Editing Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonics and magmatism, Northern England

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It is likely that the Jurassic sedimentation pattern that had been established in the Carlisle, Irish Sea and North Sea basins continued into Early Cretaceous time. However, around that time, areas such as the Lake District and Pennine blocks were eroded once again, as the widespread, late Cimmerian unconformity developed. Regional, post-rift shelf subsidence then dominated across the southern UK during Late Cretaceous times and probably extended to northern Britain, resulting in deposition of a relatively uniform Cretaceous sequence, dominantly of the Chalk Group. Maximum post-Variscan burial of the region is thought to have been attained towards the end of the Cretaceous Period, though in the Cleveland Basin, to the south-east of the region, maximum burial may have been attained a little later, in Oligo-Miocene times.
 
It is likely that the Jurassic sedimentation pattern that had been established in the Carlisle, Irish Sea and North Sea basins continued into Early Cretaceous time. However, around that time, areas such as the Lake District and Pennine blocks were eroded once again, as the widespread, late Cimmerian unconformity developed. Regional, post-rift shelf subsidence then dominated across the southern UK during Late Cretaceous times and probably extended to northern Britain, resulting in deposition of a relatively uniform Cretaceous sequence, dominantly of the Chalk Group. Maximum post-Variscan burial of the region is thought to have been attained towards the end of the Cretaceous Period, though in the Cleveland Basin, to the south-east of the region, maximum burial may have been attained a little later, in Oligo-Miocene times.
  
Northern England was affected by distant events of epic proportions during the Cenozoic Period. Regional uplift in Late Cretaceous to early Paleocene times established the region as land once again and triggered an episode of erosion that has continued, probably with little interruption, until the present day. The cause is believed to have been thermal uplift along the north-west margin of Europe as a precursor to the formation of new oceanic crust and opening of the North Atlantic Ocean. This was initiated by the impact of the proto-Icelandic mantle plume on the base of the lithosphere in a pre-Atlantic region that included the west coast of Scotland, Northern Ireland and eastern Greenland [[Media:P916033.jpg|(P916033)]]. This area became the focus of intense magmatism from about 60 to 55 Ma during which time immense volumes of basaltic magma were erupted from fissures and central volcanoes, with the accompanying intrusion of central-complexes, dyke swarms and sills. Swarms of tholeiitic basic dykes emanated from these main centres; some from Mull reached northern England, up to 420 km from their source, whilst dykes from Northern Ireland centres cross the Isle of Man and extend across Wales into the English Midlands.
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Northern England was affected by distant events of epic proportions during the Cenozoic Period. Regional uplift in Late Cretaceous to early Paleocene times established the region as land once again and triggered an episode of erosion that has continued, probably with little interruption, until the present day. The cause is believed to have been thermal uplift along the north-west margin of Europe as a precursor to the formation of new oceanic crust and opening of the North Atlantic Ocean. This was initiated by the impact of the proto-Icelandic mantle plume on the base of the lithosphere in a pre-Atlantic region that included the west coast of Scotland, Northern Ireland and eastern Greenland [[Media:P916033.jpg|(P916033)]]f. This area became the focus of intense magmatism from about 60 to 55 Ma during which time immense volumes of basaltic magma were erupted from fissures and central volcanoes, with the accompanying intrusion of central-complexes, dyke swarms and sills. Swarms of tholeiitic basic dykes emanated from these main centres; some from Mull reached northern England, up to 420 km from their source, whilst dykes from Northern Ireland centres cross the Isle of Man and extend across Wales into the English Midlands.
  
 
Later, probably in Miocene times, a further major episode of uplift affected the Irish Sea and Carlisle sedimentary basins, probably as a distant effect of the Alpine Orogeny. This arose from the collision, away to the south, of the African and European plates. As a result of the two major tectonic uplift events in northern England during the last 65 million years, it is estimated that between 700 and 2500 m of strata have been removed by erosion, including the entire cover of Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks.
 
Later, probably in Miocene times, a further major episode of uplift affected the Irish Sea and Carlisle sedimentary basins, probably as a distant effect of the Alpine Orogeny. This arose from the collision, away to the south, of the African and European plates. As a result of the two major tectonic uplift events in northern England during the last 65 million years, it is estimated that between 700 and 2500 m of strata have been removed by erosion, including the entire cover of Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks.

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