Editing Northumbrian rocks and landscape: a field guide

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'''echinoid '''(sea urchin) Marine invertebrate with body enclosed in a globular or discoidal test. Symmetry either pentameral radial (regular echinoids) or pentameral bilateral (irregular, burrowing, echinoids).
 
'''echinoid '''(sea urchin) Marine invertebrate with body enclosed in a globular or discoidal test. Symmetry either pentameral radial (regular echinoids) or pentameral bilateral (irregular, burrowing, echinoids).
  
'''epidote '''Ca<sub>2</sub>(Al,Fe)<sub>3</sub>(SiO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>2</sub>OH Characteristically green, radial, fibrous or columnar mineral, sometimes forming prismatic crystals, associated with '''''hydrothermal '''''or contact '''''metamorphic '''''rocks.
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'''epidote '''Ca<sub>2</sub>(A1,Fe)<sub>3</sub>(SiO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>2</sub>OH Characteristically green, radial, fibrous or columnar mineral, sometimes forming prismatic crystals, associated with '''''hydrothermal '''''or contact '''''metamorphic '''''rocks.
  
 
'''erratic '''Glacially transported rock derived from outside the local area.
 
'''erratic '''Glacially transported rock derived from outside the local area.
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'''facies '''Features of a rock or rock sequence that reflect the environment of deposition.
 
'''facies '''Features of a rock or rock sequence that reflect the environment of deposition.
  
'''facing '''Direction in which beds in a '''''fold '''''hinge become younger.
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'''''facing '''''Direction in which beds in a '''''fold '''''hinge become younger.
  
 
'''fault '''A more or less planar fracture in a rock mass along which relative displacement of adjacent blocks has occurred. The face of the block above an inclined fault plane is the '''hanging wall, '''that below is the '''footwall. '''In most faults, the direction of movement is known or assumed to be predominantly vertical. In a '''strike-slip '''or '''wrench '''fault, the direction of movement on a sub-vertical plane is predominantly horizontal. A '''thrust '''fault has a sub-horizontal plane of displacement. Fractured rock on the fault plane caused by movement between adjacent blocks is a fault '''''breccia.'''''
 
'''fault '''A more or less planar fracture in a rock mass along which relative displacement of adjacent blocks has occurred. The face of the block above an inclined fault plane is the '''hanging wall, '''that below is the '''footwall. '''In most faults, the direction of movement is known or assumed to be predominantly vertical. In a '''strike-slip '''or '''wrench '''fault, the direction of movement on a sub-vertical plane is predominantly horizontal. A '''thrust '''fault has a sub-horizontal plane of displacement. Fractured rock on the fault plane caused by movement between adjacent blocks is a fault '''''breccia.'''''
  
'''feldspars '''Important group of rock-forming silicate minerals, common in '''igneous '''rocks, hence '''feldspathic'''. '''Alkali feldspar''' is K–Na series feldspar. '''Plagioclase '''is Na–Ca series feldspar, often forming white, lath-shaped '''''phenocrysts '''''in igneous rocks. Most feldspars break down quickly on weathering.
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'''feldspars '''Important group of rock-forming silicate minerals, common in '''igneous '''rocks, hence '''feldspathic. Alkali feldspar '''is K– Na series feldspar. '''Plagioclase '''is Na–Ca series feldspar, often forming white, lath-shaped '''''phenocrysts '''''in igneous rocks. Most feldspars break down quickly on weathering.
  
'''fireclay '''See '''''seatearth.'''''
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'''fireclay '''''See '''seatearth.'''''
  
'''flat '''A lenticular zone of mineralization parallel to bedding.
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'''''flat '''''A lenticular zone of mineralization parallel to bedding.
  
'''flaser bedding '''Ripple bedding with silt or clay drapes between sets.  
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'''flaser bedding '''Ripple bedding with silt or clay drapes between sets. '''fluorite '''CaF<sub>2</sub> Colourless to translucent, purple, green or yellow mineral commonly crystallising in cubes. '''Fluorspar '''is the commercial product.
  
'''fluorite '''CaF<sub>2</sub> Colourless to translucent, purple, green or yellow mineral commonly crystallising in cubes. '''Fluorspar '''is the commercial product.
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'''flute cast (flute mark) '''''See '''sole structure.'''''
 
 
'''flute cast (flute mark) '''See '''''sole structure.'''''
 
  
 
'''fold '''A bend in bedded rocks or any planar rock mass. An '''anticline '''is arched upwards with older rocks in the core. A '''pericline '''is an anticline in the form of an elongated dome. A '''syncline '''is bent downwards with younger rocks in the core. A '''monocline '''is a step-shaped fold, with one steep limb between two hinges. An '''isoclinal fold '''has subparallel fold limbs. The dip of the fold axis is the '''plunge '''of the fold.
 
'''fold '''A bend in bedded rocks or any planar rock mass. An '''anticline '''is arched upwards with older rocks in the core. A '''pericline '''is an anticline in the form of an elongated dome. A '''syncline '''is bent downwards with younger rocks in the core. A '''monocline '''is a step-shaped fold, with one steep limb between two hinges. An '''isoclinal fold '''has subparallel fold limbs. The dip of the fold axis is the '''plunge '''of the fold.

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