Difference between revisions of "James Geikie LL.D., D.C.L.(Dunelm), F.R.S.(L.X.E.), F.G.S."

From Earthwise
Jump to navigation Jump to search
[checked revision][checked revision]
Line 229: Line 229:
 
| GSM/GX/Wa/1 || Letters from A R Wallace to J Geikie ||  
 
| GSM/GX/Wa/1 || Letters from A R Wallace to J Geikie ||  
 
|}
 
|}
 +
 +
== James Geikie ==
 +
 +
'''Extract from the History of the Geological Society of Glasgow. (Public domain) Source: Internet Archive.'''
 +
 +
Professor James Geikie, LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S.
 +
 +
James Geikie, a younger brother of Sir Archibald, was born in Edinburgh in 1839, and educated at the High School and at Edinburgh University. In 1861 he entered the Geological Survey of Scotland, and served in it for twenty years. In 1882, when Sir Archibald Geikie resigned the post of Murchison Professor of Geology in Edinburgh University, his brother was appointed to the position, which he still holds.
 +
 +
Professor Geikie's name will always be identified with the glacial geology of Scotland. His splendid work, ' The Great Ice Age,' was published in 1874, and remains one of the most important works ever published on glaciology. He was the first to point out that the Scottish peat mosses furnished evidence of cold and wet conditions of climate having alternated with more genial periods (Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., 1866). In the past few years these results have been confirmed by botanical evidence obtained by Mr. Lewis and embodied in a series of papers in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Professor Geikie has therefore consistently maintained the view that the Glacial period, commencing in late Pliocene times, was marked by an alternation of cold and genial climatic conditions.
 +
 +
Much of Professor Geikie's most important work has dealt with the origin of the surface features of the land. Several of the essays in 'Fragments of Earth Lore' (1892) deal with this subject, and he has treated it in detail in ' Earth Sculpture,' published in 1898. In 1905 'Structural and Field Geology ' was published, a special feature of which is the admirable way in which all important points in the text are illustrated by beautiful photographic plates.
 +
 +
For many years Professor Geikie has been a strong advocate of the importance of geography as a subject for instruction not only in schools, but in universities. He was one of the founders of the Royal Scottish Geographical Society, and is still its president and honorary editor. Many of his most illuminating essays have dealt with geographical problems. His studies have ranged over a wide field, and have not been confined solely to scientific investigations. Like his brother he has always been a keen student of foreign literature, and in 1887 he published ' Songs and Lyrics by Heinrich Heine.'
 +
 +
Professor Geikie's contributions to our Transactions are as follows:
 +
 +
On Denudation in Scotland since Glacial Times. Vol. iii., pp. 54-74.
 +
 +
Note on the Occurrence of Erratics at Higher Levels than the Rock Masses from which they have been derived. Vol. iv., pp. 235-241.
 +
 +
Notes on the Geology of Colonsay and Oronsay Vol. vi., pp. 157-164.
 +
 +
The reputation of the Glasgow Society has always been considerable, particularly in the branches of paleontology, stratigraphy, and glacial geology. We can fairly claim that we possess at the present time a band of contributing members who have worthily carried on the traditions of those who erected the Society on the firm basis of valuable work done and recognised. John Smith, of Ayrshire, in glacial geology; James Neilson and Robert Dunlop, in paleontology : Peter Macnair, in the geology of the Highland boundary (to give but a few names), have more than a local reputation. Finally, in our recently elected president we have been fortunate in obtaining a geologist and geographer of international reputation, worthy to continue the high traditions of an office held by a succession of the most eminent geologists in Britain. With the help of these, and promising younger workers eager to make their reputations, we may look forward with confidence to the continued and increasing usefulness of the Society. By one thing we must stand or fall, namely, the value of our contributions to our chosen science, and with the work described in the earlier chapters as our inspiration, we may fairly predict that at the end of other fifty years the Glasgow Society will be found a living force in geology.
  
 
[[Category:Pioneers of the British Geological Survey]]
 
[[Category:Pioneers of the British Geological Survey]]

Revision as of 18:12, 9 August 2020

Images

Timeline

Date Details
1839 Born August 23rd in Edinburgh. Educated at Edinburgh High School and University.
1861 Entered Geological Survey.
1866 Paper to Royal Society Edinburgh “On the buried forests and peat-mosses of Scotland and the changes of climate which they indicate”.
Survey work chiefly in the Lowlands and bordering tracts of Southern Uplands and Highlands – including mapping of Silurian, Old Red Sandstone, Carboniferous and associated igneous rocks.
Holidays devoted to study of glacial phenomena.
1867 Promoted to Geologist.
1869 District Surveyor. Engaged in resurveying of ground for mapping of drift and peat deposits (hitherto omitted from survey maps).
1871-1872 Series of papers to Geological Magazine “On changes of climate during the Glacial Epoch”.
1874 “The Great Ice Age” published.
1882 Resigned from Survey.
Appointed to Chair of Geology at Edinburgh University in succession to A. Geikie. Prepared new text book “Outlines of Geology” (1884).
Set himself to reform teaching geography in schools – Scottish Geographical Society formed for the purpose in 1884.
1884 “Prehistoric Europe”.
1904 Elected President of Scottish Geographical Society. Resigned after 6 years and was awarded the Gold Medal of the Society. For many years acted as Hon. Editor of the “Scottish Geographical Magazine”.
1898 Text book: “Earth sculpture or the origin of land-forms”.
1891-1894 Convenor of Science Degrees Committee at Edinburgh University.
1894 Elected Dean of the Faculty of Science. Twice elected President of a section of British Association (Geography and Geology). Delivered course of lectures at the Lowell Institute in Boston.
1889 Received Brisbane Medal from Royal Society Edinburgh. And Murchison Medal from Geological Society London.
1894 3rd edition of “Great Ice Age” (largely rewritten).
1913 Mountains, their origin, growth and decay”.
1914 “The Antiquity of man in Europe” published form of Munro Lectures in Archaeology delivered at Edinburgh University).
1914 Resigned Professorship, continued President of Royal Society Edinburgh and Hon. Editor of Scottish Geographical Magazine.
1915 Died March 1st.

Biographies and obituaries

Obituary - Archibald Geikie. Born in 1835, died 10th November 1924. Proceedings of the Geologists Association. v. 36 p.191-192. 1925

Evans, J.W. Obituary - Sir Archibald Geikie. [In Anniversary Address.]. Proceedings of the Geological Society in Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society. v. 81 p.lii-lx. 1925

Campbell, Robert., . The late Professor James Geikie, LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S. [Obituary.]. Transactions of the Edinburgh Geological Society. v. 11 p.232-235. 1923

Spencer, L.J. Obituary - Sir Archibald Geikie. Born 28th December 1835, died 10th Novemver 1924. Mineralogical Magazine. v. 21 p.234. 1927

Obituary - James Geikie (1939-1915). Mineralogical Magazine. v. 17 p.365. 1916

Obituary - Professor James Geikie, LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S.L.& E., F.G.S. Born 23rd August 1839, died 1st March 1915. Geologists Magazine. New Series. v. 2 p.192. 1915

Woodward, A.S. Obituary - Professor James Geikie. Born 1839, died 1915. [In Anniversary Address.]. Proceedings of the Geological Society in Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society. v. 72 p.liii-lv. 1916

Geological Magazine (1913) p. 241

Geology of Yorkshire, Kendall and Wroot p. 438.

Publications

Geological Magazine (1913) pp 245-248.

Memoir: contributed to: Girvan (1869).

Memoir: contributed to: Ayr (1869).

Memoir: contributed to: Peebles (1869).

Memoir: contributed to: North Ayrshire (1872).

Memoir: contributed to: Central Lanark (1873).

Memoir: contributed to: Airdrie etc. (1879).

Works listed in the BGS Library catalogue

BGS publications

Geikie, A. ; Geikie, J. ; Etheridge, R. (1869). Explanation of sheet 7: Ayrshire: South-western district (fossil lists by R Etheridge) Mem Geol Surv G B (Scotl) (Sheet) (Edinburgh). (Memoir (Sheet) Geological Survey of GB (Scotland)). Edinburgh : HMSO.

Geikie, A. ; Geikie, J. ; Peach, B.N. (1869). Explanation of sheet 14: Ayrshire: southern district. (Memoir (Sheet) Geological Survey of GB (Scotland)). Edinburgh : HMSO.

Geikie, A. ; Geikie, J. ; Jack, R.L. ; Etheridge, R. (1872). Explanation of sheet 22: Ayrshire (north part) with parts of Renfrewshire and Lanarkshire. (Memoir (Sheet) Geological Survey of GB (Scotland)). Edinburgh : HMSO.

Geikie, J. ; Peach, B.N. ; Geikie, A. ; Etheridge, R. (1873). Explanation of sheet 23: Lanarkshire: Central districts (lists of fossils by R Etheridge) Mem Geol Surv G B (Scotl) (Sheet) (Edinburgh). (Memoir (Sheet) Geological Survey of GB (Scotland)). Edinburgh : HMSO.

Geikie, J. ; Geikie, A. (1869). Explanation of sheet 24: Peeblesshire with parts of Lanark, Edinburgh and Selkirk. (Memoir (Sheet) Geological Survey of GB (Scotland)). Edinburgh : HMSO.

Geikie, J. ; Peach, B.N. ; Geikie, A. ; Etheridge, R. ; Geological Survey of Great Britain. Scotland (1879). Explanation of sheet 31: Stirling (southern part), Lanarkshire (northern part), Linlithgowshire (western borders). (Memoir (Sheet) Geological Survey of GB (Scotland); 31). Edinburgh : HMSO.

External publications

Geikie, J. (1914). The antiquity of man in Europe being the Munro Lectures, 1913. Edinburgh : Oliver & Boyd.

Geikie, J. (1898). Earth sculpture, or the origin of land-forms. (The progressive science series). London : John Murray.

Geikie, J. (1909). Earth sculpture, or the origin of land-forms. (The progressive science series). London : John Murray.

Geikie, J. (1904). Earth sculpture, or the origins of land-forms. London : John Murray.

Geikie, J. (1893). Fragments of earth lore : sketches & addresses geological and geographical. Edinburgh : Bartholomew.

Ramsay, A.C. ; Geikie, J. (1876). Geological map of Gibraltar 1:2 500 or 25.344 inches to a mile. [s.n.].

Geikie, J. (1875). Geology. (Chambers elementary science manuals). London : W.& R. Chambers.

Geikie, J. (1874). The Great Ice Age and its relation to the antiquity of man. 2nd rev ed. London : Isbister.

Geikie, J. (1894). The Great Ice Age and its relation to the antiquity of man. 3rd ed. London : Stanford.

Geikie, J. (1874). The great ice age and its relation to the antiquity of man. London : Isbister.

Geikie, J. (1876). Historical geology. (Chamber's Elementary Science Manuals). London : Chambers.

Geikie, J. (1908). James Geikie. 2nd ed. rev.. Edinburgh : Oliver & Boyd.

Newbigin, M.I. ; Flett, J.S. ; Geikie, J. (1917). James Geikie : the man and the geologist. Edinburgh : Oliver & Boyd.

Geikie, J. (1913). Mountains : their origin, growth and decay. Edinburgh : Oliver & Boyd.

Geikie, J. (1872). On changes of climate during the glacial epoch. London : Trubner.

Geikie, J. On the glacial phenomena of the Long island or Outer Hebrides: 1st paper. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 29(4) 1873 p.532-545.

Geikie, J. On the glacial phenomena of the Long island or Outer Hebrides: 2nd paper. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 34(4) 1878 p.819-870.

Geikie, J. (1903). Outlines of geology : an introduction to the science for junior students and general readers. 4th edition revised. London : Stanford.

Geikie, J. (1886). Outlines of geology : an introduction to the science for junior students and general readers. London : Edward Stanford.

Geikie, J. (1881). Prehistoric Europe : a geological sketch. London : Stanford.

Geikie, J. (1905). Structural and field geology : for students of pure and applied science. Edinburgh : Oliver & Boyd.

Geikie, J. ; Campbell, R. ; Craig, R.M. (1940). Structural and field geology for students of pure and applied science. 5th ed revised by Robert Campbell and Robert M. Craig. London : Oliver & Boyd.

Geikie, J. ; Campbell, R. ; Craig, R.M. (1953). Structural and field geology for students of pure and applied science. 6th ed revised by Robert Campbell and Robert M. Craig. London : Oliver & Boyd.

Geikie, J. (1920). Structural and field geology for students of pure and applied science. 4th rev. ed. Edinburgh : Oliver & Boyd.

Geikie, J. (1895). Structural and field geology for students of pure and applied science. Edinburgh : Oliver & Boyd.

Maps

British Geological Survey ; Geikie, A. ; Young, J. ; Geikie, J. ; Peach, B.N. (Dec[embe]r 1867). Sheet 7 Girvan [solid] [superseded]. [Solid ed.]. (Geological Survey of Scotland 1:63 360/1:50 000). Southampton : Ordnance Survey for the Geological Survey.

British Geological Survey ; Geikie, A. ; Geikie, J. ; Peach, B.N. ; Horne, J. ; Irvine, D.R. (Dec[embe]r 1893). Sheet 8 Carrick [solid] [superseded]. [Solid ed.]. (Geological Survey of Scotland 1:63 360/1:50 000). Southampton : Ordnance Survey for the Geological Survey.

British Geological Survey ; Geikie, A. ; Geikie, J. ; Peach, B.N. (Dec[embe]r 1868). Sheet 14 Ayr [solid]. [Solid ed.]. (Geological Survey of Scotland 1:63 360/1:50 000). Southampton : Ordnance Survey for the Geological Survey.

British Geological Survey ; Young, J. ; Geikie, J. ; Peach, B.N. ; Skae, H.M. ; Irvine, D.R. (Dec[embe]r 1889). Sheet 16 [solid] Moffat. [Solid ed.]. (Geological Survey of Scotland 1:63 360/1:50 000). Southampton : Ordnance Survey for the Geological Survey.

British Geological Survey ; Geikie, J. (December 1883). Sheet 17 [solid] Jedburgh. [Solid ed.]. (Geological Survey of Scotland 1:63 360/1:50 000). Southampton : Ordnance Survey for the Geological Survey.

British Geological Survey ; Geikie, J. (December 1883). Sheet 18 [solid] Morebattle. [Solid ed.]. (Geological Survey of Scotland 1:63 360/1:50 000). Southampton : Ordnance Survey for the Geological Survey.

British Geological Survey ; Geikie, A. ; Geikie, J. (December 1870). Sheet 22 [solid] Kilmarnock. [Solid ed.]. (Geological Survey of Scotland 1:63 360/1:50 000). Southampton : Ordnance Survey for the Geological Survey.

British Geological Survey ; Geikie, A. ; Geikie, J. ; Peach, B.N. (Dec.1872). Sheet 23 Hamilton [solid] [superseded]. [Solid ed.]. (Geological Survey of Scotland 1:63 360/1:50 000). Southampton : Ordnance Survey for the Geological Survey.

British Geological Survey ; Geikie, J. ; Peach, B.N. (1995). Sheet 23W Hamilton solid. Solid ed. (Geological Survey of Scotland 1:63 360/1:50 000). Keyworth : British Geological Survey.

British Geological Survey ; Geikie, A. ; Geikie, J. ; Howell, H.H. ; Young, J. (December 1868). Sheet 24 [solid] Peebles. [Solid ed.]. (Geological Survey of Scotland 1:63 360/1:50 000). Southampton : Ordnance Survey for the Geological Survey.

British Geological Survey ; Geikie, A. ; Geikie, J. ; Peach, B.N. (December 1879). Sheet 25 [solid] Kelso. [Solid ed.]. (Geological Survey of Scotland 1:63 360/1:50 000). Southampton : Ordnance Survey for the Geological Survey.

British Geological Survey ; Geikie, A. ; Geikie, J. ; Fowler, A. ; Cameron, I.B. ; MacGregor, A.G. ; Greig, D.C. (1969). Sheet 26 solid and drift Berwick upon Tweed (Duns). (Geological Survey of Scotland 1:63 360/1:50 000). Southampton : Ordnance Survey for the Institute of Geological Sciences.

British Geological Survey ; Geikie, A. ; Geikie, J. (December 1883). Sheet 26 [solid] Berwick upon Tweed. [Solid ed.]. (Geological Survey of Scotland 1:63 360/1:50 000). Southampton : Ordnance Survey for the Geological Survey.

British Geological Survey ; Geikie, A. ; Hull, E. ; Geikie, J. ; Jack, R.L. (March 1878). Sheet 30 [solid] Glasgow. [Solid ed.]. (Geological Survey of Scotland 1:63 360/1:50 000). Southampton : Ordnance Survey for the Geological Survey.

British Geological Survey ; Geikie, A. ; Hull, E. ; Geikie, J. ; Jack, R.L. ; Peach, B.N. (Dec[embe]r 1875). Sheet 31 [solid] Airdrie. [Solid ed.]. (Geological Survey of Scotland 1:63 360/1:50 000). Southampton : Ordnance Survey for the Geological Survey.

British Geological Survey ; Howell, H.H. ; Geikie, A. ; Young, J. ; Geikie, J. ; Peach, B.N. (June 1867). Sheet 40 [solid] [Kinross]. [Solid ed.]. (Geological Survey of Scotland 1:63 360/1:50 000). Southampton : Ordnance Survey for the Geological Survey.

British Geological Survey ; Peach, B.N. ; Geikie, J. ; Grant Wilson, J.S. (Dec[embe]r 1888). Sheet 47 [solid] Crieff. [Solid ed.]. (Geological Survey of Scotland 1:63 360/1:50 000). Southampton : Ordnance Survey for the Geological Survey.

British Geological Survey ; Peach, B.N. ; Howell, H.H. ; Young, J. ; Geikie, J. (December 1883). Sheet 48 [solid] Perth. [Solid ed.]. (Geological Survey of Scotland 1:63 360/1:50 000). Southampton : Ordnance Survey for the Geological Survey.

British Geological Survey ; Howell, H.H. ; Skae, H.M. ; Geikie, J. (Feb[ruar]y 1884). Sheet 49 [solid] Arbroath. [Solid ed.]. (Geological Survey of Scotland 1:63 360/1:50 000). Southampton : Ordnance Survey for the Geological Survey.

British Geological Survey ; Geikie, J. ; Skae, H.M. ; Barrow, G. (Dec[embe]r 1895). Sheet 56 [solid] Blairgowrie. [Solid ed.]. (Geological Survey of Scotland 1:63 360/1:50 000). Southampton : Ordnance Survey for the Geological Survey.

BGS archives

Ref No Title Description
GSM/DC/A/C/7/158,160 J Geikie: Minutes on his appointment.
GSM/DC/A/C/8/135 J Geikie: Letters concerning the appointment and promotion of Geikie.
GSM/DC/A/C/8/135,142 J Geikie: Letters on his promotion.
GSM/DC/A/C/16/127,131 J Geikie: Letters concerning the appointment and promotion of Geikie
GSM/DC/A/C/23/195 J Geikie: Letters on his promotion.
GSM/DR/Ge/A/5 Correspondence on various matters: letters to J.Craik, J.Evans, F.H.Hatch, J.Horne, D.R.Irvine, B...
GSM/GL/Wh/2 Correspondence with other geologists inc. J.Geikie, Jukes-Browne, Rudler and S.V.Wood
GSM/GX/Ha/1 Letters to J Geikie and three printed items "The Lament o' St Giles's Bells", "Early Flint Tools" by "Naturalist" and pages 3-6 of a paper on...
GSM/GX/Hd/1 Letter to J Geikie
GSM/GX/Hr/3/1 Letters to J Geikie, Kitchin, Allen and H B Woodward
GSM/GX/Hs/1 Correspondence: letters to J Geikie about drift deposits of Leicestershire; F.W.Rudler, S.V.Wood...
GSM/GX/Wa/1 Letters from A R Wallace to J Geikie

James Geikie

Extract from the History of the Geological Society of Glasgow. (Public domain) Source: Internet Archive.

Professor James Geikie, LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S.

James Geikie, a younger brother of Sir Archibald, was born in Edinburgh in 1839, and educated at the High School and at Edinburgh University. In 1861 he entered the Geological Survey of Scotland, and served in it for twenty years. In 1882, when Sir Archibald Geikie resigned the post of Murchison Professor of Geology in Edinburgh University, his brother was appointed to the position, which he still holds.

Professor Geikie's name will always be identified with the glacial geology of Scotland. His splendid work, ' The Great Ice Age,' was published in 1874, and remains one of the most important works ever published on glaciology. He was the first to point out that the Scottish peat mosses furnished evidence of cold and wet conditions of climate having alternated with more genial periods (Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., 1866). In the past few years these results have been confirmed by botanical evidence obtained by Mr. Lewis and embodied in a series of papers in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Professor Geikie has therefore consistently maintained the view that the Glacial period, commencing in late Pliocene times, was marked by an alternation of cold and genial climatic conditions.

Much of Professor Geikie's most important work has dealt with the origin of the surface features of the land. Several of the essays in 'Fragments of Earth Lore' (1892) deal with this subject, and he has treated it in detail in ' Earth Sculpture,' published in 1898. In 1905 'Structural and Field Geology ' was published, a special feature of which is the admirable way in which all important points in the text are illustrated by beautiful photographic plates.

For many years Professor Geikie has been a strong advocate of the importance of geography as a subject for instruction not only in schools, but in universities. He was one of the founders of the Royal Scottish Geographical Society, and is still its president and honorary editor. Many of his most illuminating essays have dealt with geographical problems. His studies have ranged over a wide field, and have not been confined solely to scientific investigations. Like his brother he has always been a keen student of foreign literature, and in 1887 he published ' Songs and Lyrics by Heinrich Heine.'

Professor Geikie's contributions to our Transactions are as follows:

On Denudation in Scotland since Glacial Times. Vol. iii., pp. 54-74.

Note on the Occurrence of Erratics at Higher Levels than the Rock Masses from which they have been derived. Vol. iv., pp. 235-241.

Notes on the Geology of Colonsay and Oronsay Vol. vi., pp. 157-164.

The reputation of the Glasgow Society has always been considerable, particularly in the branches of paleontology, stratigraphy, and glacial geology. We can fairly claim that we possess at the present time a band of contributing members who have worthily carried on the traditions of those who erected the Society on the firm basis of valuable work done and recognised. John Smith, of Ayrshire, in glacial geology; James Neilson and Robert Dunlop, in paleontology : Peter Macnair, in the geology of the Highland boundary (to give but a few names), have more than a local reputation. Finally, in our recently elected president we have been fortunate in obtaining a geologist and geographer of international reputation, worthy to continue the high traditions of an office held by a succession of the most eminent geologists in Britain. With the help of these, and promising younger workers eager to make their reputations, we may look forward with confidence to the continued and increasing usefulness of the Society. By one thing we must stand or fall, namely, the value of our contributions to our chosen science, and with the work described in the earlier chapters as our inspiration, we may fairly predict that at the end of other fifty years the Glasgow Society will be found a living force in geology.