Difference between revisions of "Joseph D. Hooker slide collection"

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Hooker's collection comprises material collected during his 1839-1843 circum-Antarctic voyage in HMS Erebus and HMS Terror. However, it is possible that some of the slides from van Dieman's Land could have originated with William Nicol in 1831 (see notes at end).
 
Hooker's collection comprises material collected during his 1839-1843 circum-Antarctic voyage in HMS Erebus and HMS Terror. However, it is possible that some of the slides from van Dieman's Land could have originated with William Nicol in 1831 (see notes at end).
  
P775770 Genus: Genus and sp not known wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Tasmania.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370166 P775770] Genus: Genus & sp not known wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Tasmania.
  
P775771 Genus: Genus and sp not known conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Van Diemens Land Tasmania.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370167 P775771] Genus: Genus & sp not known conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Van Diemens Land Tasmania.
  
P775772 Genus: Genus and sp not known Fossil gum; Taxon: Not Entered; Locality: Tasmania. Between 1839-1843, botanist Joseph Hooker explored the South Hemisphere onboard H.M.S Erebus. This thin section shows a piece of fossil wood collected from the Macquarie Plains of Tasmania in 1840. Age: Tertiary Period, 40 million years old.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370168 P775772] Genus: Genus & sp not known Fossil gum; Taxon: Not Entered; Locality: Tasmania. Between 1839�1843, botanist Joseph Hooker explored the South Hemisphere onboard H.M.S Erebus. This thin section shows a piece of fossil wood collected from the Macquarie Plains of Tasmania in 1840. Age: Tertiary Period, 40 million years old.
  
P775773 Genus: Genus and sp not known conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Tasmania.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370169 P775773] Genus: Genus & sp not known conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Tasmania.
  
P775774 Genus: Genus and sp not known; Taxon: Not Entered; Locality: Myrthir.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370170 P775774] Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not Entered; Locality: Myrthir.
  
P775775 Genus: Genus and sp not known; Taxon: Not Entered; Locality: Van Diemens Land Tasmania.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370171 P775775] Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not Entered; Locality: Van Diemens Land Tasmania.
  
P775776 Genus: Genus and sp not known; Taxon: Not Entered; Locality: Van Diemens Land Tasmania.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370172 P775776] Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not Entered; Locality: Van Diemens Land Tasmania.
  
P775777 Fossil conifera, Kerguelan's Land, Fossil conifera, South Polar Expedition 1842.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370173 P775777] Fossil conifera, Kerguelan�s Land, Fossil conifera, South Polar Expedition 1842.
  
P775778 Fossil conifera, Kerguelan's Land, Fossil conifera, South Polar Expedition 1842.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370174 P775778] Fossil conifera, Kerguelan�s Land, Fossil conifera, South Polar Expedition 1842.
  
P775779 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Kerguelans Land.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370175 P775779] Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Kerguelans Land.
  
P775780 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Kerguelans Land.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370176 P775780] Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Kerguelans Land.
  
P775781 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Van Diemens Land Tasmania.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370177 P775781] Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Van Diemens Land Tasmania.
  
P775782 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Tasmania.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370178 P775782] Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Tasmania.
  
P775783 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Tasmania.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370179 P775783] Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Tasmania.
  
P775784 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Tasmania. This slide is of another piece of fossil wood from Tasmania collected by Hooker in 1840. One of the fossil trees collected during this expedition - a massive specimen 7 feet in circumference - was shipped back to Britain and showcased at the Great Exhibition of 1851. Age: Tertiary Period, 40 million years old.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370180 P775784] Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Tasmania. This slide is of another piece of fossil wood from Tasmania collected by Hooker in 1840. One of the fossil trees collected during this expedition � a massive specimen 7 feet in circumference - was shipped back to Britain and showcased at the Great Exhibition of 1851. Age: Tertiary Period, 40 million years old.
  
P775785 Genus: Tampin fossil tree; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known. This slide is of another piece of fossil wood from Tasmania collected by Hooker in 1840. Expedition leader, James Clark Ross recorded that the fossil trees were found encased in ancient lava flows and were preserved as 'most beautiful agate'. Age: Tertiary Period, 40 million years old.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370181 P775785] Genus: Tampin fossil tree; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known. This slide is of another piece of fossil wood from Tasmania collected by Hooker in 1840. Expedition leader, James Clark Ross recorded that the fossil trees were found encased in ancient lava flows and were preserved as 'most beautiful agate'. Age: Tertiary Period, 40 million years old.
  
P775786 Genus: Genus and sp not known; Taxon: Not Entered; Locality: Myrthir.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370182 P775786] Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not Entered; Locality: Myrthir.
  
P775787 Genus: Calamites; Taxon: Plants: Sphenophyta; sp; Locality: Myrthir.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370183 P775787] Genus: Calamites; Taxon: Plants: Sphenophyta; sp; Locality: Myrthir.
  
P775788 Genus: Genus and sp not known; Taxon: Not Entered; Locality: Myrthir.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370184 P775788] Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not Entered; Locality: Myrthir.
  
P775789 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Tasmania.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370185 P775789] Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Tasmania.
  
P775790 Genus: conifer stem with pith; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Myrthir.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370186 P775790] Genus: conifer stem with pith; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Myrthir.
  
P775791 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Kerguelan's Land Desolation Islands Indian ocean.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370187 P775791] Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Kerguelan's Land Desolation Islands Indian ocean.
  
P775792 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Kerguelan's Land Desolation Islands Indian ocean.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370188 P775792] Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Kerguelan's Land Desolation Islands Indian ocean.
  
P775793 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Van Diemens Land Tasmania.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370189 P775793] Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Van Diemens Land Tasmania.
  
P776038 Genus: Banksia; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; sp; Locality: N S Wales under the fold drift.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370434 P776038] Genus: Banksia; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; sp; Locality: N S Wales under the fold drift.
  
P776039 Genus: Banksia; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; sp; Locality: N S Wales under the fold drift.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370435 P776039] Genus: Banksia; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; sp; Locality: N S Wales under the fold drift.
  
P776040 Genus: Banksia; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; sp; Locality: N S Wales under the fold drift.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370436 P776040] Genus: Banksia; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; sp; Locality: N S Wales under the fold drift.
  
P776110 Genus: Genus and sp not known Fossil gum; Taxon: Not Entered; Locality: Tasmania. Between 1839-1843, botanist Joseph Hooker explored the South Hemisphere onboard H.M.S Erebus. This thin section shows a piece of fossil wood collected from the Macquarie Plains of Tasmania in 1840. Age: Tertiary Period, 40 million years old.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370510 P776110] Genus: Genus & sp not known Fossil gum; Taxon: Not Entered; Locality: Tasmania. Between 1839�1843, botanist Joseph Hooker explored the South Hemisphere onboard H.M.S Erebus. This thin section shows a piece of fossil wood collected from the Macquarie Plains of Tasmania in 1840. Age: Tertiary Period, 40 million years old.
  
P776111 Genus: Tampin fossil tree; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known. This slide is of another piece of fossil wood from Tasmania collected by Hooker in 1840. Expedition leader, James Clark Ross recorded that the fossil trees were found encased in ancient lava flows and were preserved as 'most beautiful agate'. Age: Tertiary Period, 40 million years old.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370511 P776111] Genus: Tampin fossil tree; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known. This slide is of another piece of fossil wood from Tasmania collected by Hooker in 1840. Expedition leader, James Clark Ross recorded that the fossil trees were found encased in ancient lava flows and were preserved as 'most beautiful agate'. Age: Tertiary Period, 40 million years old.
  
P776112 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Tasmania. This slide is of another piece of fossil wood from Tasmania collected by Hooker in 1840. One of the fossil trees collected during this expedition - a massive specimen 7 feet in circumference - was shipped back to Britain and showcased at the Great Exhibition of 1851. Age: Tertiary Period, 40 million years old.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370512 P776112] Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Tasmania. This slide is of another piece of fossil wood from Tasmania collected by Hooker in 1840. One of the fossil trees collected during this expedition � a massive specimen 7 feet in circumference - was shipped back to Britain and showcased at the Great Exhibition of 1851. Age: Tertiary Period, 40 million years old.
  
 
===From Collection B: Darwin collection.===
 
===From Collection B: Darwin collection.===
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At least two slides represent material collected by Darwin in Chiloe, southern Chile, in the course of the Voyage of the Beagle in 1835. Other similar slides, unlabeled, may also be Darwin's material, but more study is required. This material is similar in construction to slides cut by the professional lapidiary, Topping (whose slides for a separate collection below). Hooker and Darwin were close friends so perhaps these are specimens that Darwin passed to Hooker for study. Slides from the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle, 1831-1836.
 
At least two slides represent material collected by Darwin in Chiloe, southern Chile, in the course of the Voyage of the Beagle in 1835. Other similar slides, unlabeled, may also be Darwin's material, but more study is required. This material is similar in construction to slides cut by the professional lapidiary, Topping (whose slides for a separate collection below). Hooker and Darwin were close friends so perhaps these are specimens that Darwin passed to Hooker for study. Slides from the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle, 1831-1836.
  
P775741 Genus: Genus and sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Chiloe Island Chile. Between 1831-1836, Charles Darwin explored the world on H.M.S. Beagle. His observations were to form the core of his theory of evolution. This slide shows a piece of fossil wood that he collected from the Island of Chiloe, Chile in 1834. Darwin didn't enjoy his time on Chiloe calling it a 'miserable hole'! Age: Tertiary Period, 40 million years old.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370137 P775741] Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Chiloe Island Chile. Between 1831-1836, Charles Darwin explored the world on H.M.S. Beagle. His observations were to form the core of his theory of evolution. This slide shows a piece of fossil wood that he collected from the Island of Chiloe, Chile in 1834. Darwin didn't enjoy his time on Chiloe calling it a 'miserable hole'! Age: Tertiary Period, 40 million years old.
  
P775742 Genus: Genus and sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Chiloe Island Chile. Between 1831-1836, Charles Darwin explored the world on H.M.S. Beagle. His observations were to form the core of his theory of evolution. This slide shows a piece of fossil wood that he collected from the Island of Chiloe, Chile in 1834. Darwin didn't enjoy his time on Chiloe calling it a 'miserable hole'! Age: Tertiary Period, 40 million years old.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370138 P775742] Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Chiloe Island Chile. Between 1831-1836, Charles Darwin explored the world on H.M.S. Beagle. His observations were to form the core of his theory of evolution. This slide shows a piece of fossil wood that he collected from the Island of Chiloe, Chile in 1834. Darwin didn't enjoy his time on Chiloe calling it a 'miserable hole'! Age: Tertiary Period, 40 million years old.
  
P775768 Genus: Genus and sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Chiloe Island Chile. Between 1831-1836, Charles Darwin explored the world on H.M.S. Beagle. His observations were to form the core of his theory of evolution. This slide shows a piece of fossil wood that he collected from the Island of Chiloe, Chile in 1834. Darwin didn't enjoy his time on Chiloe calling it a 'miserable hole'! Age: Tertiary Period, 40 million years old.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370164 P775768] Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Chiloe Island Chile. Between 1831-1836, Charles Darwin explored the world on H.M.S. Beagle. His observations were to form the core of his theory of evolution. This slide shows a piece of fossil wood that he collected from the Island of Chiloe, Chile in 1834. Darwin didn't enjoy his time on Chiloe calling it a 'miserable hole'! Age: Tertiary Period, 40 million years old.
  
P775769 Genus: Genus and sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Chiloe Island Chile. Between 1831-1836, Charles Darwin explored the world on H.M.S. Beagle. His observations were to form the core of his theory of evolution. This slide shows a piece of fossil wood that he collected from the Island of Chiloe, Chile in 1834. Darwin didn't enjoy his time on Chiloe calling it a 'miserable hole'! Age: Tertiary Period, 40 million years old.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370165 P775769] Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Chiloe Island Chile. Between 1831-1836, Charles Darwin explored the world on H.M.S. Beagle. His observations were to form the core of his theory of evolution. This slide shows a piece of fossil wood that he collected from the Island of Chiloe, Chile in 1834. Darwin didn't enjoy his time on Chiloe calling it a 'miserable hole'! Age: Tertiary Period, 40 million years old.
  
P775958 Genus: Agate from centre of fossil tree; Taxon: Not Entered; Locality: Not known. This is another specimen of fossil wood collected by Charles Darwin in South America in 1834. The specimen is labeled 'agate found at the centre of a fossil tree'.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370354 P775958] Genus: Agate from centre of fossil tree; Taxon: Not Entered; Locality: Not known. This is another specimen of fossil wood collected by Charles Darwin in South America in 1834. The specimen is labeled 'agate found at the centre of a fossil tree'.
  
P775959 Genus: Agate from centre of fossil tree; Taxon: Not Entered; Locality: Not known. This is another specimen of fossil wood collected by Charles Darwin in South America in 1834. The specimen is labeled 'agate found at the centre of a fossil tree'.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370355 P775959] Genus: Agate from centre of fossil tree; Taxon: Not Entered; Locality: Not known. This is another specimen of fossil wood collected by Charles Darwin in South America in 1834. The specimen is labeled 'agate found at the centre of a fossil tree'.
  
P775963 Genus: Genus and sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Not known.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370359 P775963] Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Not known.
  
P775964 Genus: Genus and sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Not known.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370360 P775964] Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Not known.
  
P775965 Genus: Genus and sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Not known.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370361 P775965] Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Not known.
  
P775966 Genus: Genus and sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Not known.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370362 P775966] Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Not known.
  
P775967 Genus: Genus and sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Not known.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370363 P775967] Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Not known.
  
P775968 Genus: Genus and sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Not known.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370364 P775968] Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Not known.
  
P775969 Genus: Genus and sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Not known.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370365 P775969] Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Not known.
  
P775970 Genus: Genus and sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Chiloe Island Chile.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370366 P775970] Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Chiloe Island Chile.
  
P776114 Genus: Genus and sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Chiloe Island Chile. Between 1831-1836, Charles Darwin explored the world on H.M.S. Beagle. His observations were to form the core of his theory of evolution. This slide shows a piece of fossil wood that he collected from the Island of Chiloe, Chile in 1834. Darwin didn't enjoy his time on Chiloe calling it a 'miserable hole'! Age: Tertiary Period, 40 million years old.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370514 P776114] Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Chiloe Island Chile. Between 1831-1836, Charles Darwin explored the world on H.M.S. Beagle. His observations were to form the core of his theory of evolution. This slide shows a piece of fossil wood that he collected from the Island of Chiloe, Chile in 1834. Darwin didn't enjoy his time on Chiloe calling it a 'miserable hole'! Age: Tertiary Period, 40 million years old.
  
P776115 Genus: Agate from centre of fossil tree; Taxon: Not Entered; Locality: Not known. This is another specimen of fossil wood collected by Charles Darwin in South America in 1834. The specimen is labeled 'agate found at the centre of a fossil tree'.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370515 P776115] Genus: Agate from centre of fossil tree; Taxon: Not Entered; Locality: Not known. This is another specimen of fossil wood collected by Charles Darwin in South America in 1834. The specimen is labeled 'agate found at the centre of a fossil tree'.
  
 
===From Collection C: Lias collection from Whitby and elsewhere in east Yorkshire===
 
===From Collection C: Lias collection from Whitby and elsewhere in east Yorkshire===
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Almost all these slides originated in the cabinet of Mr Wilson Galliard, of Barnsley, a well-known collector in the late 1830/1840s, and some of these still bear the original numbers used in his cabinet. One slide is ascribed to Mr Cooper who was an active in the London Clay Club in the late 1830/1840s. The pioneering work on the Liassic woods of Whitby was undertaken by William Nicol from 1814 to the early 1830s, so there may be some connection between Nicol and Cooper/Wilson. The Whitby collection is of considerable scientific value, especially if associated sections can be located in other museum collections.
 
Almost all these slides originated in the cabinet of Mr Wilson Galliard, of Barnsley, a well-known collector in the late 1830/1840s, and some of these still bear the original numbers used in his cabinet. One slide is ascribed to Mr Cooper who was an active in the London Clay Club in the late 1830/1840s. The pioneering work on the Liassic woods of Whitby was undertaken by William Nicol from 1814 to the early 1830s, so there may be some connection between Nicol and Cooper/Wilson. The Whitby collection is of considerable scientific value, especially if associated sections can be located in other museum collections.
  
P775794 Genus: conifer stem with pith; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire. This is another fossil tree from Whitby, England, also collected by Mr Cooper in the 1830s. This specimen is so well preserved that you can even see the concentric tree-rings Age: Jurassic Period, 180 million years old
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370190 P775794] Genus: conifer stem with pith; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire. This is another fossil tree from Whitby, England, also collected by Mr Cooper in the 1830s. This specimen is so well preserved that you can even see the concentric tree-rings Age: Jurassic Period, 180 million years old
  
P775819 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire. The Yorkshire Coast of England is a classic locality for fossil hunting and many of the historic slides in the British Geological Survey's collection come from this area. This slide show fossil wood from Whitby collected by Mr Cooper in the 1830s. Age: Jurassic Period, 180 million years old.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370215 P775819] Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire. The Yorkshire Coast of England is a classic locality for fossil hunting and many of the historic slides in the British Geological Survey's collection come from this area. This slide show fossil wood from Whitby collected by Mr Cooper in the 1830s. Age: Jurassic Period, 180 million years old.
  
P775820 Genus: conifer stem with pith; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370216 P775820] Genus: conifer stem with pith; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.
  
P775821 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370217 P775821] Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.
  
P775822 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370218 P775822] Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.
  
P775823 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370219 P775823] Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.
  
P775824 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370220 P775824] Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.
  
P775825 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370221 P775825] Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.
  
P775826 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370222 P775826] Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.
  
P775827 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370223 P775827] Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.
  
P775828 Genus: conifer wood pith with septa; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370224 P775828] Genus: conifer wood pith with septa; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.
  
P775829 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370225 P775829] Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.
  
P775830 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370226 P775830] Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.
  
P775831 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370227 P775831] Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.
  
P775832 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370228 P775832] Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.
  
P775833 Genus: Genus and sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Not known.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370229 P775833] Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Not known.
  
P775834 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370230 P775834] Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.
  
P775835 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370231 P775835] Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.
  
P775836 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370232 P775836] Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.
  
P775837 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370233 P775837] Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.
  
P775838 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370234 P775838] Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.
  
P775839 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Market Rasen - NE of Lincoln - Lincolnshire.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370235 P775839] Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Market Rasen - NE of Lincoln - Lincolnshire.
  
P775840 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370236 P775840] Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.
  
P775841 Genus: conifer stem with pith; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370237 P775841] Genus: conifer stem with pith; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.
  
P775842 Conifer wood, RLS,Lias Whitby.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370238 P775842] Conifer wood, RLS,Lias Whitby.
  
P775843 Conifer wood, TS, Lias Whitby.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370239 P775843] Conifer wood, TS, Lias Whitby.
  
P775844 Conifer wood, TS, Lias Whitby.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370240 P775844] Conifer wood, TS, Lias Whitby.
  
P775845 Conifer wood, RLS,Lias Whitby.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370241 P775845] Conifer wood, RLS,Lias Whitby.
  
P775846 Conifer stem with pith, TS Lias Whitby.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370242 P775846] Conifer stem with pith, TS Lias Whitby.
  
P776012 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370408 P776012] Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.
  
P776013 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370409 P776013] Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.
  
P776131 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire. The Yorkshire Coast of England is a classic locality for fossil hunting and many of the historic slides in the British Geological Survey's collection come from this area. This slide show fossil wood from Whitby collected by Mr Cooper in the 1830s. Age: Jurassic Period, 180 million years old.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370531 P776131] Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire. The Yorkshire Coast of England is a classic locality for fossil hunting and many of the historic slides in the British Geological Survey's collection come from this area. This slide show fossil wood from Whitby collected by Mr Cooper in the 1830s. Age: Jurassic Period, 180 million years old.
  
P776132 Genus: conifer stem with pith; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire. This is another fossil tree from Whitby, England, also collected by Mr Cooper in the 1830s. This specimen is so well preserved that you can even see the concentric tree-rings Age: Jurassic Period, 180 million years old
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370532 P776132] Genus: conifer stem with pith; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire. This is another fossil tree from Whitby, England, also collected by Mr Cooper in the 1830s. This specimen is so well preserved that you can even see the concentric tree-rings Age: Jurassic Period, 180 million years old
  
 
=== From Collection D: Edinburgh collection ===
 
=== From Collection D: Edinburgh collection ===
Line 382: Line 382:
 
This material is connected with Henry Witham (1779-1844) of Larington Hall, county Durham, and related to his landmark Fossil Vegetables monographs (1831, 1833). The slides were produced in collaboration/competition with William Nicol (1771-1851), and their lapidiary, George Sanderson, all of whom were based in Edinburgh at the time. Slides were cut between 1828 and 1834. Some detailed historical notes of this material form an appendix to this document. Many of these slides are unusually thick (4 mm) and cut to fit the specimens.
 
This material is connected with Henry Witham (1779-1844) of Larington Hall, county Durham, and related to his landmark Fossil Vegetables monographs (1831, 1833). The slides were produced in collaboration/competition with William Nicol (1771-1851), and their lapidiary, George Sanderson, all of whom were based in Edinburgh at the time. Slides were cut between 1828 and 1834. Some detailed historical notes of this material form an appendix to this document. Many of these slides are unusually thick (4 mm) and cut to fit the specimens.
  
P775743 Genus: High coal; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Not known.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370139 P775743] Genus: High coal; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Not known.
  
P775744 Genus: Genus and sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Allesley near Coventry.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370140 P775744] Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Allesley near Coventry.
  
P775745 Genus: Genus and sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Craigleith near Edinburgh.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370141 P775745] Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Craigleith near Edinburgh.
  
P775746 Genus: coptolitic bodies; Taxon: Ichnotaxa; Locality: Malvern, Worcestershire.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370142 P775746] Genus: coptolitic bodies; Taxon: Ichnotaxa; Locality: Malvern, Worcestershire.
  
P775747 Genus: Genus and sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Lennel Braes.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370143 P775747] Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Lennel Braes.
  
P775748 Genus: Great Tree; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Craigleith Quarry near Edinburgh. What seems to have fired William Nicol's interest in fossil plants was the discovery, in 1826, of a giant fossil tree at Craigleith Quarry in Edinburgh. This fossil caused a sensation and part of this tree trunk now stands outside the Natural History Museum, London. Nicol cut this slide of the 'The Great Tree' of Craigleith in 1831. Age: Carboniferous Period, 340 million years old.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370144 P775748] Genus: Great Tree; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Craigleith Quarry near Edinburgh. What seems to have fired William Nicol's interest in fossil plants was the discovery, in 1826, of a giant fossil tree at Craigleith Quarry in Edinburgh. This fossil caused a sensation and part of this tree trunk now stands outside the Natural History Museum, London. Nicol cut this slide of the 'The Great Tree' of Craigleith in 1831. Age: Carboniferous Period, 340 million years old.
  
P775749 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Craigleith near Edinburgh. Here is another piece of the fossil tree found at Craigleith Quarry in Edinburgh, this time cut in 1833. Nicol has cut this slide along the radius of the trunk.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370145 P775749] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Craigleith near Edinburgh. Here is another piece of the fossil tree found at Craigleith Quarry in Edinburgh, this time cut in 1833. Nicol has cut this slide along the radius of the trunk.
  
P775750 Genus: Genus and sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Craigleith near Edinburgh.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370146 P775750] Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Craigleith near Edinburgh.
  
P775751 Genus: branch with pith; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Craigleith near Edinburgh.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370147 P775751] Genus: branch with pith; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Craigleith near Edinburgh.
  
P775752 Genus: Plant axes; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Allenbank.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370148 P775752] Genus: Plant axes; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Allenbank.
  
P775753 Genus: Genus and sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Allenbank.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370149 P775753] Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Allenbank.
  
P775754 Genus: Genus and sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Allesley near Coventry.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370150 P775754] Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Allesley near Coventry.
  
P775755 Genus: Genus and sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Newcastle.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370151 P775755] Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Newcastle.
  
P775756 Genus: Tertiary wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Lough Neagh.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370152 P775756] Genus: Tertiary wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Lough Neagh.
  
P775757 Genus: large conifer axis; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Scarborough - Yorkshire. [*]. This slide shows a cross-section through a quite amazing fossil tree from Scarborough, Yorkshire, England. If you count the tree rings, you can tell the age of the tree when it died. Age: Jurassic Period, 180 million years old.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370153 P775757] Genus: large conifer axis; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Scarborough - Yorkshire. [*]. This slide shows a cross-section through a quite amazing fossil tree from Scarborough, Yorkshire, England. If you count the tree rings, you can tell the age of the tree when it died. Age: Jurassic Period, 180 million years old.
  
P775758 Genus: Araucaria; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; sp; Locality: Craigleith near Edinburgh.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370154 P775758] Genus: Araucaria; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; sp; Locality: Craigleith near Edinburgh.
  
P775759 Genus: Tree; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Craigleith near Edinburgh.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370155 P775759] Genus: Tree; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Craigleith near Edinburgh.
  
P775760 Genus: Pitus; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Tweed Mill Scotland.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370156 P775760] Genus: Pitus; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Tweed Mill Scotland.
  
P775761 Genus: Pitus; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Craigleith near Edinburgh.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370157 P775761] Genus: Pitus; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Craigleith near Edinburgh.
  
P775762 Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Lycophyta; Locality: Notts Coalfield.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370158 P775762] Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Lycophyta; Locality: Notts Coalfield.
  
P775763 Angiosperm axis. Karima Yellow Sea Sanderson. Angiosperm axis, TS, 4 mm thick.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370159 P775763] Angiosperm axis. Karima Yellow Sea Sanderson. Angiosperm axis, TS, 4 mm thick.
  
P775764 Genus: Pitus; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Granton.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370160 P775764] Genus: Pitus; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Granton.
  
P775765 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Bottom of cliff New South Wales. This slide is another of William Nicol's early works. This one shows fossil wood collected from New South Wales, Australia in the 1820s. The specimen is a conifer similar to the modern monkey-puzzle tree. Age: Cretaceous Period, 100 million years old.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370161 P775765] Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Bottom of cliff New South Wales. This slide is another of William Nicol's early works. This one shows fossil wood collected from New South Wales, Australia in the 1820s. The specimen is a conifer similar to the modern monkey-puzzle tree. Age: Cretaceous Period, 100 million years old.
  
P775766 Genus: fragment no 3; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Craigleith near Edinburgh.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370162 P775766] Genus: fragment no 3; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Craigleith near Edinburgh.
  
P775767 Genus: fragment no 9; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Craigleith near Edinburgh.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370163 P775767] Genus: fragment no 9; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Craigleith near Edinburgh.
  
P775795 Genus: Genus and sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Lee Farm Coliery Rothbury. Nicols cut this slide through the cross-section of a stem of fossil club moss trunk, found at Rothbury, Northumberland, England. The stem was washed out to sea where its interior decayed before being infilled by marine shells. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370191 P775795] Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Lee Farm Coliery Rothbury. Nicols cut this slide through the cross-section of a stem of fossil club moss trunk, found at Rothbury, Northumberland, England. The stem was washed out to sea where its interior decayed before being infilled by marine shells. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.
  
P775895 Genus: RLS conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Nova Scotia.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370291 P775895] Genus: RLS conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Nova Scotia.
  
P775896 Genus: conifera; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Nova Scotia.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370292 P775896] Genus: conifera; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Nova Scotia.
  
P775901 Genus: petrified conifera; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: near Whitby - North Yorkshire. [*]. William Nicol was the man who pioneered the thin section technique used to make all the slides in the British Geological Survey collection. This slide is an example of his early work. It shows a fossil tree from Whitby, Yorkshire, England, collected in 1814. Age: Jurassic Period, 180 million years old.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370297 P775901] Genus: petrified conifera; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: near Whitby - North Yorkshire. [*]. William Nicol was the man who pioneered the thin section technique used to make all the slides in the British Geological Survey collection. This slide is an example of his early work. It shows a fossil tree from Whitby, Yorkshire, England, collected in 1814. Age: Jurassic Period, 180 million years old.
  
P776035 Genus: Genus and sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Lennel Braes.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370431 P776035] Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Lennel Braes.
  
P776036 Genus: Great Tree; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Craigleith Quarry near Edinburgh. What seems to have fired William Nicol's interest in fossil plants was the discovery, in 1826, of a giant fossil tree at Craigleith Quarry in Edinburgh. This fossil caused a sensation and part of this tree trunk now stands outside the Natural History Museum, London. Nicol cut this slide of the 'The Great Tree' of Craigleith in 1831. Age: Carboniferous Period, 340 million years old.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370432 P776036] Genus: Great Tree; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Craigleith Quarry near Edinburgh. What seems to have fired William Nicol's interest in fossil plants was the discovery, in 1826, of a giant fossil tree at Craigleith Quarry in Edinburgh. This fossil caused a sensation and part of this tree trunk now stands outside the Natural History Museum, London. Nicol cut this slide of the 'The Great Tree' of Craigleith in 1831. Age: Carboniferous Period, 340 million years old.
  
P776037 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Craigleith near Edinburgh. Here is another piece of the fossil tree found at Craigleith Quarry in Edinburgh, this time cut in 1833. Nicol has cut this slide along the radius of the trunk.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370433 P776037] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Craigleith near Edinburgh. Here is another piece of the fossil tree found at Craigleith Quarry in Edinburgh, this time cut in 1833. Nicol has cut this slide along the radius of the trunk.
  
P776126 Genus: petrified conifera; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: near Whitby - North Yorkshire. [*]. William Nicol was the man who pioneered the thin section technique used to make all the slides in the British Geological Survey collection. This slide is an example of his early work. It shows a fossil tree from Whitby, Yorkshire, England, collected in 1814. Age: Jurassic Period, 180 million years old.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370526 P776126] Genus: petrified conifera; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: near Whitby - North Yorkshire. [*]. William Nicol was the man who pioneered the thin section technique used to make all the slides in the British Geological Survey collection. This slide is an example of his early work. It shows a fossil tree from Whitby, Yorkshire, England, collected in 1814. Age: Jurassic Period, 180 million years old.
  
P776127 Genus: Great Tree; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Craigleith Quarry near Edinburgh. What seems to have fired William Nicol's interest in fossil plants was the discovery, in 1826, of a giant fossil tree at Craigleith Quarry in Edinburgh. This fossil caused a sensation and part of this tree trunk now stands outside the Natural History Museum, London. Nicol cut this slide of the 'The Great Tree' of Craigleith in 1831. Age: Carboniferous Period, 340 million years old.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370527 P776127] Genus: Great Tree; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Craigleith Quarry near Edinburgh. What seems to have fired William Nicol's interest in fossil plants was the discovery, in 1826, of a giant fossil tree at Craigleith Quarry in Edinburgh. This fossil caused a sensation and part of this tree trunk now stands outside the Natural History Museum, London. Nicol cut this slide of the 'The Great Tree' of Craigleith in 1831. Age: Carboniferous Period, 340 million years old.
  
P776128 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Craigleith near Edinburgh. Here is another piece of the fossil tree found at Craigleith Quarry in Edinburgh, this time cut in 1833. Nicol has cut this slide along the radius of the trunk.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370528 P776128] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Craigleith near Edinburgh. Here is another piece of the fossil tree found at Craigleith Quarry in Edinburgh, this time cut in 1833. Nicol has cut this slide along the radius of the trunk.
  
P776129 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Bottom of cliff New South Wales. This slide is another of William Nicol's early works. This one shows fossil wood collected from New South Wales, Australia in the 1820s. The specimen is a conifer similar to the modern monkey-puzzle tree. Age: Cretaceous Period, 100 million years old.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370529 P776129] Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Bottom of cliff New South Wales. This slide is another of William Nicol's early works. This one shows fossil wood collected from New South Wales, Australia in the 1820s. The specimen is a conifer similar to the modern monkey-puzzle tree. Age: Cretaceous Period, 100 million years old.
  
P776130 Genus: Genus and sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Lee Farm Coliery Rothbury. Nicols cut this slide through the cross-section of a stem of fossil club moss trunk, found at Rothbury, Northumberland, England. The stem was washed out to sea where its interior decayed before being infilled by marine shells. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370530 P776130] Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Lee Farm Coliery Rothbury. Nicols cut this slide through the cross-section of a stem of fossil club moss trunk, found at Rothbury, Northumberland, England. The stem was washed out to sea where its interior decayed before being infilled by marine shells. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.
  
P776133 Genus: large conifer axis; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Scarborough - Yorkshire. [*]. This slide shows a cross-section through a quite amazing fossil tree from Scarborough, Yorkshire, England. If you count the tree rings, you can tell the age of the tree when it died. Age: Jurassic Period, 180 million years old.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370533 P776133] Genus: large conifer axis; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Scarborough - Yorkshire. [*]. This slide shows a cross-section through a quite amazing fossil tree from Scarborough, Yorkshire, England. If you count the tree rings, you can tell the age of the tree when it died. Age: Jurassic Period, 180 million years old.
  
 
=== From Collection E: Slides cut by William Hill Darker ===
 
=== From Collection E: Slides cut by William Hill Darker ===
Line 462: Line 462:
 
Mr. Darker, of No. 9, Paradise Street, Lambeth was specialist microscopic slide maker, active in the 1830s to 1850s. Much of the material relates to English coalfield and is connected to Binney suggesting dates from the late 1830s to early 1840s for the material. Other slides represent London Clay material and specimens from the Caribbean.
 
Mr. Darker, of No. 9, Paradise Street, Lambeth was specialist microscopic slide maker, active in the 1830s to 1850s. Much of the material relates to English coalfield and is connected to Binney suggesting dates from the late 1830s to early 1840s for the material. Other slides represent London Clay material and specimens from the Caribbean.
  
P775862 Genus: Palm wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: West Indies.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370258 P775862] Genus: Palm wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: West Indies.
  
P775936 Genus: Palm; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Sri Lanka.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370332 P775936] Genus: Palm; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Sri Lanka.
  
P775937 Genus: Palm; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Jamaica.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370333 P775937] Genus: Palm; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Jamaica.
  
P775938 Fossil coniferous wood Darker shows structure as London clay ? West Africa.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370334 P775938] Fossil coniferous wood Darker shows structure as London clay ? West Africa.
  
P775939 Genus: Coniferopus wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Palermo.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370335 P775939] Genus: Coniferopus wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Palermo.
  
P775940 Genus: Coniferous wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Lough Neagh.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370336 P775940] Genus: Coniferous wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Lough Neagh.
  
P775941 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality:.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370337 P775941] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality:.
  
P775942 Genus: Coniferous wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality:.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370338 P775942] Genus: Coniferous wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality:.
  
P775943 Genus: coniferous wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Aswagh ?.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370339 P775943] Genus: coniferous wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Aswagh ?.
  
P775944 Genus: exogeneous fossil wood; Taxon: Plants: Angiospermae; Locality: East Indies.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370340 P775944] Genus: exogeneous fossil wood; Taxon: Plants: Angiospermae; Locality: East Indies.
  
P775945 Genus: fossil wood mural cells; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality:.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370341 P775945] Genus: fossil wood mural cells; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality:.
  
P775946 Genus: wood with goniatites attached; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Manchester. [*]. This slide shows fossil driftwood from the coal measures of Manchester. Attached to the top right of the fossil wood are cross-sections through sea creatures called nautoloids. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370342 P775946] Genus: wood with goniatites attached; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Manchester. [*]. This slide shows fossil driftwood from the coal measures of Manchester. Attached to the top right of the fossil wood are cross-sections through sea creatures called nautoloids. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.
  
P775947 Genus: coal; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Manchester. [*].
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370343 P775947] Genus: coal; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Manchester. [*].
  
P775948 Genus: coal; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Manchester. [*].
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370344 P775948] Genus: coal; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Manchester. [*].
  
P775949 Genus: fossil wood coal; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Nottingham.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370345 P775949] Genus: fossil wood coal; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Nottingham.
  
P775950 Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Lycophyta; Locality: Poulton.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370346 P775950] Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Lycophyta; Locality: Poulton.
  
P775951 Genus: fossil wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Nottingham.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370347 P775951] Genus: fossil wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Nottingham.
  
P775952 Genus: fossil wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Nottingham.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370348 P775952] Genus: fossil wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Nottingham.
  
P775953 Genus: coal measure lycopsid; Taxon: Plants: Lycophyta; Locality: Not known.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370349 P775953] Genus: coal measure lycopsid; Taxon: Plants: Lycophyta; Locality: Not known.
  
P775954 Genus: wood; Taxon: Plants: Angiospermae; Locality: St Barth W Jud.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370350 P775954] Genus: wood; Taxon: Plants: Angiospermae; Locality: St Barth W Jud.
  
P775955 Genus: Dadoxylon; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; sp; Locality: Ladyshore Lancashire.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370351 P775955] Genus: Dadoxylon; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; sp; Locality: Ladyshore Lancashire.
  
P775956 Genus: Dadoxylon; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; sp; Locality: Not known.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370352 P775956] Genus: Dadoxylon; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; sp; Locality: Not known.
  
P775957 Genus: Nodule in 3rd coal; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Durham.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370353 P775957] Genus: Nodule in 3rd coal; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Durham.
  
P776125 Genus: wood with goniatites attached; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Manchester. [*]. This slide shows fossil driftwood from the coal measures of Manchester. Attached to the top right of the fossil wood are cross-sections through sea creatures called nautoloids. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370525 P776125] Genus: wood with goniatites attached; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Manchester. [*]. This slide shows fossil driftwood from the coal measures of Manchester. Attached to the top right of the fossil wood are cross-sections through sea creatures called nautoloids. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.
  
 
=== From Collection F: Slides made by Charles M. Topping ===
 
=== From Collection F: Slides made by Charles M. Topping ===
Line 514: Line 514:
 
Charles M. Topping (1800-1874) was another professional slide maker active from late 1830s. His slides commonly show 2 or 3 specimens mounted on a single slide.
 
Charles M. Topping (1800-1874) was another professional slide maker active from late 1830s. His slides commonly show 2 or 3 specimens mounted on a single slide.
  
P775914 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Egypt.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370310 P775914] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Egypt.
  
P775915 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Egypt.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370311 P775915] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Egypt.
  
P775916 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Van Diemens Land Tasmania. While exploring onboard H.M.S Erebus, Hooker also made botanical collections. Here is a specimen of modern wood collected from the Macquarie Plains of Tasmania in 1840. Note how Hooker uses the term V.D. Land, an abbreviation of Van Diemen's Land, the old name for Tasmania. Age: Recent.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370312 P775916] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Van Diemens Land Tasmania. While exploring onboard H.M.S Erebus, Hooker also made botanical collections. Here is a specimen of modern wood collected from the Macquarie Plains of Tasmania in 1840. Note how Hooker uses the term V.D. Land, an abbreviation of Van Diemen's Land, the old name for Tasmania. Age: Recent.
  
P775917 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Van Diemens Land Tasmania. While exploring onboard H.M.S Erebus, Hooker also made botanical collections. Here is a specimen of modern wood collected from the Macquarie Plains of Tasmania in 1840. Note how Hooker uses the term V.D. Land, an abbreviation of Van Diemen's Land, the old name for Tasmania. Age: Recent.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370313 P775917] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Van Diemens Land Tasmania. While exploring onboard H.M.S Erebus, Hooker also made botanical collections. Here is a specimen of modern wood collected from the Macquarie Plains of Tasmania in 1840. Note how Hooker uses the term V.D. Land, an abbreviation of Van Diemen's Land, the old name for Tasmania. Age: Recent.
  
P775918 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Van Diemens Land Tasmania. While exploring onboard H.M.S Erebus, Hooker also made botanical collections. Here is a specimen of modern wood collected from the Macquarie Plains of Tasmania in 1840. Note how Hooker uses the term V.D. Land, an abbreviation of Van Diemen's Land, the old name for Tasmania. Age: Recent.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370314 P775918] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Van Diemens Land Tasmania. While exploring onboard H.M.S Erebus, Hooker also made botanical collections. Here is a specimen of modern wood collected from the Macquarie Plains of Tasmania in 1840. Note how Hooker uses the term V.D. Land, an abbreviation of Van Diemen's Land, the old name for Tasmania. Age: Recent.
  
P775919 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Van Diemens Land Tasmania. While exploring onboard H.M.S Erebus, Hooker also made botanical collections. Here is a specimen of modern wood collected from the Macquarie Plains of Tasmania in 1840. Note how Hooker uses the term V.D. Land, an abbreviation of Van Diemen's Land, the old name for Tasmania. Age: Recent.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370315 P775919] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Van Diemens Land Tasmania. While exploring onboard H.M.S Erebus, Hooker also made botanical collections. Here is a specimen of modern wood collected from the Macquarie Plains of Tasmania in 1840. Note how Hooker uses the term V.D. Land, an abbreviation of Van Diemen's Land, the old name for Tasmania. Age: Recent.
  
P775920 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Van Diemens Land Tasmania. While exploring onboard H.M.S Erebus, Hooker also made botanical collections. Here is a specimen of modern wood collected from the Macquarie Plains of Tasmania in 1840. Note how Hooker uses the term V.D. Land, an abbreviation of Van Diemen's Land, the old name for Tasmania. Age: Recent.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370316 P775920] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Van Diemens Land Tasmania. While exploring onboard H.M.S Erebus, Hooker also made botanical collections. Here is a specimen of modern wood collected from the Macquarie Plains of Tasmania in 1840. Note how Hooker uses the term V.D. Land, an abbreviation of Van Diemen's Land, the old name for Tasmania. Age: Recent.
  
P775921 Genus: wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Derbyshire.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370317 P775921] Genus: wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Derbyshire.
  
P775922 Genus: Coal; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Staffordshire.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370318 P775922] Genus: Coal; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Staffordshire.
  
P775923 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Wolverhampton.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370319 P775923] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Wolverhampton.
  
P775924 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known. This mysterious specimen bears the numbers 2886. A four digit numbering system was used by Charles Darwin to archive his specimens from the Voyage of the Beagle - and this is probably another one of Darwin's fossils. At least seven similar slides are in the British Geological Survey collection. Age: unknown.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370320 P775924] Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known. This mysterious specimen bears the numbers 2886. A four digit numbering system was used by Charles Darwin to archive his specimens from the Voyage of the Beagle � and this is probably another one of Darwin's fossils. At least seven similar slides are in the British Geological Survey collection. Age: unknown.
  
P775925 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Harwich.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370321 P775925] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Harwich.
  
P775926 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Not known.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370322 P775926] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Not known.
  
P775927 Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Winston Oldbury.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370323 P775927] Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Winston Oldbury.
  
P775928 Genus: coal; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370324 P775928] Genus: coal; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known.
  
P775929 Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Winston Oldbury.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370325 P775929] Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Winston Oldbury.
  
P775930 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Egypt.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370326 P775930] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Egypt.
  
P775931 Genus: coal; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370327 P775931] Genus: coal; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known.
  
P775932 Genus: coal; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370328 P775932] Genus: coal; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known.
  
P775933 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Egypt. This slide shows some fossil wood from Egypt. The knobbly pattern is where the wood has started to recrystallise. Age: Cretaceous Period, 140 million years old.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370329 P775933] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Egypt. This slide shows some fossil wood from Egypt. The knobbly pattern is where the wood has started to recrystallise. Age: Cretaceous Period, 140 million years old.
  
P775934 Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Winston Oldbury.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370330 P775934] Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Winston Oldbury.
  
P775935 Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Winston Oldbury.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370331 P775935] Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Winston Oldbury.
  
P775960 Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Winston Oldbury.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370356 P775960] Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Winston Oldbury.
  
P775961 Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Winston Oldbury.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370357 P775961] Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Winston Oldbury.
  
P775962 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Not known.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370358 P775962] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Not known.
  
P776113 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Van Diemens Land Tasmania. While exploring onboard H.M.S Erebus, Hooker also made botanical collections. Here is a specimen of modern wood collected from the Macquarie Plains of Tasmania in 1840. Note how Hooker uses the term V.D. Land, an abbreviation of Van Diemen's Land, the old name for Tasmania. Age: Recent.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370513 P776113] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Van Diemens Land Tasmania. While exploring onboard H.M.S Erebus, Hooker also made botanical collections. Here is a specimen of modern wood collected from the Macquarie Plains of Tasmania in 1840. Note how Hooker uses the term V.D. Land, an abbreviation of Van Diemen's Land, the old name for Tasmania. Age: Recent.
  
P776116 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known. This mysterious specimen bears the numbers 2886. A four digit numbering system was used by Charles Darwin to archive his specimens from the Voyage of the Beagle - and this is probably another one of Darwin's fossils. At least seven similar slides are in the British Geological Survey collection. Age: unknown.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370516 P776116] Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known. This mysterious specimen bears the numbers 2886. A four digit numbering system was used by Charles Darwin to archive his specimens from the Voyage of the Beagle � and this is probably another one of Darwin's fossils. At least seven similar slides are in the British Geological Survey collection. Age: unknown.
  
P776134 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Egypt. This slide shows some fossil wood from Egypt. The knobbly pattern is where the wood has started to recrystallise. Age: Cretaceous Period, 140 million years old.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370534 P776134] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Egypt. This slide shows some fossil wood from Egypt. The knobbly pattern is where the wood has started to recrystallise. Age: Cretaceous Period, 140 million years old.
  
 
=== From Collection G: Carboniferous roof nodules from Yorkshire and Lancashire coalfields ===
 
=== From Collection G: Carboniferous roof nodules from Yorkshire and Lancashire coalfields ===
Line 574: Line 574:
 
This material is connected with J.D. Hooker and was published in his three part monograph on coal measure plants (Stigmaria, Lepidodendron, Lepidostrobus, Trigonocarpus) in volume 2 of the BGS memoirs (published in 1848). Many collectors are mentioned on the slides as follows: Mrs Henslow, Mr Binney, Mr Jukes, Miss Jukes, Mr Gray, Mr Cooper, Lt Stamford, Mr Wilson Galliard, Mr Birmingham, Mrs Cunningham, Mr Thornewick, Mr Smyth, Mr Larkin, Mrs Bristol
 
This material is connected with J.D. Hooker and was published in his three part monograph on coal measure plants (Stigmaria, Lepidodendron, Lepidostrobus, Trigonocarpus) in volume 2 of the BGS memoirs (published in 1848). Many collectors are mentioned on the slides as follows: Mrs Henslow, Mr Binney, Mr Jukes, Miss Jukes, Mr Gray, Mr Cooper, Lt Stamford, Mr Wilson Galliard, Mr Birmingham, Mrs Cunningham, Mr Thornewick, Mr Smyth, Mr Larkin, Mrs Bristol
  
P775796 Genus: Strobili; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Not known.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370192 P775796] Genus: Strobili; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Not known.
  
P775797 Genus: Strobili; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370193 P775797] Genus: Strobili; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton.
  
P775798 Genus: Strobili spores; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370194 P775798] Genus: Strobili spores; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton.
  
P775799 Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370195 P775799] Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston.
  
P775800 Genus: Lepidostrobus slice; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370196 P775800] Genus: Lepidostrobus slice; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton.
  
P775801 Genus: Lepidostrobus spores; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370197 P775801] Genus: Lepidostrobus spores; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston.
  
P775802 Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370198 P775802] Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton.
  
P775803 Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370199 P775803] Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston.
  
P775804 Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Barnsley.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370200 P775804] Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Barnsley.
  
P775805 Genus: Strobili; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370201 P775805] Genus: Strobili; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton.
  
P775806 Genus: Strobili; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370202 P775806] Genus: Strobili; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton.
  
P775807 Genus: Strobili; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370203 P775807] Genus: Strobili; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton.
  
P775808 Genus: Strobili; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Not known. In 1846, Joseph Hooker studied the coal measures of England, as part of the British Geological Survey's mapping work. In doing so, he found some amazing fossils. This slide shows a nodule packed full of the 'cones' of giant club mosses, an extinct group of plants that formed the coal. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370204 P775808] Genus: Strobili; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Not known. In 1846, Joseph Hooker studied the coal measures of England, as part of the British Geological Survey's mapping work. In doing so, he found some amazing fossils. This slide shows a nodule packed full of the 'cones' of giant club mosses, an extinct group of plants that formed the coal. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.
  
P775809 Genus: Dadoxylon; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Manchester.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370205 P775809] Genus: Dadoxylon; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Manchester.
  
P775810 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Bilston.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370206 P775810] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Bilston.
  
P775811 Genus: Lepidodendron Milstone; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370207 P775811] Genus: Lepidodendron Milstone; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known.
  
P775812 Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370208 P775812] Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known.
  
P775813 Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370209 P775813] Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known.
  
P775814 Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Walsall, Staffordshire.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370210 P775814] Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Walsall, Staffordshire.
  
P775815 Genus: Stigmaria; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370211 P775815] Genus: Stigmaria; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton.
  
P775816 Genus: Dadoxylon; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Barnsley.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370212 P775816] Genus: Dadoxylon; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Barnsley.
  
P775817 Genus: Dadoxylon; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Barnsley.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370213 P775817] Genus: Dadoxylon; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Barnsley.
  
P775818 Genus: Dadoxylon; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Barnsley.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370214 P775818] Genus: Dadoxylon; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Barnsley.
  
P775897 Genus: Stigmaria; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton. This slide shows a cross-section through the root of the giant club moss trees that formed the coal. This type of root is called Stigmaria. The specimen was collected from the English Midlands by Joseph Hooker in 1846.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370293 P775897] Genus: Stigmaria; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton. This slide shows a cross-section through the root of the giant club moss trees that formed the coal. This type of root is called Stigmaria. The specimen was collected from the English Midlands by Joseph Hooker in 1846.
  
P775898 Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370294 P775898] Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston.
  
P775899 Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370295 P775899] Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston.
  
P775900 Genus: Stigmaria; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370296 P775900] Genus: Stigmaria; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton.
  
P775971 Genus: Bark coal; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370367 P775971] Genus: Bark coal; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton.
  
P775972 Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370368 P775972] Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton.
  
P775973 Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston. This slide is another nodule containing 'cones' of giant club mosses collected from the English Midlands by Joseph Hooker in 1846. The red spot indicates that this particular specimen was figured in a publication. This beautiful slide almost looks like a water colour painting! Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370369 P775973] Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston. This slide is another nodule containing 'cones' of giant club mosses collected from the English Midlands by Joseph Hooker in 1846. The red spot indicates that this particular specimen was figured in a publication. This beautiful slide almost looks like a water colour painting! Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.
  
P775974 Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Not known.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370370 P775974] Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Not known.
  
P775975 Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Not known.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370371 P775975] Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Not known.
  
P775976 Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370372 P775976] Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston.
  
P775977 Genus: Long Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370373 P775977] Genus: Long Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston.
  
P775978 Genus: Stigmaria; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Dudley Field.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370374 P775978] Genus: Stigmaria; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Dudley Field.
  
P775979 Genus: Stigmaria; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370375 P775979] Genus: Stigmaria; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton.
  
P775980 Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370376 P775980] Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton.
  
P775981 Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Milstone.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370377 P775981] Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Milstone.
  
P775982 Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370378 P775982] Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton.
  
P775983 Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370379 P775983] Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton.
  
P775984 Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370380 P775984] Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston.
  
P775985 Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Not known.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370381 P775985] Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Not known.
  
P775986 Genus: Lepidostrobus spores; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston. This slide shows another nodule containing a 'cone' of giant club mosses collected from the English Midlands by Joseph Hooker in 1846. Whereas the other images show 'cones' in cross-section, this one is in longitudinal section. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370382 P775986] Genus: Lepidostrobus spores; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston. This slide shows another nodule containing a 'cone' of giant club mosses collected from the English Midlands by Joseph Hooker in 1846. Whereas the other images show 'cones' in cross-section, this one is in longitudinal section. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.
  
P775987 Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Not known.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370383 P775987] Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Not known.
  
P775988 Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Not known.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370384 P775988] Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Not known.
  
P775989 Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370385 P775989] Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston.
  
P775990 Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370386 P775990] Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston.
  
P775991 Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370387 P775991] Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston.
  
P775992 Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370388 P775992] Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston.
  
P775993 Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370389 P775993] Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston.
  
P775994 Genus: Lepidodendron ?; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Not known. This slide shows the stem of a seed fern collected from the English Midlands by Joseph Hooker in 1846. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370390 P775994] Genus: Lepidodendron ?; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Not known. This slide shows the stem of a seed fern collected from the English Midlands by Joseph Hooker in 1846. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.
  
P775995 Genus: Stigmaria; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370391 P775995] Genus: Stigmaria; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known.
  
P775996 Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Lycophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370392 P775996] Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Lycophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton.
  
P775997 Genus: Dadoxylon; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370393 P775997] Genus: Dadoxylon; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton.
  
P775998 Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Walsall Colliery.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370394 P775998] Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Walsall Colliery.
  
P775999 Genus: Trigonocapon; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370395 P775999] Genus: Trigonocapon; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton.
  
P776000 Genus: Stigmaria; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370396 P776000] Genus: Stigmaria; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known.
  
P776001 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Wolverhampton.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370397 P776001] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Wolverhampton.
  
P776002 Genus: coal form; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Manchester. [*].
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370398 P776002] Genus: coal form; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Manchester. [*].
  
P776003 Genus: coal; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Manchester. [*].
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370399 P776003] Genus: coal; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Manchester. [*].
  
P776004 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality:.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370400 P776004] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality:.
  
P776005 Genus: Strobili; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Dudley.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370401 P776005] Genus: Strobili; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Dudley.
  
P776014 Genus: Stigmaria; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Walsall.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370410 P776014] Genus: Stigmaria; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Walsall.
  
P776015 Genus: Stigmaria rootlet; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370411 P776015] Genus: Stigmaria rootlet; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known.
  
P776016 Genus: Strobili; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370412 P776016] Genus: Strobili; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton.
  
P776017 Genus: Stigmaria in lime mud; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370413 P776017] Genus: Stigmaria in lime mud; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton.
  
P776018 Genus: lycopsid; Taxon: Plants: Lycophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton. This slide shows another nodule containing the stem of a giant club moss collected from the English Midlands by Joseph Hooker in 1846. The diamonds are where leaves once attached to stem. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370414 P776018] Genus: lycopsid; Taxon: Plants: Lycophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton. This slide shows another nodule containing the stem of a giant club moss collected from the English Midlands by Joseph Hooker in 1846. The diamonds are where leaves once attached to stem. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.
  
P776019 Genus: (=Strobili)coal; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370415 P776019] Genus: (=Strobili)coal; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton.
  
P776020 Genus: (=Strobili); Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370416 P776020] Genus: (=Strobili); Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton.
  
P776021 Genus: Lepidodendrid wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370417 P776021] Genus: Lepidodendrid wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton.
  
P776022 Genus: axes in lime mud; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton. This slide shows another nodule containing the stem of a giant club moss tree collected from the English Midlands by Joseph Hooker in 1846. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370418 P776022] Genus: axes in lime mud; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton. This slide shows another nodule containing the stem of a giant club moss tree collected from the English Midlands by Joseph Hooker in 1846. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.
  
P776023 Genus: Strobili in lime mud; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370419 P776023] Genus: Strobili in lime mud; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton.
  
P776024 Genus: Stigmaria in lime mud; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370420 P776024] Genus: Stigmaria in lime mud; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton.
  
P776025 Genus: Strobili; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Bilston.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370421 P776025] Genus: Strobili; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Bilston.
  
P776026 Genus: longitudinal section of small cone; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370422 P776026] Genus: longitudinal section of small cone; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton.
  
P776027 Genus: lycopsid; Taxon: Plants: Lycophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370423 P776027] Genus: lycopsid; Taxon: Plants: Lycophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton.
  
P776028 Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Glasgow. [*]. The English coal measure contains lots of animal remains as well as plants. This nodule shows marine shells collected by Joseph Hooker in 1846. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370424 P776028] Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Glasgow. [*]. The English coal measure contains lots of animal remains as well as plants. This nodule shows marine shells collected by Joseph Hooker in 1846. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.
  
P776029 Genus: Strobili; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370425 P776029] Genus: Strobili; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known.
  
P776030 Genus: Strobili; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Glamorganshire. [*].
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370426 P776030] Genus: Strobili; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Glamorganshire. [*].
  
P776031 Genus: Stigmaria; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370427 P776031] Genus: Stigmaria; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton.
  
P776032 Genus: Stigmaria; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370428 P776032] Genus: Stigmaria; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton.
  
P776033 Genus: Calamites; Taxon: Plants: Sphenophyta; Locality: Barnsley.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370429 P776033] Genus: Calamites; Taxon: Plants: Sphenophyta; Locality: Barnsley.
  
P776034 Genus: Stigmaria; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370430 P776034] Genus: Stigmaria; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton.
  
P776117 Genus: Strobili; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Not known. In 1846, Joseph Hooker studied the coal measures of England, as part of the British Geological Survey's mapping work. In doing so, he found some amazing fossils. This slide shows a nodule packed full of the 'cones' of giant club mosses, an extinct group of plants that formed the coal. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370517 P776117] Genus: Strobili; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Not known. In 1846, Joseph Hooker studied the coal measures of England, as part of the British Geological Survey's mapping work. In doing so, he found some amazing fossils. This slide shows a nodule packed full of the 'cones' of giant club mosses, an extinct group of plants that formed the coal. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.
  
P776118 Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston. This slide is another nodule containing 'cones' of giant club mosses collected from the English Midlands by Joseph Hooker in 1846. The red spot indicates that this particular specimen was figured in a publication. This beautiful slide almost looks like a water colour painting! Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370518 P776118] Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston. This slide is another nodule containing 'cones' of giant club mosses collected from the English Midlands by Joseph Hooker in 1846. The red spot indicates that this particular specimen was figured in a publication. This beautiful slide almost looks like a water colour painting! Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.
  
P776119 Genus: Lepidostrobus spores; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston. This slide shows another nodule containing a 'cone' of giant club mosses collected from the English Midlands by Joseph Hooker in 1846. Whereas the other images show 'cones' in cross-section, this one is in longitudinal section. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370519 P776119] Genus: Lepidostrobus spores; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston. This slide shows another nodule containing a 'cone' of giant club mosses collected from the English Midlands by Joseph Hooker in 1846. Whereas the other images show 'cones' in cross-section, this one is in longitudinal section. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.
  
P776120 Genus: Stigmaria; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton. This slide shows a cross-section through the root of the giant club moss trees that formed the coal. This type of root is called Stigmaria. The specimen was collected from the English Midlands by Joseph Hooker in 1846.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370520 P776120] Genus: Stigmaria; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton. This slide shows a cross-section through the root of the giant club moss trees that formed the coal. This type of root is called Stigmaria. The specimen was collected from the English Midlands by Joseph Hooker in 1846.
  
P776121 Genus: lycopsid; Taxon: Plants: Lycophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton. This slide shows another nodule containing the stem of a giant club moss collected from the English Midlands by Joseph Hooker in 1846. The diamonds are where leaves once attached to stem. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370521 P776121] Genus: lycopsid; Taxon: Plants: Lycophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton. This slide shows another nodule containing the stem of a giant club moss collected from the English Midlands by Joseph Hooker in 1846. The diamonds are where leaves once attached to stem. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.
  
P776122 Genus: axes in lime mud; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton. This slide shows another nodule containing the stem of a giant club moss tree collected from the English Midlands by Joseph Hooker in 1846. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370522 P776122] Genus: axes in lime mud; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton. This slide shows another nodule containing the stem of a giant club moss tree collected from the English Midlands by Joseph Hooker in 1846. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.
  
P776123 Genus: Lepidodendron ?; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Not known. This slide shows the stem of a seed fern collected from the English Midlands by Joseph Hooker in 1846. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370523 P776123] Genus: Lepidodendron ?; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Not known. This slide shows the stem of a seed fern collected from the English Midlands by Joseph Hooker in 1846. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.
  
P776124 Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Glasgow. [*]. The English coal measure contains lots of animal remains as well as plants. This nodule shows marine shells collected by Joseph Hooker in 1846. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370524 P776124] Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Glasgow. [*]. The English coal measure contains lots of animal remains as well as plants. This nodule shows marine shells collected by Joseph Hooker in 1846. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.
  
 
=== From Collection H: Nicol collection? ===
 
=== From Collection H: Nicol collection? ===
  
P775884 Genus: coniferous Dustylidnous now; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370280 P775884] Genus: coniferous Dustylidnous now; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known.
  
P775885 Genus: coniferous Dustylidnous now; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370281 P775885] Genus: coniferous Dustylidnous now; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known.
  
P775886 Genus: Calcareous wood seedgrapes; Taxon: Plants: Angiospermae; Locality: Not known.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370282 P775886] Genus: Calcareous wood seedgrapes; Taxon: Plants: Angiospermae; Locality: Not known.
  
P775887 Genus: Coniferous; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known. This slide is labeled Coniferous. The tissue destroyed by crystallization; calcareous wood. Little is known of its origin. Age: uncertain
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370283 P775887] Genus: Coniferous; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known. This slide is labeled Coniferous. The tissue destroyed by crystallization; calcareous wood. Little is known of its origin. Age: uncertain
  
P775888 Genus: transverse section not distinguishable; Taxon: Not Entered; Locality: Not known.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370284 P775888] Genus: transverse section not distinguishable; Taxon: Not Entered; Locality: Not known.
  
P775889 Genus: Illoenus; Taxon: Not known; barreiensis; Locality: Not known.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370285 P775889] Genus: Illoenus; Taxon: Not known; barreiensis; Locality: Not known.
  
P775890 Genus: Silicified; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Tuscany.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370286 P775890] Genus: Silicified; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Tuscany.
  
P775891 Genus: Dicot like antiqua wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370287 P775891] Genus: Dicot like antiqua wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known.
  
P775892 Genus: coniferous; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370288 P775892] Genus: coniferous; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known.
  
P775893 Genus: Transverse section; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Trichinopoly.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370289 P775893] Genus: Transverse section; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Trichinopoly.
  
P775894 Genus: Transverse section; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Not known.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370290 P775894] Genus: Transverse section; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Not known.
  
P776135 Genus: Coniferous; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known. This slide is labeled 'Coniferous. The tissue destroyed by crystallization; calcareous wood'. Little is known of its origin. Age: uncertain
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370535 P776135] Genus: Coniferous; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known. This slide is labeled 'Coniferous. The tissue destroyed by crystallization; calcareous wood'. Little is known of its origin. Age: uncertain
  
 
=== From Collection I: Miscellaneous material===
 
=== From Collection I: Miscellaneous material===
  
  
 +
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370135 P775739] Genus: Araucaria; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; mirabilis; Locality: Not known. This spectacular slide shows the cross-section of a cone of a monkey-puzzle tree. Similar cones have been found in South America. Age: uncertain
  
P775739 Genus: Araucaria; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; mirabilis; Locality: Not known. This spectacular slide shows the cross-section of a cone of a monkey-puzzle tree. Similar cones have been found in South America. Age: uncertain
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370136 P775740] Genus: Araucaria; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; mirabilis; Locality: Not known. This spectacular slide shows the cross-section of a cone of a monkey-puzzle tree. Similar cones have been found in South America. Age: uncertain
  
P775740 Genus: Araucaria; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; mirabilis; Locality: Not known. This spectacular slide shows the cross-section of a cone of a monkey-puzzle tree. Similar cones have been found in South America. Age: uncertain
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370243 P775847] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not Entered; Locality: Not known.
  
P775847 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not Entered; Locality: Not known.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370244 P775848] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Plants: Angiospermae; Locality: Harwich.
  
P775848 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Plants: Angiospermae; Locality: Harwich.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370245 P775849] Genus: large stem; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Lyme Regis,Dorset.
  
P775849 Genus: large stem; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Lyme Regis,Dorset.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370246 P775850] Genus: large stem; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Lyme Regis,Dorset.
  
P775850 Genus: large stem; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Lyme Regis,Dorset.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370247 P775851] Genus: Prototaxites; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Forfarshire, Scotland. This slide shows a giant fungus called Prototaxites that grew to a height of several metres. This specimen was found by Mr Powrie, near Forfar, Scotland, in the 1840s. Age: Devonian Period, 400 million years old.
  
P775851 Genus: Prototaxites; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Forfarshire, Scotland. This slide shows a giant fungus called Prototaxites that grew to a height of several metres. This specimen was found by Mr Powrie, near Forfar, Scotland, in the 1840s. Age: Devonian Period, 400 million years old.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370248 P775852] Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Railway cutting W of station Ashby de la Zouch. This slide shows a fossil wood collected in a railway cutting near Ashby de la Zouch in the 1840s. The fossil was found by Thomas Rylands, the philanothropic industrialist. Age: Permian Period, 280 million years old.
  
P775852 Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Railway cutting W of station Ashby de la Zouch. This slide shows a fossil wood collected in a railway cutting near Ashby de la Zouch in the 1840s. The fossil was found by Thomas Rylands, the philanothropic industrialist. Age: Permian Period, 280 million years old.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370249 P775853] Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Railway cutting W of station Ashby de la Zouch. This slide shows a fossil wood collected in a railway cutting near Ashby de la Zouch in the 1840s. The fossil was found by Thomas Rylands, the philanothropic industrialist. Age: Permian Period, 280 million years old.
  
P775853 Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Railway cutting W of station Ashby de la Zouch. This slide shows a fossil wood collected in a railway cutting near Ashby de la Zouch in the 1840s. The fossil was found by Thomas Rylands, the philanothropic industrialist. Age: Permian Period, 280 million years old.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370250 P775854] Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: North Riding.
  
P775854 Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: North Riding.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370251 P775855] Genus: Prototaxites; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Forfarshire, Scotland.
  
P775855 Genus: Prototaxites; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Forfarshire, Scotland.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370252 P775856] Genus: wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Andes.
  
P775856 Genus: wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Andes.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370253 P775857] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Coventry.
  
P775857 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Coventry.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370254 P775858] Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Folkestone.
  
P775858 Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Folkestone.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370255 P775859] Genus: Palm; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wowadeli East Indies.
  
P775859 Genus: Palm; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wowadeli East Indies.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370256 P775860] Genus: Palm; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wowadeli East Indies.
  
P775860 Genus: Palm; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wowadeli East Indies.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370257 P775861] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Plants: Angiospermae; Locality: Egypt.
  
P775861 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Plants: Angiospermae; Locality: Egypt.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370259 P775863] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Coventry.
  
P775863 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Coventry.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370260 P775864] Genus: wood; Taxon: Plants: Angiospermae; Locality: Cairo.
  
P775864 Genus: wood; Taxon: Plants: Angiospermae; Locality: Cairo.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370261 P775865] Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Coventry.
  
P775865 Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Coventry.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370262 P775866] Genus: Fossil palm; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: East Indies.
  
P775866 Genus: Fossil palm; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: East Indies.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370263 P775867] Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Coventry.
  
P775867 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Coventry.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370264 P775868] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Antigua. This slide shows a cross-section through the root of a flowering plant from Antigua. Age: uncertain
  
P775868 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Antigua. This slide shows a cross-section through the root of a flowering plant from Antigua. Age: uncertain
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370265 P775869] Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Coventry.
  
P775869 Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Coventry.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370266 P775870] Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Coventry.
  
P775870 Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Coventry.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370267 P775871] Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Coventry.
  
P775871 Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Coventry.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370268 P775872] Genus: wood; Taxon: Plants: Angiospermae; Locality: Not known. This slide shows a tree trunk of a flowering plant, probably from Harwich, near London. This specimen was collected by Rev John Henslow, Darwin's mentor at Cambridge, in the 1830s. Age: Tertiary Period, 50 million years old.
  
P775872 Genus: wood; Taxon: Plants: Angiospermae; Locality: Not known. This slide shows a tree trunk of a flowering plant, probably from Harwich, near London. This specimen was collected by Rev John Henslow, Darwin's mentor at Cambridge, in the 1830s. Age: Tertiary Period, 50 million years old.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370269 P775873] Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: North Riding.
  
P775873 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: North Riding.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370270 P775874] Genus: bad jasper; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Not known.
  
P775874 Genus: bad jasper; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Not known.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370271 P775875] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Antigua. This slide shows some limestone from Antigua. Age: uncertain
  
P775875 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Antigua. This slide shows some limestone from Antigua. Age: uncertain
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370272 P775876] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Cape Patterson.
  
P775876 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Cape Patterson.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370273 P775877] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Sheppey.
  
P775877 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Sheppey.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370274 P775878] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Egypt.
  
P775878 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Egypt.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370275 P775879] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Sheppey.
  
P775879 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Sheppey.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370276 P775880] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Not known.
  
P775880 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Not known.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370277 P775881] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Cape Patterson.
  
P775881 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Cape Patterson.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370278 P775882] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Aspley.
  
P775882 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Aspley.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370279 P775883] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Aspley.
  
P775883 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Aspley.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370402 P776006] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Plants: Angiospermae; Locality: Harwich.
  
P776006 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Plants: Angiospermae; Locality: Harwich.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370403 P776007] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Not known.
  
P776007 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Not known.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370404 P776008] Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Germlingberg Ridge ?.
  
P776008 Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Germlingberg Ridge ?.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370405 P776009] Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Weymouth Dorchester.
  
P776009 Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Weymouth Dorchester.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370406 P776010] Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Weymouth Dorchester. This slide shows a tree trunk from the famous fossil forest on the Isle of Portland, Dorset, southern England. This specimen was collected by Rev John Henslow, Darwin's mentor at Cambridge, in the 1830s. Age: Jurassic Period, 150 million years old.
  
P776010 Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Weymouth Dorchester. This slide shows a tree trunk from the famous fossil forest on the Isle of Portland, Dorset, southern England. This specimen was collected by Rev John Henslow, Darwin's mentor at Cambridge, in the 1830s. Age: Jurassic Period, 150 million years old.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370407 P776011] Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known.
  
P776011 Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370437 P776041] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Plants: Angiospermae; Locality: Harwich.
  
P776041 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Plants: Angiospermae; Locality: Harwich.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370438 P776042] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Plants: Angiospermae; Locality: Harwich.
  
P776042 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Plants: Angiospermae; Locality: Harwich.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370536 P776136] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Antigua. This slide shows some limestone from Antigua. Age: uncertain
  
P776136 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Antigua. This slide shows some limestone from Antigua. Age: uncertain
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370537 P776137] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Antigua. This slide shows a cross-section through the root of a flowering plant from Antigua. Age: uncertain
  
P776137 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Antigua. This slide shows a cross-section through the root of a flowering plant from Antigua. Age: uncertain
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370538 P776138] Genus: wood; Taxon: Plants: Angiospermae; Locality: Not known. This slide shows a tree trunk of a flowering plant, probably from Harwich, near London. This specimen was collected by Rev John Henslow, Darwin's mentor at Cambridge, in the 1830s. Age: Tertiary Period, 50 million years old.
  
P776138 Genus: wood; Taxon: Plants: Angiospermae; Locality: Not known. This slide shows a tree trunk of a flowering plant, probably from Harwich, near London. This specimen was collected by Rev John Henslow, Darwin's mentor at Cambridge, in the 1830s. Age: Tertiary Period, 50 million years old.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370539 P776139] Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Weymouth Dorchester. This slide shows a tree trunk from the famous fossil forest on the Isle of Portland, Dorset, southern England. This specimen was collected by Rev John Henslow, Darwin's mentor at Cambridge, in the 1830s. Age: Jurassic Period, 150 million years old.
  
P776139 Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Weymouth Dorchester. This slide shows a tree trunk from the famous fossil forest on the Isle of Portland, Dorset, southern England. This specimen was collected by Rev John Henslow, Darwin's mentor at Cambridge, in the 1830s. Age: Jurassic Period, 150 million years old.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370540 P776140] Genus: Araucaria; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; mirabilis; Locality: Not known. This spectacular slide shows the cross-section of a cone of a monkey-puzzle tree. Similar cones have been found in South America. Age: uncertain
  
P776140 Genus: Araucaria; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; mirabilis; Locality: Not known. This spectacular slide shows the cross-section of a cone of a monkey-puzzle tree. Similar cones have been found in South America. Age: uncertain
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370541 P776141] Genus: Prototaxites; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Forfarshire, Scotland. This slide shows a giant fungus called Prototaxites that grew to a height of several metres. This specimen was found by Mr Powrie, near Forfar, Scotland, in the 1840s. Age: Devonian Period, 400 million years old.
  
P776141 Genus: Prototaxites; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Forfarshire, Scotland. This slide shows a giant fungus called Prototaxites that grew to a height of several metres. This specimen was found by Mr Powrie, near Forfar, Scotland, in the 1840s. Age: Devonian Period, 400 million years old.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370542 P776142] Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Railway cutting W of station Ashby de la Zouch. This slide shows a fossil wood collected in a railway cutting near Ashby de la Zouch in the 1840s. The fossil was found by Thomas Rylands, the philanothropic industrialist. Age: Permian Period, 280 million years old.
 
 
P776142 Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Railway cutting W of station Ashby de la Zouch. This slide shows a fossil wood collected in a railway cutting near Ashby de la Zouch in the 1840s. The fossil was found by Thomas Rylands, the philanothropic industrialist. Age: Permian Period, 280 million years old.
 
  
 
=== From Collection J: No labels ===
 
=== From Collection J: No labels ===
  
P775902 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Unknown; Locality: Not known.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370298 P775902] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Unknown; Locality: Not known.
  
P775903 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Unknown; Locality: Not known.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370299 P775903] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Unknown; Locality: Not known.
  
P775904 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Unknown; Locality: Not known.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370300 P775904] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Unknown; Locality: Not known.
  
P775905 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Unknown; Locality: Not known.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370301 P775905] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Unknown; Locality: Not known.
  
P775906 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Unknown; Locality: Not known.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370302 P775906] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Unknown; Locality: Not known.
  
P775907 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Unknown; Locality: Not known.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370303 P775907] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Unknown; Locality: Not known.
  
P775908 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Unknown; Locality: Not known.
+
[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370304 P775908] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Unknown; Locality: Not known.
  
P775909 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Unknown; Locality: Not known.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370305 P775909] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Unknown; Locality: Not known.
  
P775910 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Unknown; Locality: Not known.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370306 P775910] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Unknown; Locality: Not known.
  
P775911 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Unknown; Locality: Not known.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370307 P775911] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Unknown; Locality: Not known.
  
P775912 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Unknown; Locality: Not known.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370308 P775912] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Unknown; Locality: Not known.
  
P775913 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Unknown; Locality: Not known.
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[http://geoscenic.bgs.ac.uk/asset-bank/action/viewAsset?id=370309 P775913] Genus: Not known; Taxon: Unknown; Locality: Not known.
  
  

Latest revision as of 13:47, 10 December 2019

By H. J. Falcon-Lang

J D Hooker
'The Bandit's Lair' from about 1885; newly recruited field staff attended a workshop in the North West Highlands.
This slide shows the stem of a seed fern, possibly Lepidodendron, collected from the English Midlands by Joseph Hooker in 1846. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.
HMS Erebus:originally a warship (bomb vessel), it was refitted as an exploration vessel for Antarctic service.
J D Hooker
File:P775757; Australia outline.
Fossil tree in Craigleith Quarry. Reproduced from Fossil Vegetables by Henry Witham.
File:Fossil Vegetables... by Henry Witham, Title page.
This section of fossil wood.
Museum of Practical Geology in Jermyn Street, Piccadilly, London.

J D Hooker slide collection[edit]

Dr Howard Falcon-Lang, a palaeontologist at Royal Holloway, University of London, describes how he rediscovered the Joseph Hooker Collection slides. Youtube video. Dr Mike Howe, BGS Chief Curator, explains how the Hooker collection was curated in 1846 about two years before the Survey's formal numbering system was established in 1848. Youtube video

The British Geological Survey is home to more than three million fossils collected over two centuries and catalogued with enormous precision.

However, as generations of curators have come and gone, a few collections have lain forgotten and their significance has gradually passed out of memory.

Recently, a collection of ‘unregistered fossil plants’ was found in one of the Survey’s windowless vaults in Keyworth, in central England.

These comprise hundreds of beautiful thin sections of fossil wood dating from the early nineteenth century.

The collection was assembled by botanist Joseph Hooker (Darwin’s best friend) while he was briefly employed by the Survey in 1846.

The material includes some of the first thin sections ever made by William Nicol, the pioneer of petrography, in the late 1820s, as well as specimens picked up by Darwin and Hooker on their round the world voyages in the 1830s and 1840s.

The collection is particularly interesting in the way it sheds light on the vibrant and sometimes murky world of early nineteenth century science. This is the story of these fascinating fossils:

Joseph Hooker, botanist to the Survey[edit]

Joseph Hooker was one of the great botanists of the nineteenth century, long-time director of Kew Gardens, and close friend of Charles Darwin. Hooker was briefly employed by the BGS from February 1846 to October 1847; he was still in his late twenties and just at the very start of his illustrious career.

Some of Hooker's 'unregistered' slides were re-discovered in 2011. The slide labels had been directly inscribed onto the glass using a diamond tool, and a few were signed, 'J.D.H. 1846'. These initials stand for Joseph Dalton Hooker (1817–1911).

Hooker had made his name as an intrepid botanical explorer in the course of a circum-Antarctic voyage on HMS Erebus from 1839–1843.

At the Survey, his work dealt with the fossil plants of the Carboniferous Coal Measures, a task that he later confided to Darwin that he both loved and hated.

BGS jobs boom[edit]

In those days, the Geological Survey of Great Britain was a young, vibrant organisation. Its roots had been established in 1835 under the directorship of Henry de la Beche (1796–1855), but the organisation only really took off in 1845, when a parliamentary act was passed to produce a comprehensive geological map of Great Britain.

That led to a spate of new hirings, and soon a small team of geologists, palaeontologists, and surveyors — mostly in their 20s and 30s — were out in the field, scrambling over Britain’s diverse rock formations.

One of these new employees was Hooker, who spent the summer of 1846 investigating the Bristol, Somerset and South Wales coalfields.

However, in the autumn of 1846, he informed Darwin that he was back at the Survey’s Museum of Economic Geology in Charing Cross, London. Here he was hard at work cataloguing specimens, almost certainly including those found in the ’unregistered’ fossil plant collection today.

Roots, trunks, branches and cones[edit]

Seed fern, possibly Lepidodendron.This slide shows the stem of a seed fern, possibly Lepidodendron, collected from the English Midlands by Joseph Hooker in 1846. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.

The largest proportion of Hooker’s ‘unregistered’ collection comprises sections of Coal Measure plants from the Wolverhampton district and in the vicinity of Merthyr, South Wales.

These had been prepared from material that Hooker and his Geological Survey colleagues had obtained earlier that year.

The slides include beautiful examples of roots, trunks, branches, and ‘cones’ of the giant clubmoss tree, Lepidodendron — the iconic plant that dominated the Carboniferous coal swamps.

The names of donors inscribed on the slides show that Hooker’s work at the Survey relied heavily on the generosity of a huge number of amateur collectors — not unlike today.

Hooker published his findings in a three-part series that appeared as the first Memoir of the Geological Survey in 1848.

However, by the time that this weighty tome had come to press, he had already relinquished his employment, having embarked on his next botanical voyage of discovery, this time to India and the Himalayas.

Voyages of discovery[edit]

Amongst the remaining slides that Hooker assembled in 1846 are specimens of fossil wood that he had collected in the course of his circum-Antarctic explorations onboard HMS Erebus.

Some of these are from the Kerguelen Islands, desolate volcanic rocks positioned at 49ºS in the wild southern extremities of the Indian Ocean, where Hooker spent three months in the spring of 1840.

The geology of the Kerguelan Islands is dominated by thick successions of Tertiary basalt flows, and Hooker wrote that, ‘throughout many of the lava-streams are found prostrate trunks of fossil trees of no mean growth’.

James Clark Ross (1800–1862), who famously led the expedition, added that one of these trees ‘exceeding seven feet in circumference was dug out and sent to England’. Perhaps this is one of the fossils now in the Survey’s collection?

Southern Indian Ocean travels[edit]

Hooker informed Darwin that he had this specimen sectioned in December 1844. In the early twentieth century, Cambridge palaeobotanists, A C Seward and E A N Arber sectioned more of Hooker’s fossil wood specimens from the Kerguelen Islands, and identified them as conifers related to the modern-day monkey puzzle and cypress.

Many geologists now regard the Kerguelan Plateau as a kind of ‘Atlantis’, which was covered by subtropical vegetation throughout much of the Tertiary, before largely sinking below the waves.

From the desolation of the Kerguelan Islands, Hooker sailed onto Tasmania in south-east Australia, arriving in August 1840. There, local people took him to see ‘vast quantities of silicified wood’ scattered over the Macquarie Plains.

Amongst these was a massive fossil tree buried upright in basalt lava flows of Tertiary age, measuring some three feet in diameter and nine feet high. With some difficulty, this specimen of ‘most beautiful agate’ was shipped back to England, where it was showcased at the Great Exhibition of 1851, before going to its permanent home at the British Museum (Natural History) in London — now simply the Natural History Museum.

Fifty years later, Arber named the specimen, Cupressinoxylon hookeri in honour of its discoverer.

Van Diemen’s Land[edit]

Australia outline (P776133: a cross-section of a fossil tree from Scarborough, Yorkshire, England). In Hooker’s ‘unregistered’ collection at the Geological Survey, there are fifteen sections of Tasmanian fossil wood, mostly labeled Van Diemen’s Land (the official name of the island until 1856). Exactly how they relate to the giant tree, if at all, is unknown.

Fossils from a slightly earlier round-the-world voyage are also stored with Hooker’s specimens at the Geological Survey. These include at least two sections of fossil wood obtained by Charles Darwin in the course of his famous voyage of the HMS Beagle, from 1831–1836.

In December 1834, Darwin explored the northern part of Chiloe Island, Chile, under conditions of persistent rain. Far from enamored by the place, he had written that, ‘Chiloe, from its climate is a miserable hole’.

However, in the course of his visit, Darwin encountered ‘many fragments of black lignite and silicified and pyritous wood, often embedded close together’, probably from Tertiary deposits along the coast.

He shipped these specimens back to Robert Brown (1773–1858), Keeper of the Botany Department at the British Museum (Natural History), who had them cut and ground into thin sections in 1837.

Darwin’s correspondence shows that he and Hooker exchanged fossil wood slides in 1844, and in this way, some of Darwin’s sections seem to have found their way into the Geological Survey’s collection. One is labelled ‘Chiloe, C. Darwin Esq’.

First-ever thin sections[edit]

While rediscovering ‘lost’ fossils from Darwin’s voyage on HMS Beagle is hugely exciting, there are other specimens in Hooker’s ‘unregistered’ collection that are arguably of greater scientific significance.

These are associated with William Nicol (1771–1851), the pioneer of petrography, who invented the polarizing microscope and produced the first-ever thin sections — some of which are in the Geological Survey’s collection.

The impetus for Nicol’s twin breakthrough was the discovery, in 1826, of a gigantic Carboniferous fossil tree in Craigleith Quarry on the outskirts of Edinburgh where he lived. Over the next three years, Nicol experimented with samples of this fossil, in collaboration with lapidary, George Sanderson.

Glue, glass and wood slices[edit]

Eventually, they created the first translucent sections by attaching ground slices of fossil wood to glass plates using Canada balsam — laying the foundations of petrography.

However, the numerous thin sections from this era preserved in the ‘unregistered’ collection of the Geological Survey, do not all appear to have originated directly with Nicol, but instead shed light on a rather murky episode in the history of science.

One of Nicol’s closest friends and supporters was Henry Witham (1779–1844), a wealthy naturalist from County Durham. Recognising the potential of the thin section technique to revolutionise palaeobotany, Witham encouraged Nicol to produce many more sections and used his contacts to source fossil wood samples from across northern Britain.

Bad blood[edit]

However, the collaborative relationship seems to have turned sour when, in 1831, Witham published a groundbreaking book based on Nicol’s sections, entitled Fossil Vegetables.

Although Witham fully acknowledged his debt to Nicol, the latter had evidently expected co-authorship. Worse was to come, however, because with Nicol now unwilling to collaborate further, Witham continued to work directly with Sanderson to study further fossils, resulting in a second expanded edition of his book in 1833.

As an indication of the degree of bad feeling that had developed between the two men, this edition made no reference to Nicol at all.

Fossil Vegetables[edit]

At least thirty thin sections from Witham’s former museum at Lartington Hall, County Durham are preserved in Geological Survey’s ‘unregistered’ collection. How they found their way from County Durham to London is unclear, but as Witham died in 1844, the likelihood is that the geological contents of his museum were donated to the Survey about the time of Hooker’s arrival as botanist in 1846.

Reflecting the split between Nicol and Witham, the sections made for the first edition of Fossil Vegetables are labelled in Nicol’s handwriting while those prepared for the second edition are engraved by Witham.

The specimens are mostly of lower Carboniferous trees from several sites across Scotland and its borders, but also include Jurassic specimens from the Yorkshire coast, and Tertiary angiosperm trunks from as far afield as the East China Sea.

Slide-makers to the Empire[edit]

Witham’s book, Fossil Vegetables, described his thin section technique in sufficient detail that anyone with basic know-how could replicate the process; Nicol was especially annoyed by this. Read more about this in Double-crossed Nicol.

As a result, by the mid-1830s, a small handful of professional slide-makers, mostly based in London, had set up business to supply the growing demand from gentleman collectors for geological thin sections.

Slides prepared by three of the best known of these early professionals are represented in Hooker’s ‘unregistered’ collection, and combine science with some extraordinary artistry.

One of these slide-makers was William Hill Darker (1811–1863), who worked out of Lambeth, London, in the late 1830s. Many of his sections were evidently made for coal geologist, Edward Binney (1812–1882), and the localities of the fossils, in and around Manchester, suggest that they date from the early 1840s.

The other slide-makers were Charles M Topping and Cornelius Poulton, and date from a similar period.

‘Global reach’ of British science[edit]

The truly remarkable thing about all these slides is the way they illustrate the ‘global reach’ of British science in the early nineteenth century; fossil woods were sourced from Antigua, Australia, Egypt, India, Jamaica and the Far East, as well as many classic English localities including the Isle of Portland, Dorset.

Intriguingly, many of these slides give the name of the donor as ‘Miss Henslow’. That suggests some sort of connection with the Rev. John Stevens Henslow (1796–1861), Darwin’s mentor at Cambridge and a keen collector of fossil woods.

In 1847, Hooker became engaged to Henslow’s oldest daughter, just a few months after he assembled the Geological Survey’s slide collection. It seems likely therefore that many of the specimens found in the ‘unregistered’ collection today originated from the Rev. Henslow’s personal cabinet.

Others seem to have been donated by a motley crew of explorers, missionaries and administrators from across the British Empire.

How the collection was 'lost'[edit]

Despite the passing of 165 years, the origin of Hooker’s ‘unregistered’ collection is slowly becoming apparent. However, far less clear is how it came to be ‘lost’.

The answer to that question may simply be a case of bad timing. As already noted, the Geological Survey’s formal register of acquisitions only commenced in 1848, two years after Hooker had assembled his collection; however, by that time, he was off exploring the wilds of the Himalayas, and unavailable to assist with cataloguing his thin section collection.

When he returned in 1851, the collection was in the process of being moved to a new home at the Museum of Practical Geology in Jermyn Street, Piccadilly, London; from there it travelled to the Geological Museum in South Kensington in 1935, and 50 years later, to its current home in Keyworth.

With each move, the origin and significance of the collection became ever more obscure. However, that trend may now be set to reverse because the entire collection has been accessioned, photographed, and will shortly be made available online.

It is hoped that this, in turn, will stimulate more research, shedding light on the early history of palaeobotany, and affording these beautiful slides, the attention that they have been denied for so long.

This is part of an edited transcript of the following article: FALCON-LANG, H J. 2012. Fossil 'treasure trove' found in British Geological Survey vaults. Geology Today 28 (1), 32–36. Reprinted by permission of Wiley-Blackwell

Contact: For further information about Hooker's slides or to visit the Materials collection contact Dr Mike Howe

Full list of thin-sections[edit]

From Collection A: Joseph Dalton Hooker collection.[edit]

Hooker's collection comprises material collected during his 1839-1843 circum-Antarctic voyage in HMS Erebus and HMS Terror. However, it is possible that some of the slides from van Dieman's Land could have originated with William Nicol in 1831 (see notes at end).

P775770 Genus: Genus & sp not known wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Tasmania.

P775771 Genus: Genus & sp not known conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Van Diemens Land Tasmania.

P775772 Genus: Genus & sp not known Fossil gum; Taxon: Not Entered; Locality: Tasmania. Between 1839�1843, botanist Joseph Hooker explored the South Hemisphere onboard H.M.S Erebus. This thin section shows a piece of fossil wood collected from the Macquarie Plains of Tasmania in 1840. Age: Tertiary Period, 40 million years old.

P775773 Genus: Genus & sp not known conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Tasmania.

P775774 Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not Entered; Locality: Myrthir.

P775775 Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not Entered; Locality: Van Diemens Land Tasmania.

P775776 Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not Entered; Locality: Van Diemens Land Tasmania.

P775777 Fossil conifera, Kerguelan�s Land, Fossil conifera, South Polar Expedition 1842.

P775778 Fossil conifera, Kerguelan�s Land, Fossil conifera, South Polar Expedition 1842.

P775779 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Kerguelans Land.

P775780 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Kerguelans Land.

P775781 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Van Diemens Land Tasmania.

P775782 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Tasmania.

P775783 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Tasmania.

P775784 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Tasmania. This slide is of another piece of fossil wood from Tasmania collected by Hooker in 1840. One of the fossil trees collected during this expedition � a massive specimen 7 feet in circumference - was shipped back to Britain and showcased at the Great Exhibition of 1851. Age: Tertiary Period, 40 million years old.

P775785 Genus: Tampin fossil tree; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known. This slide is of another piece of fossil wood from Tasmania collected by Hooker in 1840. Expedition leader, James Clark Ross recorded that the fossil trees were found encased in ancient lava flows and were preserved as 'most beautiful agate'. Age: Tertiary Period, 40 million years old.

P775786 Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not Entered; Locality: Myrthir.

P775787 Genus: Calamites; Taxon: Plants: Sphenophyta; sp; Locality: Myrthir.

P775788 Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not Entered; Locality: Myrthir.

P775789 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Tasmania.

P775790 Genus: conifer stem with pith; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Myrthir.

P775791 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Kerguelan's Land Desolation Islands Indian ocean.

P775792 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Kerguelan's Land Desolation Islands Indian ocean.

P775793 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Van Diemens Land Tasmania.

P776038 Genus: Banksia; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; sp; Locality: N S Wales under the fold drift.

P776039 Genus: Banksia; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; sp; Locality: N S Wales under the fold drift.

P776040 Genus: Banksia; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; sp; Locality: N S Wales under the fold drift.

P776110 Genus: Genus & sp not known Fossil gum; Taxon: Not Entered; Locality: Tasmania. Between 1839�1843, botanist Joseph Hooker explored the South Hemisphere onboard H.M.S Erebus. This thin section shows a piece of fossil wood collected from the Macquarie Plains of Tasmania in 1840. Age: Tertiary Period, 40 million years old.

P776111 Genus: Tampin fossil tree; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known. This slide is of another piece of fossil wood from Tasmania collected by Hooker in 1840. Expedition leader, James Clark Ross recorded that the fossil trees were found encased in ancient lava flows and were preserved as 'most beautiful agate'. Age: Tertiary Period, 40 million years old.

P776112 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Tasmania. This slide is of another piece of fossil wood from Tasmania collected by Hooker in 1840. One of the fossil trees collected during this expedition � a massive specimen 7 feet in circumference - was shipped back to Britain and showcased at the Great Exhibition of 1851. Age: Tertiary Period, 40 million years old.

From Collection B: Darwin collection.[edit]

At least two slides represent material collected by Darwin in Chiloe, southern Chile, in the course of the Voyage of the Beagle in 1835. Other similar slides, unlabeled, may also be Darwin's material, but more study is required. This material is similar in construction to slides cut by the professional lapidiary, Topping (whose slides for a separate collection below). Hooker and Darwin were close friends so perhaps these are specimens that Darwin passed to Hooker for study. Slides from the Voyage of H.M.S. Beagle, 1831-1836.

P775741 Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Chiloe Island Chile. Between 1831-1836, Charles Darwin explored the world on H.M.S. Beagle. His observations were to form the core of his theory of evolution. This slide shows a piece of fossil wood that he collected from the Island of Chiloe, Chile in 1834. Darwin didn't enjoy his time on Chiloe calling it a 'miserable hole'! Age: Tertiary Period, 40 million years old.

P775742 Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Chiloe Island Chile. Between 1831-1836, Charles Darwin explored the world on H.M.S. Beagle. His observations were to form the core of his theory of evolution. This slide shows a piece of fossil wood that he collected from the Island of Chiloe, Chile in 1834. Darwin didn't enjoy his time on Chiloe calling it a 'miserable hole'! Age: Tertiary Period, 40 million years old.

P775768 Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Chiloe Island Chile. Between 1831-1836, Charles Darwin explored the world on H.M.S. Beagle. His observations were to form the core of his theory of evolution. This slide shows a piece of fossil wood that he collected from the Island of Chiloe, Chile in 1834. Darwin didn't enjoy his time on Chiloe calling it a 'miserable hole'! Age: Tertiary Period, 40 million years old.

P775769 Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Chiloe Island Chile. Between 1831-1836, Charles Darwin explored the world on H.M.S. Beagle. His observations were to form the core of his theory of evolution. This slide shows a piece of fossil wood that he collected from the Island of Chiloe, Chile in 1834. Darwin didn't enjoy his time on Chiloe calling it a 'miserable hole'! Age: Tertiary Period, 40 million years old.

P775958 Genus: Agate from centre of fossil tree; Taxon: Not Entered; Locality: Not known. This is another specimen of fossil wood collected by Charles Darwin in South America in 1834. The specimen is labeled 'agate found at the centre of a fossil tree'.

P775959 Genus: Agate from centre of fossil tree; Taxon: Not Entered; Locality: Not known. This is another specimen of fossil wood collected by Charles Darwin in South America in 1834. The specimen is labeled 'agate found at the centre of a fossil tree'.

P775963 Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Not known.

P775964 Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Not known.

P775965 Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Not known.

P775966 Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Not known.

P775967 Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Not known.

P775968 Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Not known.

P775969 Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Not known.

P775970 Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Chiloe Island Chile.

P776114 Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Chiloe Island Chile. Between 1831-1836, Charles Darwin explored the world on H.M.S. Beagle. His observations were to form the core of his theory of evolution. This slide shows a piece of fossil wood that he collected from the Island of Chiloe, Chile in 1834. Darwin didn't enjoy his time on Chiloe calling it a 'miserable hole'! Age: Tertiary Period, 40 million years old.

P776115 Genus: Agate from centre of fossil tree; Taxon: Not Entered; Locality: Not known. This is another specimen of fossil wood collected by Charles Darwin in South America in 1834. The specimen is labeled 'agate found at the centre of a fossil tree'.

From Collection C: Lias collection from Whitby and elsewhere in east Yorkshire[edit]

Almost all these slides originated in the cabinet of Mr Wilson Galliard, of Barnsley, a well-known collector in the late 1830/1840s, and some of these still bear the original numbers used in his cabinet. One slide is ascribed to Mr Cooper who was an active in the London Clay Club in the late 1830/1840s. The pioneering work on the Liassic woods of Whitby was undertaken by William Nicol from 1814 to the early 1830s, so there may be some connection between Nicol and Cooper/Wilson. The Whitby collection is of considerable scientific value, especially if associated sections can be located in other museum collections.

P775794 Genus: conifer stem with pith; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire. This is another fossil tree from Whitby, England, also collected by Mr Cooper in the 1830s. This specimen is so well preserved that you can even see the concentric tree-rings Age: Jurassic Period, 180 million years old

P775819 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire. The Yorkshire Coast of England is a classic locality for fossil hunting and many of the historic slides in the British Geological Survey's collection come from this area. This slide show fossil wood from Whitby collected by Mr Cooper in the 1830s. Age: Jurassic Period, 180 million years old.

P775820 Genus: conifer stem with pith; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.

P775821 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.

P775822 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.

P775823 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.

P775824 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.

P775825 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.

P775826 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.

P775827 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.

P775828 Genus: conifer wood pith with septa; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.

P775829 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.

P775830 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.

P775831 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.

P775832 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.

P775833 Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Not known.

P775834 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.

P775835 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.

P775836 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.

P775837 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.

P775838 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.

P775839 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Market Rasen - NE of Lincoln - Lincolnshire.

P775840 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.

P775841 Genus: conifer stem with pith; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.

P775842 Conifer wood, RLS,Lias Whitby.

P775843 Conifer wood, TS, Lias Whitby.

P775844 Conifer wood, TS, Lias Whitby.

P775845 Conifer wood, RLS,Lias Whitby.

P775846 Conifer stem with pith, TS Lias Whitby.

P776012 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.

P776013 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire.

P776131 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire. The Yorkshire Coast of England is a classic locality for fossil hunting and many of the historic slides in the British Geological Survey's collection come from this area. This slide show fossil wood from Whitby collected by Mr Cooper in the 1830s. Age: Jurassic Period, 180 million years old.

P776132 Genus: conifer stem with pith; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Whitby North Yorkshire. This is another fossil tree from Whitby, England, also collected by Mr Cooper in the 1830s. This specimen is so well preserved that you can even see the concentric tree-rings Age: Jurassic Period, 180 million years old

From Collection D: Edinburgh collection[edit]

This material is connected with Henry Witham (1779-1844) of Larington Hall, county Durham, and related to his landmark Fossil Vegetables monographs (1831, 1833). The slides were produced in collaboration/competition with William Nicol (1771-1851), and their lapidiary, George Sanderson, all of whom were based in Edinburgh at the time. Slides were cut between 1828 and 1834. Some detailed historical notes of this material form an appendix to this document. Many of these slides are unusually thick (4 mm) and cut to fit the specimens.

P775743 Genus: High coal; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Not known.

P775744 Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Allesley near Coventry.

P775745 Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Craigleith near Edinburgh.

P775746 Genus: coptolitic bodies; Taxon: Ichnotaxa; Locality: Malvern, Worcestershire.

P775747 Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Lennel Braes.

P775748 Genus: Great Tree; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Craigleith Quarry near Edinburgh. What seems to have fired William Nicol's interest in fossil plants was the discovery, in 1826, of a giant fossil tree at Craigleith Quarry in Edinburgh. This fossil caused a sensation and part of this tree trunk now stands outside the Natural History Museum, London. Nicol cut this slide of the 'The Great Tree' of Craigleith in 1831. Age: Carboniferous Period, 340 million years old.

P775749 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Craigleith near Edinburgh. Here is another piece of the fossil tree found at Craigleith Quarry in Edinburgh, this time cut in 1833. Nicol has cut this slide along the radius of the trunk.

P775750 Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Craigleith near Edinburgh.

P775751 Genus: branch with pith; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Craigleith near Edinburgh.

P775752 Genus: Plant axes; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Allenbank.

P775753 Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Allenbank.

P775754 Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Allesley near Coventry.

P775755 Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Newcastle.

P775756 Genus: Tertiary wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Lough Neagh.

P775757 Genus: large conifer axis; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Scarborough - Yorkshire. [*]. This slide shows a cross-section through a quite amazing fossil tree from Scarborough, Yorkshire, England. If you count the tree rings, you can tell the age of the tree when it died. Age: Jurassic Period, 180 million years old.

P775758 Genus: Araucaria; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; sp; Locality: Craigleith near Edinburgh.

P775759 Genus: Tree; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Craigleith near Edinburgh.

P775760 Genus: Pitus; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Tweed Mill Scotland.

P775761 Genus: Pitus; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Craigleith near Edinburgh.

P775762 Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Lycophyta; Locality: Notts Coalfield.

P775763 Angiosperm axis. Karima Yellow Sea Sanderson. Angiosperm axis, TS, 4 mm thick.

P775764 Genus: Pitus; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Granton.

P775765 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Bottom of cliff New South Wales. This slide is another of William Nicol's early works. This one shows fossil wood collected from New South Wales, Australia in the 1820s. The specimen is a conifer similar to the modern monkey-puzzle tree. Age: Cretaceous Period, 100 million years old.

P775766 Genus: fragment no 3; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Craigleith near Edinburgh.

P775767 Genus: fragment no 9; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Craigleith near Edinburgh.

P775795 Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Lee Farm Coliery Rothbury. Nicols cut this slide through the cross-section of a stem of fossil club moss trunk, found at Rothbury, Northumberland, England. The stem was washed out to sea where its interior decayed before being infilled by marine shells. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.

P775895 Genus: RLS conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Nova Scotia.

P775896 Genus: conifera; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Nova Scotia.

P775901 Genus: petrified conifera; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: near Whitby - North Yorkshire. [*]. William Nicol was the man who pioneered the thin section technique used to make all the slides in the British Geological Survey collection. This slide is an example of his early work. It shows a fossil tree from Whitby, Yorkshire, England, collected in 1814. Age: Jurassic Period, 180 million years old.

P776035 Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Lennel Braes.

P776036 Genus: Great Tree; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Craigleith Quarry near Edinburgh. What seems to have fired William Nicol's interest in fossil plants was the discovery, in 1826, of a giant fossil tree at Craigleith Quarry in Edinburgh. This fossil caused a sensation and part of this tree trunk now stands outside the Natural History Museum, London. Nicol cut this slide of the 'The Great Tree' of Craigleith in 1831. Age: Carboniferous Period, 340 million years old.

P776037 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Craigleith near Edinburgh. Here is another piece of the fossil tree found at Craigleith Quarry in Edinburgh, this time cut in 1833. Nicol has cut this slide along the radius of the trunk.

P776126 Genus: petrified conifera; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: near Whitby - North Yorkshire. [*]. William Nicol was the man who pioneered the thin section technique used to make all the slides in the British Geological Survey collection. This slide is an example of his early work. It shows a fossil tree from Whitby, Yorkshire, England, collected in 1814. Age: Jurassic Period, 180 million years old.

P776127 Genus: Great Tree; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Craigleith Quarry near Edinburgh. What seems to have fired William Nicol's interest in fossil plants was the discovery, in 1826, of a giant fossil tree at Craigleith Quarry in Edinburgh. This fossil caused a sensation and part of this tree trunk now stands outside the Natural History Museum, London. Nicol cut this slide of the 'The Great Tree' of Craigleith in 1831. Age: Carboniferous Period, 340 million years old.

P776128 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Craigleith near Edinburgh. Here is another piece of the fossil tree found at Craigleith Quarry in Edinburgh, this time cut in 1833. Nicol has cut this slide along the radius of the trunk.

P776129 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Bottom of cliff New South Wales. This slide is another of William Nicol's early works. This one shows fossil wood collected from New South Wales, Australia in the 1820s. The specimen is a conifer similar to the modern monkey-puzzle tree. Age: Cretaceous Period, 100 million years old.

P776130 Genus: Genus & sp not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Lee Farm Coliery Rothbury. Nicols cut this slide through the cross-section of a stem of fossil club moss trunk, found at Rothbury, Northumberland, England. The stem was washed out to sea where its interior decayed before being infilled by marine shells. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.

P776133 Genus: large conifer axis; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Scarborough - Yorkshire. [*]. This slide shows a cross-section through a quite amazing fossil tree from Scarborough, Yorkshire, England. If you count the tree rings, you can tell the age of the tree when it died. Age: Jurassic Period, 180 million years old.

From Collection E: Slides cut by William Hill Darker[edit]

Mr. Darker, of No. 9, Paradise Street, Lambeth was specialist microscopic slide maker, active in the 1830s to 1850s. Much of the material relates to English coalfield and is connected to Binney suggesting dates from the late 1830s to early 1840s for the material. Other slides represent London Clay material and specimens from the Caribbean.

P775862 Genus: Palm wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: West Indies.

P775936 Genus: Palm; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Sri Lanka.

P775937 Genus: Palm; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Jamaica.

P775938 Fossil coniferous wood Darker shows structure as London clay ? West Africa.

P775939 Genus: Coniferopus wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Palermo.

P775940 Genus: Coniferous wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Lough Neagh.

P775941 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality:.

P775942 Genus: Coniferous wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality:.

P775943 Genus: coniferous wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Aswagh ?.

P775944 Genus: exogeneous fossil wood; Taxon: Plants: Angiospermae; Locality: East Indies.

P775945 Genus: fossil wood mural cells; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality:.

P775946 Genus: wood with goniatites attached; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Manchester. [*]. This slide shows fossil driftwood from the coal measures of Manchester. Attached to the top right of the fossil wood are cross-sections through sea creatures called nautoloids. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.

P775947 Genus: coal; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Manchester. [*].

P775948 Genus: coal; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Manchester. [*].

P775949 Genus: fossil wood coal; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Nottingham.

P775950 Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Lycophyta; Locality: Poulton.

P775951 Genus: fossil wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Nottingham.

P775952 Genus: fossil wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Nottingham.

P775953 Genus: coal measure lycopsid; Taxon: Plants: Lycophyta; Locality: Not known.

P775954 Genus: wood; Taxon: Plants: Angiospermae; Locality: St Barth W Jud.

P775955 Genus: Dadoxylon; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; sp; Locality: Ladyshore Lancashire.

P775956 Genus: Dadoxylon; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; sp; Locality: Not known.

P775957 Genus: Nodule in 3rd coal; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Durham.

P776125 Genus: wood with goniatites attached; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Manchester. [*]. This slide shows fossil driftwood from the coal measures of Manchester. Attached to the top right of the fossil wood are cross-sections through sea creatures called nautoloids. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.

From Collection F: Slides made by Charles M. Topping[edit]

Charles M. Topping (1800-1874) was another professional slide maker active from late 1830s. His slides commonly show 2 or 3 specimens mounted on a single slide.

P775914 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Egypt.

P775915 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Egypt.

P775916 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Van Diemens Land Tasmania. While exploring onboard H.M.S Erebus, Hooker also made botanical collections. Here is a specimen of modern wood collected from the Macquarie Plains of Tasmania in 1840. Note how Hooker uses the term V.D. Land, an abbreviation of Van Diemen's Land, the old name for Tasmania. Age: Recent.

P775917 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Van Diemens Land Tasmania. While exploring onboard H.M.S Erebus, Hooker also made botanical collections. Here is a specimen of modern wood collected from the Macquarie Plains of Tasmania in 1840. Note how Hooker uses the term V.D. Land, an abbreviation of Van Diemen's Land, the old name for Tasmania. Age: Recent.

P775918 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Van Diemens Land Tasmania. While exploring onboard H.M.S Erebus, Hooker also made botanical collections. Here is a specimen of modern wood collected from the Macquarie Plains of Tasmania in 1840. Note how Hooker uses the term V.D. Land, an abbreviation of Van Diemen's Land, the old name for Tasmania. Age: Recent.

P775919 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Van Diemens Land Tasmania. While exploring onboard H.M.S Erebus, Hooker also made botanical collections. Here is a specimen of modern wood collected from the Macquarie Plains of Tasmania in 1840. Note how Hooker uses the term V.D. Land, an abbreviation of Van Diemen's Land, the old name for Tasmania. Age: Recent.

P775920 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Van Diemens Land Tasmania. While exploring onboard H.M.S Erebus, Hooker also made botanical collections. Here is a specimen of modern wood collected from the Macquarie Plains of Tasmania in 1840. Note how Hooker uses the term V.D. Land, an abbreviation of Van Diemen's Land, the old name for Tasmania. Age: Recent.

P775921 Genus: wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Derbyshire.

P775922 Genus: Coal; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Staffordshire.

P775923 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Wolverhampton.

P775924 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known. This mysterious specimen bears the numbers 2886. A four digit numbering system was used by Charles Darwin to archive his specimens from the Voyage of the Beagle � and this is probably another one of Darwin's fossils. At least seven similar slides are in the British Geological Survey collection. Age: unknown.

P775925 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Harwich.

P775926 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Not known.

P775927 Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Winston Oldbury.

P775928 Genus: coal; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known.

P775929 Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Winston Oldbury.

P775930 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Egypt.

P775931 Genus: coal; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known.

P775932 Genus: coal; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known.

P775933 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Egypt. This slide shows some fossil wood from Egypt. The knobbly pattern is where the wood has started to recrystallise. Age: Cretaceous Period, 140 million years old.

P775934 Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Winston Oldbury.

P775935 Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Winston Oldbury.

P775960 Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Winston Oldbury.

P775961 Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Winston Oldbury.

P775962 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Not known.

P776113 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Van Diemens Land Tasmania. While exploring onboard H.M.S Erebus, Hooker also made botanical collections. Here is a specimen of modern wood collected from the Macquarie Plains of Tasmania in 1840. Note how Hooker uses the term V.D. Land, an abbreviation of Van Diemen's Land, the old name for Tasmania. Age: Recent.

P776116 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known. This mysterious specimen bears the numbers 2886. A four digit numbering system was used by Charles Darwin to archive his specimens from the Voyage of the Beagle � and this is probably another one of Darwin's fossils. At least seven similar slides are in the British Geological Survey collection. Age: unknown.

P776134 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Egypt. This slide shows some fossil wood from Egypt. The knobbly pattern is where the wood has started to recrystallise. Age: Cretaceous Period, 140 million years old.

From Collection G: Carboniferous roof nodules from Yorkshire and Lancashire coalfields[edit]

This material is connected with J.D. Hooker and was published in his three part monograph on coal measure plants (Stigmaria, Lepidodendron, Lepidostrobus, Trigonocarpus) in volume 2 of the BGS memoirs (published in 1848). Many collectors are mentioned on the slides as follows: Mrs Henslow, Mr Binney, Mr Jukes, Miss Jukes, Mr Gray, Mr Cooper, Lt Stamford, Mr Wilson Galliard, Mr Birmingham, Mrs Cunningham, Mr Thornewick, Mr Smyth, Mr Larkin, Mrs Bristol

P775796 Genus: Strobili; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Not known.

P775797 Genus: Strobili; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton.

P775798 Genus: Strobili spores; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton.

P775799 Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston.

P775800 Genus: Lepidostrobus slice; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton.

P775801 Genus: Lepidostrobus spores; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston.

P775802 Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton.

P775803 Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston.

P775804 Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Barnsley.

P775805 Genus: Strobili; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton.

P775806 Genus: Strobili; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton.

P775807 Genus: Strobili; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton.

P775808 Genus: Strobili; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Not known. In 1846, Joseph Hooker studied the coal measures of England, as part of the British Geological Survey's mapping work. In doing so, he found some amazing fossils. This slide shows a nodule packed full of the 'cones' of giant club mosses, an extinct group of plants that formed the coal. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.

P775809 Genus: Dadoxylon; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Manchester.

P775810 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Bilston.

P775811 Genus: Lepidodendron Milstone; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known.

P775812 Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known.

P775813 Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known.

P775814 Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Walsall, Staffordshire.

P775815 Genus: Stigmaria; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton.

P775816 Genus: Dadoxylon; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Barnsley.

P775817 Genus: Dadoxylon; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Barnsley.

P775818 Genus: Dadoxylon; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Barnsley.

P775897 Genus: Stigmaria; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton. This slide shows a cross-section through the root of the giant club moss trees that formed the coal. This type of root is called Stigmaria. The specimen was collected from the English Midlands by Joseph Hooker in 1846.

P775898 Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston.

P775899 Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston.

P775900 Genus: Stigmaria; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton.

P775971 Genus: Bark coal; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton.

P775972 Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton.

P775973 Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston. This slide is another nodule containing 'cones' of giant club mosses collected from the English Midlands by Joseph Hooker in 1846. The red spot indicates that this particular specimen was figured in a publication. This beautiful slide almost looks like a water colour painting! Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.

P775974 Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Not known.

P775975 Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Not known.

P775976 Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston.

P775977 Genus: Long Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston.

P775978 Genus: Stigmaria; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Dudley Field.

P775979 Genus: Stigmaria; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton.

P775980 Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton.

P775981 Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Milstone.

P775982 Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton.

P775983 Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton.

P775984 Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston.

P775985 Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Not known.

P775986 Genus: Lepidostrobus spores; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston. This slide shows another nodule containing a 'cone' of giant club mosses collected from the English Midlands by Joseph Hooker in 1846. Whereas the other images show 'cones' in cross-section, this one is in longitudinal section. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.

P775987 Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Not known.

P775988 Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Not known.

P775989 Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston.

P775990 Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston.

P775991 Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston.

P775992 Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston.

P775993 Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston.

P775994 Genus: Lepidodendron ?; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Not known. This slide shows the stem of a seed fern collected from the English Midlands by Joseph Hooker in 1846. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.

P775995 Genus: Stigmaria; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known.

P775996 Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Lycophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton.

P775997 Genus: Dadoxylon; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton.

P775998 Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Walsall Colliery.

P775999 Genus: Trigonocapon; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton.

P776000 Genus: Stigmaria; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known.

P776001 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Wolverhampton.

P776002 Genus: coal form; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Manchester. [*].

P776003 Genus: coal; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Manchester. [*].

P776004 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality:.

P776005 Genus: Strobili; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Dudley.

P776014 Genus: Stigmaria; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Walsall.

P776015 Genus: Stigmaria rootlet; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known.

P776016 Genus: Strobili; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton.

P776017 Genus: Stigmaria in lime mud; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton.

P776018 Genus: lycopsid; Taxon: Plants: Lycophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton. This slide shows another nodule containing the stem of a giant club moss collected from the English Midlands by Joseph Hooker in 1846. The diamonds are where leaves once attached to stem. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.

P776019 Genus: (=Strobili)coal; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton.

P776020 Genus: (=Strobili); Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton.

P776021 Genus: Lepidodendrid wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton.

P776022 Genus: axes in lime mud; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton. This slide shows another nodule containing the stem of a giant club moss tree collected from the English Midlands by Joseph Hooker in 1846. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.

P776023 Genus: Strobili in lime mud; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton.

P776024 Genus: Stigmaria in lime mud; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton.

P776025 Genus: Strobili; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Bilston.

P776026 Genus: longitudinal section of small cone; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton.

P776027 Genus: lycopsid; Taxon: Plants: Lycophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton.

P776028 Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Glasgow. [*]. The English coal measure contains lots of animal remains as well as plants. This nodule shows marine shells collected by Joseph Hooker in 1846. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.

P776029 Genus: Strobili; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known.

P776030 Genus: Strobili; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Glamorganshire. [*].

P776031 Genus: Stigmaria; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton.

P776032 Genus: Stigmaria; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton.

P776033 Genus: Calamites; Taxon: Plants: Sphenophyta; Locality: Barnsley.

P776034 Genus: Stigmaria; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton.

P776117 Genus: Strobili; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Not known. In 1846, Joseph Hooker studied the coal measures of England, as part of the British Geological Survey's mapping work. In doing so, he found some amazing fossils. This slide shows a nodule packed full of the 'cones' of giant club mosses, an extinct group of plants that formed the coal. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.

P776118 Genus: Lepidostrobus; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston. This slide is another nodule containing 'cones' of giant club mosses collected from the English Midlands by Joseph Hooker in 1846. The red spot indicates that this particular specimen was figured in a publication. This beautiful slide almost looks like a water colour painting! Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.

P776119 Genus: Lepidostrobus spores; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Bilston. This slide shows another nodule containing a 'cone' of giant club mosses collected from the English Midlands by Joseph Hooker in 1846. Whereas the other images show 'cones' in cross-section, this one is in longitudinal section. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.

P776120 Genus: Stigmaria; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton. This slide shows a cross-section through the root of the giant club moss trees that formed the coal. This type of root is called Stigmaria. The specimen was collected from the English Midlands by Joseph Hooker in 1846.

P776121 Genus: lycopsid; Taxon: Plants: Lycophyta; Locality: Wolverhampton. This slide shows another nodule containing the stem of a giant club moss collected from the English Midlands by Joseph Hooker in 1846. The diamonds are where leaves once attached to stem. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.

P776122 Genus: axes in lime mud; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wolverhampton. This slide shows another nodule containing the stem of a giant club moss tree collected from the English Midlands by Joseph Hooker in 1846. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.

P776123 Genus: Lepidodendron ?; Taxon: Plants: Gymnospermophyta; Locality: Not known. This slide shows the stem of a seed fern collected from the English Midlands by Joseph Hooker in 1846. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.

P776124 Genus: Lepidodendron; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Glasgow. [*]. The English coal measure contains lots of animal remains as well as plants. This nodule shows marine shells collected by Joseph Hooker in 1846. Age: Carboniferous Period, 310 million years old.

From Collection H: Nicol collection?[edit]

P775884 Genus: coniferous Dustylidnous now; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known.

P775885 Genus: coniferous Dustylidnous now; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known.

P775886 Genus: Calcareous wood seedgrapes; Taxon: Plants: Angiospermae; Locality: Not known.

P775887 Genus: Coniferous; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known. This slide is labeled Coniferous. The tissue destroyed by crystallization; calcareous wood. Little is known of its origin. Age: uncertain

P775888 Genus: transverse section not distinguishable; Taxon: Not Entered; Locality: Not known.

P775889 Genus: Illoenus; Taxon: Not known; barreiensis; Locality: Not known.

P775890 Genus: Silicified; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Tuscany.

P775891 Genus: Dicot like antiqua wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known.

P775892 Genus: coniferous; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known.

P775893 Genus: Transverse section; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Trichinopoly.

P775894 Genus: Transverse section; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Not known.

P776135 Genus: Coniferous; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known. This slide is labeled 'Coniferous. The tissue destroyed by crystallization; calcareous wood'. Little is known of its origin. Age: uncertain

From Collection I: Miscellaneous material[edit]

P775739 Genus: Araucaria; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; mirabilis; Locality: Not known. This spectacular slide shows the cross-section of a cone of a monkey-puzzle tree. Similar cones have been found in South America. Age: uncertain

P775740 Genus: Araucaria; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; mirabilis; Locality: Not known. This spectacular slide shows the cross-section of a cone of a monkey-puzzle tree. Similar cones have been found in South America. Age: uncertain

P775847 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not Entered; Locality: Not known.

P775848 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Plants: Angiospermae; Locality: Harwich.

P775849 Genus: large stem; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Lyme Regis,Dorset.

P775850 Genus: large stem; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Lyme Regis,Dorset.

P775851 Genus: Prototaxites; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Forfarshire, Scotland. This slide shows a giant fungus called Prototaxites that grew to a height of several metres. This specimen was found by Mr Powrie, near Forfar, Scotland, in the 1840s. Age: Devonian Period, 400 million years old.

P775852 Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Railway cutting W of station Ashby de la Zouch. This slide shows a fossil wood collected in a railway cutting near Ashby de la Zouch in the 1840s. The fossil was found by Thomas Rylands, the philanothropic industrialist. Age: Permian Period, 280 million years old.

P775853 Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Railway cutting W of station Ashby de la Zouch. This slide shows a fossil wood collected in a railway cutting near Ashby de la Zouch in the 1840s. The fossil was found by Thomas Rylands, the philanothropic industrialist. Age: Permian Period, 280 million years old.

P775854 Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: North Riding.

P775855 Genus: Prototaxites; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Forfarshire, Scotland.

P775856 Genus: wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Andes.

P775857 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Coventry.

P775858 Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Folkestone.

P775859 Genus: Palm; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wowadeli East Indies.

P775860 Genus: Palm; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Wowadeli East Indies.

P775861 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Plants: Angiospermae; Locality: Egypt.

P775863 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Coventry.

P775864 Genus: wood; Taxon: Plants: Angiospermae; Locality: Cairo.

P775865 Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Coventry.

P775866 Genus: Fossil palm; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: East Indies.

P775867 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Coventry.

P775868 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Antigua. This slide shows a cross-section through the root of a flowering plant from Antigua. Age: uncertain

P775869 Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Coventry.

P775870 Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Coventry.

P775871 Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Coventry.

P775872 Genus: wood; Taxon: Plants: Angiospermae; Locality: Not known. This slide shows a tree trunk of a flowering plant, probably from Harwich, near London. This specimen was collected by Rev John Henslow, Darwin's mentor at Cambridge, in the 1830s. Age: Tertiary Period, 50 million years old.

P775873 Genus: conifer wood; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: North Riding.

P775874 Genus: bad jasper; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Not known.

P775875 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Antigua. This slide shows some limestone from Antigua. Age: uncertain

P775876 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Cape Patterson.

P775877 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Sheppey.

P775878 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Egypt.

P775879 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Sheppey.

P775880 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Not known.

P775881 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Cape Patterson.

P775882 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Aspley.

P775883 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Aspley.

P776006 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Plants: Angiospermae; Locality: Harwich.

P776007 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Not known.

P776008 Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Germlingberg Ridge ?.

P776009 Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Weymouth Dorchester.

P776010 Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Weymouth Dorchester. This slide shows a tree trunk from the famous fossil forest on the Isle of Portland, Dorset, southern England. This specimen was collected by Rev John Henslow, Darwin's mentor at Cambridge, in the 1830s. Age: Jurassic Period, 150 million years old.

P776011 Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Not known.

P776041 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Plants: Angiospermae; Locality: Harwich.

P776042 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Plants: Angiospermae; Locality: Harwich.

P776136 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Antigua. This slide shows some limestone from Antigua. Age: uncertain

P776137 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Not known; Locality: Antigua. This slide shows a cross-section through the root of a flowering plant from Antigua. Age: uncertain

P776138 Genus: wood; Taxon: Plants: Angiospermae; Locality: Not known. This slide shows a tree trunk of a flowering plant, probably from Harwich, near London. This specimen was collected by Rev John Henslow, Darwin's mentor at Cambridge, in the 1830s. Age: Tertiary Period, 50 million years old.

P776139 Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Weymouth Dorchester. This slide shows a tree trunk from the famous fossil forest on the Isle of Portland, Dorset, southern England. This specimen was collected by Rev John Henslow, Darwin's mentor at Cambridge, in the 1830s. Age: Jurassic Period, 150 million years old.

P776140 Genus: Araucaria; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; mirabilis; Locality: Not known. This spectacular slide shows the cross-section of a cone of a monkey-puzzle tree. Similar cones have been found in South America. Age: uncertain

P776141 Genus: Prototaxites; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Forfarshire, Scotland. This slide shows a giant fungus called Prototaxites that grew to a height of several metres. This specimen was found by Mr Powrie, near Forfar, Scotland, in the 1840s. Age: Devonian Period, 400 million years old.

P776142 Genus: conifer; Taxon: Plants: Undifferentiated; Locality: Railway cutting W of station Ashby de la Zouch. This slide shows a fossil wood collected in a railway cutting near Ashby de la Zouch in the 1840s. The fossil was found by Thomas Rylands, the philanothropic industrialist. Age: Permian Period, 280 million years old.

From Collection J: No labels[edit]

P775902 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Unknown; Locality: Not known.

P775903 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Unknown; Locality: Not known.

P775904 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Unknown; Locality: Not known.

P775905 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Unknown; Locality: Not known.

P775906 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Unknown; Locality: Not known.

P775907 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Unknown; Locality: Not known.

P775908 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Unknown; Locality: Not known.

P775909 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Unknown; Locality: Not known.

P775910 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Unknown; Locality: Not known.

P775911 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Unknown; Locality: Not known.

P775912 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Unknown; Locality: Not known.

P775913 Genus: Not known; Taxon: Unknown; Locality: Not known.