London - Information sources
Further geological information held by the British Geological Survey relevant to the London district is listed below. It includes published maps, memoirs and reports. Enquiries concerning geological data for the district should be a addressed to the Manager, National Geological Records Centre, BGS, Keyworth. Geological advice for this area should be sought from the Regional Geologist, Southern and Eastern England, BGS, Keyworth.
Other information sources include borehole records, fossils, rock samples, thin sections, hydrogeological data and photographs. A Geoscience Index System is available for consultation in BGS libraries and on the BGS web site (www.bgs.ac.uk). This is a developing system which searches indexes to the collections. It has a backdrop based on the 1:250 000 scale maps. Available indexes include:
- Index of boreholes
- Outlines of BGS maps at 1:50 000 and 1:10 000 scale and 1:10 560 scale County Series
- Chronostratigraphical boundaries and areas from British Geological Survey 1:125 000 maps
- Geochemical sample locations on land
- Aeromagnetic and gravity recording stations
- Land survey records
1:1 500 000
Tectonic map of Britain, Ireland and adjacent areas, 1996
1:1 000 000
Pre-Permian geology of the United Kingdom, 1985
Solid geology, UK South Sheet, 2001; Quaternary geology, 1977
51N 02W Chilterns, Solid Geology, 1991
51N 00 Thames Estuary, Solid Geology, 1989
51N 00 Thames Estuary, Sea bed sediments and Quaternary Geology, 1990
Sheet 238 Aylesbury, 1997
Sheet 239 Hertford, 1978
Sheet 240 Epping, 1981
Sheet 241 Chelmsford, 1975
Sheet 255 Beaconsfield, 1997
Sheet 256 North London, 1994
Sheet 257 Romford, 1996
Sheet 258 and 259 Southend and Foulness, 1976
Sheet 269 Windsor, 1981
Sheet 270 South London, 1998
Sheet 271 Dartford, 1998
Sheet 272 Chatham, 1977
Sheet 285 Guildford, 2001
Sheet 286 Reigate, 1978
Sheet 287 Sevenoaks, 1971
Sheet 288 Maidstone, 1976
The 96 maps covering the four 1:50 000 series sheets of London (256, 257, 270 and 271) were resurveyed between 1970 and 1996 by A J M Barron, F G Berry, S J Booth, C R Bristow, R A Ellison, D H Jeffery, R D Lake, M McKeown, D Millward, R T Mogdridge, B S P Moorlock, A N Morigi, A Smith, P J Strange and I T Williamson.
Digital geological map data
In addition to the printed publications noted above, many BGS maps are available in digital form, which allows the geological information to be used in GIS applications. These data must be licensed for use. Details are available from the Intellectual Property Rights Manager at BGS Keyworth. The main datasets are:
DiGMapGB-625 (1:625 000 scale)
DiGMapGB-250 (1:250 000 scale)
DiGMapGB-50 (1:50 000 scale)
DiGMapGB-10 (1:10 000 scale)
The current availability of these can be checked on the BGS web site at:
1: 1 500 000
Colour shaded relief magnetic anomaly map of Britain, Ireland and adjacent areas, 1998
Colour shaded relief gravity anomaly map of Britain, Ireland and adjacent areas, 1997 A geophysical information map (GIM) at the scale of 1:50 000 is available for the district. This shows information held in BGS digital databases, including Bouguer gravity and aeromagnetic anomalies and locations of data points, selected boreholes and detailed geophysical surveys
Methane, carbon dioxide and oil susceptibility, Great Britain, South Sheet, 1995.
Radon potential based on solid geology, Great Britain, South Sheet, 1995.
Distribution of areas with above national average background concentrations of potentially harmful elements (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn), Great Britain, South Sheet, 1995.
1: 625 000
Hydrogeological map of England and Wales (1977)
Groundwater vulnerability maps
Groundwater vulnerability of west London, Sheet 39, 1990
Groundwater vulnerability of the Thames Estuary, Sheet 40, 1990
1: 1 000 000
Industrial minerals resources map of Britain, 1996
British Regional Geology
London and the Thames valley. Fourth edition, 1996
The Wealden district. Fourth edition, 1965
The Hampshire Basin and areas adjoining. Fourth edition, 1982
Geology of the country around Hertford (Sheet 239), 1924†
Geology of the country around Epping (Sheet 240), 1987
Geology of the country around Chelmsford (Sheet 241), 1985
Geology of the country around Beaconsfield (Sheet 255), 1924†
Geology of the country around North London (Sheet 256), 1925†
Geology of the country around Romford (Sheet 257), 1925†
Geology of the country around Southend and Foulness (Sheet 258/9), 1986.
Geology of the country around Windsor and Chertsey (Sheet 269), 1925†
Geology of the country around South London (Sheet 270), 1921†
Geology of the country around Dartford (Sheet 271), 1924†
Geology of the country around Chatham (Sheet 272), 1954
Geology of the country around Aldershot and Guidford(Sheet 285),1929†
Geology of the country around Reigate and Dorking (Sheet 286), 1933†
Geology of the country around Sevenoaks and Tonbridge (Sheet 287), 1969†
Geology of the country around Maidstone (Sheet 288), 1963
† out of print; available as a facsimile copy at a tariff that covers the cost of copying
Geology of the Windsor and Bracknell district (Sheet 269), 1999
Geology of the Guildford district (Sheet 285), 2002
BGS reports not included in the references are listed here. Most of them are available for consultation at the Library, BGS, Keyworth; those indicated as with a suffix ‘R’ or ‘C’ are restricted or confidential and permission may be needed before they can be consulted.
Lands and resources reports
Geological report of a site at Guildhall Yard East. WA/93/50C.
Lower London Tertiary strata of the Thames basin. Report for Union Rail. WA/94/10C.
Overview of the Tertiary outliers between the Thames and Medway. Report for Union Rail. WA/94/15C.
Geology of the Union Railways route from the Thames to the Medway. WA/94/78C.
Core reference photography of Union Railways Limited Boreholes 1112B and 1131. WA/94/96C. Core reference photography of Union Railways Limited Boreholes 1131 (continued), 2112 and 2141. WA/94/96C.
A review of the Tertiary strata proved in Union Railways cored boreholes, King’s Cross to Barking. WA/94/50C.
Presentation of digital earth science information for planning in the Thames Gateway. WA/96/626.
Geology of the East Tilbury district: 1:10 000 sheet TQ67NE. Part of 1:50 000 sheets 257 (Romford), 258/259 (Southend and Foulness), 271 (Dartford) and 272 (Chatham). WA/89/37. Geology of the West Thurrock district: 1:10000 sheet TQ57NE. Part of 1:50 000 sheets 257 (Romford) and 271 (Dartford). WA/89/35. Geology of the Upminster district: 1:10 000 sheet TQ58NE. Part of 1:50 000 Sheet 257 (Romford). WA/89/41. Geology of the Grays district: 1:10 000 sheet TQ67NW. Part of 1:50 000 sheets 257 (Romford) and 271 (Dartford). WA/89/36. Geology of the Billericay district: 1:10 000 sheet TQ69SE. Part of 1:50 000 sheets 257 (Romford) and 258 (Southend). WA/91/26. Geology of the South Ockenden district: 1:10 000 sheet TQ58SE. Part of 1:50 000 Sheet 257 (Romford). WA/89/38. Geology of the Orsett district: 1:10 000 sheet TQ68SW. Part of 1:50 000 Sheet 257 (Romford). WA/89/39. Geology of the West Horndon district: 1:10 000 sheet TQ68NW. Part of 1:50 000 Sheet 257 (Romford). WA/89/42. Geology of the Stanford-le-Hope district: 1:10 000 sheet TQ68SE. Part of 1:50 000 sheets 257 (Romford) and 258/259 (Southend and Foulness). WA/89/40. Geology of the Laindon district: 1:10 000 sheet TQ68NE. Part of 1:50 000 sheets 257 (Romford) and 258/259 (Southend and Foulness). WA/89/43. Geology of the Thorndon Park district: 1:10 000 sheet TQ69SW. Part of 1:50 000 Sheet 257 (Romford). WA/90/23. Geology of the Brentwood district, 1:10 000 sheet TQ59SE. Part of 1:50 000 Sheet 257 (Romford). WA/90/20. Hydrogeological reports Results of investigations at the Hoe Lane site, Enfield. WD/90/53R. Results of investigations at the Chingford South site, Chingford. WD/90/54R. Results of investigations at the Coppermills site, Walthamstow. WD/90/55R. Results of investigations at Hadley Road, Enfield. WD/90/16C. Highway drainage to the Chalk aquifer: the movement of groundwater in the Chalk near Bricket Wood, Hertfordshire, and its possible pollution by drainage from the M25 motorway. WD/89/3. Correlation of electrical resistivity marker bands in the Chalk of the London basin. WD/82/1. Goundwater conditions in the vicinity of the Rothehithe Underground Railway Tunnel and their relation to the River Thames. WD/74/1. Groundwater conditions in the Woolwich reach of the Thames with reference to the effects of a tidal-surge and tidal barrier. WD/73/5. Engineering geological reports A geophysical and geological investigation at Barking, Creekmouth, Essex. EG/72/7 Investigation of possible subsidence in chalk near Meopham, Kent. EG/74/4 Report on the Crystal Palace Borehole Geotechnical Testing Programme. EG/78/25 Density, porosity and sonic velocity determinations on selected core samples of various rock types from the London basement. EG/97/5 Groundwater conditions in the vicinity of the M1/M25 interchange, Hertfordshire. EGARP/KW/86/8/C A tracer test in the Chalk aquifer near Bricket Wood, Hertfordshire, in connection with the drainage of the M25 Motorway. WN/88/4/C Childerditch landslip, Essex. Field Report. WN/88/8 S W Essex–M25 corridor. Engineering Geology. WN/90/2 The engineering geology of the London area. WN/97/27 Palaeontological reports Dinoflagellate cyst analysis of lowermost London Clay, Aveley Motorway cutting, Essex; Sheet 271. WH/PI/79/224R Calcareous microfossils: Charlton old gravel pit; Sheet 271. WH/PI/76/2R Bryozoa from the Richmond borehole; Sheet 270. WH/PI/75/103R Palynology of selected samples from the Harpers Road (Peckham) borehole TQ37NW/2026; Sheet 270. WH/PI/75/95R Calcareous nannofossil analysis of the Jubilee Borehole 404T. WH/91/314C Dinoflagellate cyst analysis of the Paleogene sediments from the Staines No. 5 Borehole. WH/92/273R Dinoflagellate cyst analysis of the Paleogene sediments from the Hampstead Heath Borehole. WH/93/28R Dinoflagellate cyst analysis of the Paleogene sediments from the BGS Stanmore Common Borehole. WH/93/256R A biostratigraphical review of the Chalk of the Dartford (Sheet 271) district and adjoining areas. WH/94/208R Chalk macrofaunas from the Dartford (Sheet 271), Kent. WH/95/7R Interpretation of geophysical well logs from the Chalk of the London Basin. WH/95/184C Chalk stratigraphy of the Cray valley, south-east London. WH/97/18C Mineralogy reports Mineralogy and petrography of the Lambeth Group from the London and Hampshire Basins. WG/98/4R Stratigraphic variations in the heavy minerals of the Paleogene sandstones in the London Basin and the implications for sand provenance. WH/93/304 Mineral resource reports Mineral resource information in support of national, regional and local planning: Hertfordshire and Northwest London Boroughs. CR/03/075/N Mineral resource information in support of national, regional and local planning: Surrey (comprising Surrey and the London Boroughs of Croydon, Hounslow, Kingston upon Thames, Richmond upon Thames and Sutton). CR/03/073N Mineral resource information in support of national, regional and local planning: Essex (comprising Essex, Southend-on-Sea, Thurrock, London Boroughs of Barking and Dagenham, Havering, Redbridge and Waltham Forest). CR/02/127N Mineral resource information in support of national, regional and local planning: Kent (comprising Kent, Medway and London Boroughs of Bexley and Bromley). CR/02/125N Collation of the results of the 2001 Aggregate Minerals Survey. CR/03/53N DOCUMENTARY COLLECTIONS Boreholes Borehole data for the district are catalogued in the BGS archives (National Geological Records Centre) at BGS Keyworth on individual 1:10 000 scale sheets. For further information contact: The Manager, NGRC, BGS Keyworth. BGS hydrogeology enquiry service; wells, springs and water borehole records. British Geological Survey, Hydrogeology Group, Maclean Building, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OXO 8BB. Telephone 01491 838800. Fax 01491 692345. BGS Lexicon of named rock unit definitions Definitions of the named rock units shown on BGS maps, including those of the London district are held in the Lexicon database. This is available on the BGS web site (http://www.bgs.ac.uk). Further information on the database can be obtained from the Lexicon Manager at BGS, Keyworth. BGS photographs Copies of the photographs used in this memoir are deposited for reference in the BGS libraries in Keyworth and Edinburgh. Colour or black and white prints and transparencies can be supplied at a fixed tariff. BGS also holds a large collection of photographs that date back to the early part of the last century. Part of the collection can be viewed online at the BGS web site.