Editing Hydrogeology of Zimbabwe

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=== Groundwater use===
 
=== Groundwater use===
  
Groundwater is the main drinking water source in rural parts of Zimbabwe. According to the 2012 census, about 38% of a total of 3,059,016 Zimbabwean households fetched their water from boreholes and protected wells (Zimbabwe National Statistics Agency 2012). The total annual abstraction of groundwater in the rural areas, from an estimated 40,000 boreholes, is estimated at 35 x 10 6 m³.  
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Groundwater is the main drinking water source in rural parts of Zimbabwe. According to the 2012 census, about 38% of a total of 3,059,016 Zimbabwean households fetched their water from boreholes and protected wells (Zimbabwe National Statistics Agency 2012).  
  
In addition to domestic use in rural and urban areas, groundwater supplies agriculture and industry in Zimbabwe. The total groundwater abstraction for the agricultural sector is estimated at 350 x 10 6 m³. Groundwater is also abstracted for emerging towns known as Growth Points (e.g. Gokwe), urban centres (e.g. Bulawayo) and rural institutions (e.g. schools, health and business centres).  
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In addition to domestic use in rural and urban areas, groundwater supplies agriculture and industry in Zimbabwe.
  
Overall, groundwater presently contributes not more than 10% to the total water use in Zimbabwe (Sunguro et al. 2000).
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The total annual abstraction of groundwater in the rural areas, from  some 40,000 boreholes, is estimated at 35 x 10 6 m³ and the total groundwater abstraction for the agricultural sector is estimated at 350 x 10 6 m³. Groundwater is also abstracted for emerging towns known as Growth Points (e.g. Gokwe), urban centres (e.g. Bulawayo) and rural institutions (e.g. schools, health and business centres). Overall, groundwater presently contributes not more than 10% to the total water use in Zimbabwe (Sunguro et al. 2000).
  
'''Groundwater source types'''
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In rural areas, water is mainly abstracted by boreholes fitted with a hand pump, due to limited electrification, while electric pumps are more common in urban areas.
 
 
In rural areas, water is mainly abstracted by boreholes fitted with a hand pump, due to limited electrification. The standard hand pump in Zimbabwe has traditionally been the unique ‘Zimbabwe bush pump’, which is relatively robust, but a lack of maintenance and support of all water supply infrastructure has led to increasing levels of failure.
 
 
 
Electric borehole pumps are more common in urban areas, although there has been an increase in the number of private urban boreholes where there is inadequate municipal water supply infrastructure.
 
  
 
=== Groundwater management===
 
=== Groundwater management===
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===Key Hydrogeology References===
 
===Key Hydrogeology References===
 
Chikodzi D. 2013. [https://www.omicsonline.org/scientific-reports/2157-7587-SR-629.pdf Groundwater resources of Zimbabwe: An assessment of fluctuations]. International Journal of Scientific Reports, 2, 629. 
 
 
Davies J and Burgess W G. 2014. [http://gwd.org.za/sites/gwd.org.za/files/04%20J%20Davies_%20Zimbabwe%20paper%20final.pdf Can groundwater sustain the future development of rural Zimbabwe?]
 
 
Derman B and Manzungu E. 2016. [http://www.water-alternatives.org/index.php/alldoc/articles/vol9/v9issue3/331-a9-3-8/file The complex politics of water and power in Zimbabwe: IWRM in the Catchment Councils of Manyame, Mazowe and Sanyati (1993-2001)]. Water Alternatives 9(3): 513-53.
 
 
Dube T. 2013. [https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2346802 Emerging issues on the sustainability of the community based rural water resources management approach in Zimbabwe: A case study of Gwanda District].
 
 
Erpf K. 1998. [http://www.rural-water-supply.net/en/implementation/public-domain-handpumps/bush-pump The Bush Pump-the National Standard Handpump of Zimbabwe. A review by SKAT/HTN to find out what had made this pump so popular in Zimbabwe]. Skat, RWSN (incl. HTN), St Gallen, Switzerland. 
 
 
Hove T, Derman B and Manzungu, E. 2016. [http://www.water-alternatives.org/index.php/alldoc/articles/vol9/v9issue3/329-a9-3-10/file  Land, farming and IWRM: A case study of the middle Manyame Sub-Catchment]. Water Alternatives 9(3): 531-548
 
  
 
IGRAC. 2013. [http://www.un-igrac.org/dynamics/modules/SFIL0100/view.php?fil_Id=242 Groundwater Monitoring in the SADC Region].  
 
IGRAC. 2013. [http://www.un-igrac.org/dynamics/modules/SFIL0100/view.php?fil_Id=242 Groundwater Monitoring in the SADC Region].  
  
 
Interconsult. 1985. [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/sadc/fulldetails.cfm?id=ZW2024&country=Zimbabwe National Master Plan for Rural Water Supply and Sanitation]. Volume 22 Hydrogeology.  Ministry of Energy and Water Resources Development, Zimbabwe.  
 
Interconsult. 1985. [http://www.bgs.ac.uk/sadc/fulldetails.cfm?id=ZW2024&country=Zimbabwe National Master Plan for Rural Water Supply and Sanitation]. Volume 22 Hydrogeology.  Ministry of Energy and Water Resources Development, Zimbabwe.  
 
Morgan P and Chimbunde E. 1991. [https://www.ircwash.org/sites/default/files/Morgan-1991-Upgrading.pdf  Upgrading family wells in Zimbabwe]. Waterlines, 9(3), 10-12.
 
 
Morgan P, Chimbunde E, Mtakwa N and Waterkeyn A. 1996. [https://www.ircwash.org/sites/default/files/Morgan-1996-Now.pdf Now in my backyard—Zimbabwe's upgraded family well programme]. Waterlines, 14(4), 8-11.
 
 
Morgan P and Kanyemba A. 2012. [http://www.rural-water-supply.net/en/resources/details/468 A preliminary study of training artisans in upgradeable techniques for family owned wells]. Aquamor.
 
 
Morgan P. 2015. [http://www.rural-water-supply.net/_ressources/documents/default/1-751-54-1456905931.pdf Self-Supply as a means of bringing water to the people of Zimbabwe and its relation to the hand pump program]. Aquamor
 
  
 
Rusinga F and Taigbenu  AE. 2005. Groundwater resource evaluation of urban Bulawayo aquifer. Water SA Vol. 31 No. 1 January 2005. ISSN 0378-4738.
 
Rusinga F and Taigbenu  AE. 2005. Groundwater resource evaluation of urban Bulawayo aquifer. Water SA Vol. 31 No. 1 January 2005. ISSN 0378-4738.
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UN-IGRAC. 2012. Transboundary aquifers of the world, update 2012. 1:50 000 000. Sepcial Edition for the 6th World Water Forum, Marseille.
 
UN-IGRAC. 2012. Transboundary aquifers of the world, update 2012. 1:50 000 000. Sepcial Edition for the 6th World Water Forum, Marseille.
 
Water and Sanitation Program. 2011.  [https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/17762/7241500REPLACE0PUBLIC00CSO0Zimbabwe.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y  Water Supply and Sanitation in Zimbabwe Turning Finance into Services for 2015 and Beyond. An AMCOW Country Status Overview].
 
 
Zimstat. 2016. [http://www.zimstat.co.zw/sites/default/files/img/Environmental%20Report%202016_2.pdf United Nations Zimbabwe Water And Waste Statistics Report 2016]
 
  
 
===Other references===
 
===Other references===

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