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[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Zimbabwe
 
[[Africa Groundwater Atlas Home | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Zimbabwe
  
[[File:CC-BY-SA_logo_88x31.png | frame | This work is licensed under a [https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License]]]
 
  
The area of present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms since the 11th century, as well as a major migration and trade route. It came under colonial British rule in the late 19th century, declaring unilateral independence in 1965. Over the next 15 years there was internal conflict between guerrilla forces and the predominantly white independent Rhodesian government. A 1979 settlement led to elections and the establishment of a biracial democracy, and following formally agreed independence from Britain in 1980, Robert Mugabe was elected head of state. Zimbabwe continued to experience interlinked economic, social and political difficulties, as well as natural pressures such as drought, and has high levels of poverty and poor health, low life expectancy. A particular issue was land redistribution, which after 2000 radically changed land ownership away from the minority white population who owned 70% of the most productive agricultural land, to black farmers. International sanctions in response to government policies has had significant impact on the country. The effective collapse of the economy was one factor leading to the relatively peaceful ousting in 2017 of Robert Mugabe after 37 years.  
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Zimbabwe declared unilateral independence from Britain in 1965, but over the next 15 years saw internal conflict between guerrilla forces and the predominantly white independent Rhodesian government. A 1979 settlement led to elections and the establishment of a biracial democracy, and following formally agreed independence from Britain in 1980, Robert Mugabe was elected head of state. Zimbabwe continued to experience interlinked economic, social and political difficulties, as well as natural pressures such as drought, and has high levels of poverty and poor health, low life expectancy. A particular issue was land redistribution, which after 2000 radically changed land ownership away from the minority white population who owned 70% of the most productive agricultural land, to black farmers. International sanctions in response to government policies has had significant impact on the country. The effective collapse of the economy was one factor leading to the relatively peaceful ousting in 2017 of Robert Mugabe after 37 years.  
  
 
Minerals (particularly gold but also including platinum and diamonds) are Zimbabwe’s main foreign exports. Although the mining sector is very lucrative, corruption means that much revenue is lost to the state. Land distribution damaged the agricultural sector, once a source of export revenue, and today Zimbabwe is a net importer of food products. However, there have been recent improvements in the number of smallholders practising conservation agriculture and in crop yields.  Tourism is also important, but has declined since 2000, today contributing around 8% of GDP. Zimbabwe saw hyperinflaction from 2000, and in 2016 the government allowed trade to take place in US dollars and other hard currencies rather than the Zimbabwe dollar.  
 
Minerals (particularly gold but also including platinum and diamonds) are Zimbabwe’s main foreign exports. Although the mining sector is very lucrative, corruption means that much revenue is lost to the state. Land distribution damaged the agricultural sector, once a source of export revenue, and today Zimbabwe is a net importer of food products. However, there have been recent improvements in the number of smallholders practising conservation agriculture and in crop yields.  Tourism is also important, but has declined since 2000, today contributing around 8% of GDP. Zimbabwe saw hyperinflaction from 2000, and in 2016 the government allowed trade to take place in US dollars and other hard currencies rather than the Zimbabwe dollar.  
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|The four largest rivers in Zimbabwe are the Zambezi, Limpopo, Save and Pungwe. These are all transboundary rivers, which flow to the Indian Ocean. Two major smaller rivers are the Thuli and Mzingwane, which are tributaries of larger transboundary rivers.  
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|The four largest rivers in Zimbabwe are the Zambezi, Limpopo, Save and Pungwe rivers. These are all transboundary rivers which flow to the Indian Ocean. Two major smaller rivers are the Thuli and Mzingwane rivers, which are tributaries of larger transboundary rivers.  
  
 
The Zimbabwe National Water Authority Hydrology Department manages information relating to surface water resources availability.
 
The Zimbabwe National Water Authority Hydrology Department manages information relating to surface water resources availability.
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The geology map on this page shows a simplified overview of the geology at a national scale (see the [[Geology | Geology resource page]] for more details).
 
The geology map on this page shows a simplified overview of the geology at a national scale (see the [[Geology | Geology resource page]] for more details).
  
[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html '''Download a GIS shapefile of the Zimbabwe geology and hydrogeology map'''].
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[[File:Zimbabwe_Geology2.png | center | thumb| 500px | Geology of Zimbabwe at 1:5 million scale. Based on map described by Persits et al. 2002/Furon and Lombard 1964. For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geology | geology resource page]].]]
 
 
[[File:Zimbabwe_Geology3.png | center | thumb| 500px | Geology of Zimbabwe at 1:5 million scale. Based on map described by Persits et al. 2002/Furon and Lombard 1964. For more information on the map development and datasets see the [[Geology | geology resource page]]. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html Download a GIS shapefile of the Zimbabwe geology and hydrogeology map].]]
 
  
 
   
 
   
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The hydrogeology map on this page shows a simplified overview of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps  | Hydrogeology map resource page]] for more details).  
 
The hydrogeology map on this page shows a simplified overview of the type and productivity of the main aquifers at a national scale (see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps  | Hydrogeology map resource page]] for more details).  
 
[https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html '''Download a GIS shapefile of the Zimbabwe geology and hydrogeology map'''].
 
  
 
Zimbabwe is also covered by the SADC hydrogeological map and atlas (2010), available through the [https://ggis.un-igrac.org/ggis-viewer/viewer/sadcgip/public/default SADC Groundwater Information Portal].
 
Zimbabwe is also covered by the SADC hydrogeological map and atlas (2010), available through the [https://ggis.un-igrac.org/ggis-viewer/viewer/sadcgip/public/default SADC Groundwater Information Portal].
  
[[File:Zimbabwe_Hydrogeology3.png| center | thumb| 500px | Hydrogeology of Zimbabwe at 1:5 million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps  | hydrogeology map]] resource page. [https://www.bgs.ac.uk/africagroundwateratlas/downloadGIS.html '''Download a GIS shapefile of the Zimbabwe geology and hydrogeology map].]].
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[[File:Zimbabwe_Hydrogeology2.png| center | thumb| 500px | Hydrogeology of Zimbabwe at 1:5 million scale. For more information on how the map was developed see the [[Africa Groundwater Atlas Hydrogeology Maps  | hydrogeology map]] resource page]].
  
  
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Zimbabwe National Statistics Agency. 2012. Zimbabwe Population Census, 2012.
 
Zimbabwe National Statistics Agency. 2012. Zimbabwe Population Census, 2012.
  
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==Return to the index pages==
  
 
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[[Overview of Africa Groundwater Atlas | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]] >> Hydrogeology of Zimbabwe
Return to the index pages:
 
[[Overview of Africa Groundwater Atlas | Africa Groundwater Atlas]] >> [[Hydrogeology by country | Hydrogeology by country]]
 
  
 
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