC. 2012. Transboundary aquifers of the world, update 2012. 1:50 000 000. Sepcial Edition for the 6th World Water Forum, Marseille.
 
UN-IGRAC. 2012. Transboundary aquifers of the world, update 2012. 1:50 000 000. Sepcial Edition for the 6th World Water Forum, Marseille.
 
Water and Sanitation Program. 2011.  [https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/17762/7241500REPLACE0PUBLIC00CSO0Zimbabwe.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y  Water Supply and Sanitation in Zimbabwe Turning Finance into Services for 2015 and Beyond. An AMCOW Country Status Overview].
 
 
Zimstat. 2016. [http://www.zimstat.co.zw/sites/default/files/img/Environmental%20Report%202016_2.pdf United Nations Zimbabwe Water And Waste Statistics Report 2016]
 
  
 
===Other references===
 
===Other references===
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Zimbabwe National Statistics Agency. 2012. Zimbabwe Population Census, 2012.
 
Zimbabwe National Statistics Agency. 2012. Zimbabwe Population Census, 2012.
  
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==Return to the index pages==
  
 
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[[Overview of Africa Groundwater Atlas | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Zimbabwe
Return to the index pages:
 
[[Overview of Africa Groundwater Atlas | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]]
 
  
 
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[[Category:Hydrogeology by country|z]]
 
[[Category:Hydrogeology by country|z]]
[[Category:Africa Groundwater Atlas]]
 

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