Editing Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks of the Market Weighton area - an excursion

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[[File:YGS_YORKROCK_FIG_15_02.jpg|thumbnail|Figure 15.2 Sketch map of the Market Weighton–Kiplingcotes area.]]
 
[[File:YGS_YORKROCK_FIG_15_02.jpg|thumbnail|Figure 15.2 Sketch map of the Market Weighton–Kiplingcotes area.]]
  
'''By Felix Whitham''' Hull Geological Society
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'''By Felix Whitham''' Treasurer, Hull Geological Society
  
 
== Geological succession ==
 
== Geological succession ==
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=== Locality 1, Rifle Butts Quarry, a Yorkshire Wildlife Trust Nature Reserve [SE 898 426] ===
 
=== Locality 1, Rifle Butts Quarry, a Yorkshire Wildlife Trust Nature Reserve [SE 898 426] ===
  
It is not necessary to gain permission for small groups to enter. For large groups, contact the Warden or Yorkshire Wildlife Trust. The geological section here is managed by Hull Geological Society. It is subject to erosion in the winter months and instability of the overlying chalk. Protective measures designed to prevent further deterioration of this important exposure include the erection of a protective canopy in 1993, kindly funded by English Nature and the Geologists' Association Curry Fund. The site is an '''S.S.S.I.''' and '''''hammering is prohibited'''.''
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It is not necessary to gain permission for small groups to enter. For large groups, contact the Warden or Yorkshire Wildlife Trust, 10 Croft Green, York, YO1 1JT; tel: 01904 659570]. The geological section here is managed by Hull Geological Society. It is subject to erosion in the winter months and instability of the overlying chalk. Protective measures designed to prevent further deterioration of this important exposure include the erection of a protective canopy in 1993, kindly funded by English Nature and the Geologists' Association Curry Fund. The site is an '''S.S.S.I.''' and '''''hammering is prohibited'''.''
  
 
This is the only known exposure in the region at the present time where the attenuated Jurassic succession and early Cretaceous unconformity resulting from the effects of the Market Weighton Block can be observed. The lowest beds contain large ferruginous nodules in a brown gritty matrix and are thought to be of Middle Lias (early Jurassic) age. These are overlain by thin remnants of Carstone, a ferruginous sandy deposit containing polished pebbles, and about 1 m of nodular red chalk of the Hunstanton Formation (Albian, early Cretaceous). The sequence is capped by fractured and faulted Cenomanian (late Cretaceous) grey and white chalk of the Ferriby Formation. In the past, the Hunstanton Formation has yielded the brachiopods ''Moutonithyris dutempleana, Platythyris capillata, ''the belemnite ''Neohibolites minimus ''and the '''echinoid''' ''Hemiaster ''sp. Fossils from the Cenomanian chalk are the bivalve ''Inoceramus crippsi, ''and echinoids ''Holaster subglobosus ''and ''Camerogalerus cylindricus.''
 
This is the only known exposure in the region at the present time where the attenuated Jurassic succession and early Cretaceous unconformity resulting from the effects of the Market Weighton Block can be observed. The lowest beds contain large ferruginous nodules in a brown gritty matrix and are thought to be of Middle Lias (early Jurassic) age. These are overlain by thin remnants of Carstone, a ferruginous sandy deposit containing polished pebbles, and about 1 m of nodular red chalk of the Hunstanton Formation (Albian, early Cretaceous). The sequence is capped by fractured and faulted Cenomanian (late Cretaceous) grey and white chalk of the Ferriby Formation. In the past, the Hunstanton Formation has yielded the brachiopods ''Moutonithyris dutempleana, Platythyris capillata, ''the belemnite ''Neohibolites minimus ''and the '''echinoid''' ''Hemiaster ''sp. Fossils from the Cenomanian chalk are the bivalve ''Inoceramus crippsi, ''and echinoids ''Holaster subglobosus ''and ''Camerogalerus cylindricus.''
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=== Locality 2, bank above and east of Rifle Butts Quarry [SE 901 427] ===
 
=== Locality 2, bank above and east of Rifle Butts Quarry [SE 901 427] ===
  
Permission for access is required from the landowner (Rectory Farm). Several small, ridged, horizontal exposures in the chalk occur in the side of the valley, possibly due to either soil creep, or furrowing by ice movement or meltwaters. These exposures are mainly confined to the Lower Pink Band occurring above the Totternhoe Stone in the Ferriby Formation ([[:File:YGS_YORKROCK_FIG_15_01.jpg|Figure 15.1]]), although fragments of the ammonite ''Parapuzosia (Austiniceras) austeni'' (mainly confined to the Totternhoe Stone at this horizon) have been found on the scree. The Pink Band yields the rare small belemnite ''Belemnocamax boweri'', together with brachiopods ''Terebratulina etheridgei'' and ''Concinnithyris concinna'', and the echinoid ''Camerogalerus cylindricus''.
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Permission for access is required from the landowner (Mr P. R. Sawyer, Rectory Farm, Goodmanham; tel: 01430 872251]
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Several small, ridged, horizontal exposures in the chalk occur in the side of the valley, possibly due to either soil creep, or furrowing by ice movement or meltwaters. These exposures are mainly confined to the Lower Pink Band occurring above the Totternhoe Stone in the Ferriby Formation ([[:File:YGS_YORKROCK_FIG_15_01.jpg|Figure 15.1]]), although fragments of the ammonite ''Parapuzosia (Austiniceras) austeni'' (mainly confined to the Totternhoe Stone at this horizon) have been found on the scree. The Pink Band yields the rare small belemnite ''Belemnocamax boweri'', together with brachiopods ''Terebratulina etheridgei'' and ''Concinnithyris concinna'', and the echinoid ''Camerogalerus cylindricus''.
  
 
=== Locality 3, Springwells pumping station [SE 900 426] ===
 
=== Locality 3, Springwells pumping station [SE 900 426] ===
  
Permission for access is required from the landowner (Rectory Farm). A single, narrow-banded exposure, similar to Locality 2, and about 1 m wide, can be seen from the road about 250 m northeast of the pumping station in the south side of the valley. The unit seen is the Black Band, a series of khaki marls with dark-coloured bands in the middle part, also known as the Plenus Marls. This horizon occurs at the top of the ''Holaster trecensis'' Biozone, just below the top of the Cenomanian Stage and is much thicker here compared with other locations north of the Humber, forming an important widespread marker horizon in England, northwest Germany, northern France and in boreholes in the North Sea. Its average thickness in Yorkshire is 0.5 m, and 1 m at Buckton Cliffs on the coast east of Speeton.
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Permission for access is required from the landowner (Mr P. R. Sawyer, Rectory Farm, Goodmanham; tel: 01430 872251]
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A single, narrow-banded exposure, similar to Locality 2, and about 1 m wide, can be seen from the road about 250 m northeast of the pumping station in the south side of the valley. The unit seen is the Black Band, a series of khaki marls with dark-coloured bands in the middle part, also known as the Plenus Marls. This horizon occurs at the top of the ''Holaster trecensis'' Biozone, just below the top of the Cenomanian Stage and is much thicker here compared with other locations north of the Humber, forming an important widespread marker horizon in England, northwest Germany, northern France and in boreholes in the North Sea. Its average thickness in Yorkshire is 0.5 m, and 1 m at Buckton Cliffs on the coast east of Speeton.
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=== Locality 4, Kiplingcotes Pit, a Yorkshire Wildlife Trust Nature Reserve [SE 916 435] (Pit 37 of Wright & Wright (1942) ===
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For parties of more than 6 people, it is necessary to seek permission from the Trust (to Toft Green, York, YO1 1JT; tel: 01904 659570]
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The site is an S.S.S.I. and '''''hammering is prohibited'''.''
  
=== Locality 4, Kiplingcotes Pit, a Yorkshire Wildlife Trust Nature Reserve [SE 916 435] (Pit 37 of Wright & Wright, 1942) ===
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Access is via the reserve. Note the broad, flat valley floor of the Goodmanham Channel. This former rail-side pit exposes horizontal beds of the Welton Formation, fairly high in the ''Terebratulina lata ''Biozone of the Turonian chalk, and although the lower beds are obscured by scree, it is still possible to examine the Lower and Upper Deepdale Marls near the top of the exposure ([[:File:YGS_YORKROCK_FIG_15_01.jpg|Figure 15.1]]). Fossils include bivalves of the ''Inoceramus lamarcki geinitzi —1.1. cuvieri ''group, the brachiopods ''Concinnithyris ''and ''Orbirhynchia, ''and the echinoid ''Salenia granulosa, ''as well as the first appearance of the distinctive echinoid ''Infulaster excentricus.''
  
For parties of more than 6 people, it is necessary to seek permission from the Trust. The site is an S.S.S.I. and '''''hammering is prohibited'''.''
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=== Locality 5, pit in lane opposite Locality 4 [SE 918 434] (Pit 39 of Wright & Wright (1942) ===
  
Access is via the reserve. Note the broad, flat valley floor of the Goodmanham Channel. This former rail-side pit exposes horizontal beds of the Welton Formation, fairly high in the ''Terebratulina lata ''Biozone of the Turonian chalk, and although the lower beds are obscured by scree, it is still possible to examine the Lower and Upper Deepdale Marls near the top of the exposure ([[:File:YGS_YORKROCK_FIG_15_01.jpg|Figure 15.1]]). Fossils include bivalves of the ''Inoceramus lamarcki geinitzi —I.l. cuvieri ''group, the brachiopods ''Concinnithyris ''and ''Orbirhynchia, ''and the echinoid ''Salenia granulosa, ''as well as the first appearance of the distinctive echinoid ''Infulaster excentricus.''
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Permission for access is required from the landowner (Mr D. Hiles, Goodmanham Lodge Farm, Goodmanham; tel: 01430 810572]
  
=== Locality 5, pit in lane opposite Locality 4 [SE 918 434] (Pit 39 of Wright & Wright, 1942) ===
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This small exposure, about 5–6 m thick, occurs in the lower, middle beds of the ''Sternotaxis piano'' Biozone of the Burnham Formation. Four thick tabular flints are exposed, and the section lies in the Ulceby Marl and Wooton Marls interval ([[:File:YGS_YORKROCK_FIG_15_01.jpg|Figure 15.1]]). A shallow trench in the pit floor has recently yielded a few fossils, including fragments of inoceramid bivalves, the brachiopod ''Orbirhynchia'' and the echinoid ''Echinocoys''.
  
Permission for access is required from the landowner (Goodmanham Lodge Farm). This small exposure, about 5–6 m thick, occurs in the lower, middle beds of the ''Sternotaxis piano'' Biozone of the Burnham Formation. Four thick tabular flints are exposed, and the section lies in the Ulceby Marl and Wooton Marls interval ([[:File:YGS_YORKROCK_FIG_15_01.jpg|Figure 15.1]]). A shallow trench in the pit floor has recently yielded a few fossils, including fragments of inoceramid bivalves, the brachiopod ''Orbirhynchia'' and the echinoid ''Echinocoys''.
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=== Locality 6, Arras Road Pit, Kiplingcotes [SE 928 433] (Pit 40 of Wright & Wright (1942); Whitham (1991) ===
  
=== Locality 6, Arras Road Pit, Kiplingcotes [SE 928 433] (Pit 40 of Wright & Wright, 1942; Whitham, 1991) ===
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If working, permission for access is required from T. Woodliffe, Yapham Road, Meltonby, York, YO4 2PH; tel: 01759 304202. The section in this pit, recently worked and greatly extended, exposes about 12 m of the mid part of the Burnham Formation, from just below the Enthorpe Marls, a series of four marl bands in 2.5 m of chalk, up to the lowest unit of the Kiplingcotes Flints. The three Kiplingcotes Marls are well exposed in the higher part of the sequence. Fossils include the echinoids ''Sternotaxis placenta, Micraster corbovis, ''bivalve ''Pycnodonte vesicularis, ''brachiopods ''Gibbithyris semiglobosa, Orbirhynchia'' sp., the coral ''Parasmilia, ''and several species of inoceramid bivalves. The important rare bivalve ''Didymotis? uermoesensis' 'occurs just below the middle Kiplingcotes Marl and marks both the boundary between the ''Sternotaxis Plana ''and ''Micraster cortestudinarium ''Biozones and the international boundary between the Turonian and Coniacian Stages. This horizon also marks the upper limit of the range of ''S. placenta''.[Note. The above description is retained here, but, unfortunately, the pit has been the subject of much illegal tipping, and the exposures are mostly obscured.]
  
If working, permission for access is required from the owner. The section in this pit, recently worked and greatly extended, exposes about 12m of the mid part of the Burnham Formation, from just below the Enthorpe Marls, a series of four marl bands in 2.5 m of chalk, up to the lowest unit of the Kiplingcotes Flints. The three Kiplingcotes Marls are well exposed in the higher part of the sequence. Fossils include the echinoids ''Sternotaxis placenta, Micraster corbovis, ''bivalve ''Pycnodonte vesicularis, ''brachiopods ''Gibbithyris semiglobosa, Orbirhynchia'' sp., the '''coral''' ''Parasmilia, ''and several species of inoceramid bivalves. The important rare bivalve ''Didymotis? uermoesensis'' occurs just below the middle Kiplingcotes Marl and marks both the boundary between the ''Sternotaxis Plana ''and ''Micraster cortestudinarium ''Biozones and the international boundary between the Turonian and Coniacian Stages. This horizon also marks the upper limit of the range of ''S. placenta''.[Note. The above description is retained here, but, unfortunately, the pit has been the subject of much illegal tipping, and the exposures are mostly obscured.]
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=== Locality 7, Kiplingcotes Station Quarry [SE 932 437] (Pit 38 of Wright & Wright (1942) ===
  
=== Locality 7, Kiplingcotes Station Quarry [SE 932 437] (Pit 38 of Wright & Wright, 1942) ===
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Information for access is required from Kiplingcotes Classic Furniture, Station House, Kiplingcotes; tel: 01430 810284. The section in this disused quarry exhibits the three Kiplingcotes Marls spread over about 2 m, with the overlying three semi-tabular Kiplingcotes Flints occupying about 2 m of the succession. Wright & Wright (1942) discovered iron-stained lenticular patches of nodular chalk containing large numbers of gastropods and bivalves preserved in iron oxide, thought to have been saved from destruction or excessive alteration on the sea floor by the collapsed shells of large ammonites. Fossils can still be found on the quarry floor in loose blocks, including the echinoids ''Echinocorys scutata'', ''Micraster'' sp., several species of inoceramid bivalves, and the brachiopod ''Orbirhynchia'' sp. [Note. Although the original description is retained here, this pit has also suffered from illegal tipping, and the previous good exposures are no longer visible.]
  
Information for access is required from Kiplingcotes Classic Furniture. The section in this disused quarry exhibits the three Kiplingcotes Marls spread over about 2 m, with the overlying three semi-tabular Kiplingcotes Flints occupying about 2 m of the succession. Wright & Wright (1942) discovered iron-stained lenticular patches of nodular chalk containing large numbers of gastropods and bivalves preserved in iron oxide, thought to have been saved from destruction or excessive alteration on the sea floor by the collapsed shells of large ammonites. Fossils can still be found on the quarry floor in loose blocks, including the echinoids ''Echinocorys scutata'', ''Micraster'' sp., several species of inoceramid bivalves, and the brachiopod ''Orbirhynchia'' sp. [Note. Although the original description is retained here, this pit has also suffered from illegal tipping, and the previous good exposures are no longer visible.]
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=== Locality 8, Enthorpe railway cutting [SE 906 456]–[SE 914 459]; (? Pit 45 of Wright & Wright (1942) ===
  
=== Locality 8, Enthorpe railway cutting [SE 906 456]–[SE 914 459]; (? Pit 45 of Wright & Wright, 1942) ===
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Permission for access is required from the landowner (Mr Emmerson, Rossmoor Farm, General Lane, Melbourne, Near York). The disused railway cutting at Enthorpe is about 0.75 km long and trends east–northeast. Access is difficult, as banks are overgrown, and care should be taken. About 30 in of Burnham Formation chalk is exposed, the lowest 16.5 m in the ''Sternotaxis plana ''Biozone, with the lowest beds marked by the Ulceby Marl at the southwest end of the cutting. The upper 13.5 m is referred to the ''Micraster cortestudinarium ''Biozone with the highest beds seen near the old station bridge (Whitham 1991)
  
Permission for access is required from the landowner (Rossmoor Farm). The disused railway cutting at Enthorpe is about 0.75 km long and trends east–northeast. Access is difficult, as banks are overgrown, and care should be taken. About 30 m of Burnham Formation chalk is exposed, the lowest 16.5 m in the ''Sternotaxis plana ''Biozone, with the lowest beds marked by the Ulceby Marl at the southwest end of the cutting. The upper 13.5 m is referred to the ''Micraster cortestudinarium ''Biozone with the highest beds seen near the old station bridge (Whitham, 1991). Fossils from the ''S. plana ''Biozone are similar to those found at Arras Road and the same sequence of beds occurs, including the Enthorpe Marls, and the Kiplingcotes Marls and Flints. The basal beds of the overlying ''M. cortestudinarium'' Biozone yield numerous specimens of the echinoid ''Echinocorys scutata'' and less common examples of ''Micraster. ''Several species of inoceramid bivalves occur, including ''Cremnoceramus inconstans, C. schloenbachi, C. deformis ''and ''Inoceramus lamarcki''. [Section now mostly overgrown, but some exposures are still visible.]
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Fossils from the ''S. plana ''Biozone are similar to those found at Arras Road and the same sequence of beds occurs, including the Enthorpe Marls, and the Kiplingcotes Marls and Flints. The basal beds of the overlying ''M. cortestudinarium'' Biozone yield numerous specimens of the echinoid ''Echinocorys scutata'' and less common examples of ''Micraster. ''Several species of inoceramid bivalves occur, including ''Cremnoceramus inconstans, C. schloenbachi, C. deformis ''and ''Inoceramus lamarcki''. [Section now mostly overgrown, but some exposures are still visible.]
  
  
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[[Category:Yorkshire rocks and landscape: a field guide ]]
 
 
[[Category:9. Eastern England from the Tees to the Wash]]
 
[[Category:9. Eastern England from the Tees to the Wash]]

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