Editing Northumbrian rocks and landscape: a field guide

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'''kame '''Steep sided mound of bedded '''''glaciofluvial '''''sand and gravel associated with stagnant ice. A '''kame terrace '''is a continuous linear feature formed between an ice mass and a valley wall. Subsequent ice melt may result in signs of marginal slumping.
 
'''kame '''Steep sided mound of bedded '''''glaciofluvial '''''sand and gravel associated with stagnant ice. A '''kame terrace '''is a continuous linear feature formed between an ice mass and a valley wall. Subsequent ice melt may result in signs of marginal slumping.
  
'''kettle hole '''Depression in glacial '''''drift''''', possibly containing a lake, left by the melting of an included mass of ice.
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'''kettle hole '''Depression in glacial '''''drift''', ''possibly containing a lake, left by the melting of an included mass ofice.
  
 
'''laccolith '''Concordant, lenticular, '''''igneous '''''intrusion, elliptical or circular in plan.
 
'''laccolith '''Concordant, lenticular, '''''igneous '''''intrusion, elliptical or circular in plan.
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'''lacustrine '''Sediment or processes associated with lakes.
 
'''lacustrine '''Sediment or processes associated with lakes.
  
'''lag '''An accumulation of coarse '''''clastic '''''or '''''bioclastic '''''material, usually in the floor of a channel.
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'''lag '''An accumulation of coarse '''''clastic '''''or '''''bioclastic '''''material, usually in the floor ofa channel.
  
'''limonite '''A general term for unspecified hydrous earthy iron oxides usually derived from the weathering of iron minerals in rocks or '''''veins'''''.
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'''limonite '''A general term for unspecified hydrous earthy iron oxides usually derived from the weathering ofiron minerals in rocks or '''''veins. ''linguoid '''Tongue-shaped (of asymmetrical ripples).
  
'''linguoid '''Tongue-shaped (of asymmetrical ripples).
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'''lithology '''Physical features ofa rock. Hence '''lithostratigraphy, '''the statigraphic ordering ofdifferent rock types; '''lithification, '''process of turning unconsolidated sediment into rock.
 
 
'''lithology '''Physical features of a rock. Hence '''lithostratigraphy, '''the statigraphic ordering of different rock types; '''lithification, '''process of turning unconsolidated sediment into rock.
 
  
 
'''Ma '''Abbreviation for 'million years'.
 
'''Ma '''Abbreviation for 'million years'.
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'''magma '''A hot, liquid or semi-liquid melt within the Earth's crust; the source for all '''''igneous '''''rocks and processes.
 
'''magma '''A hot, liquid or semi-liquid melt within the Earth's crust; the source for all '''''igneous '''''rocks and processes.
  
'''marcasite '''FeS<sub>2</sub> Pale brass-yellow or greyish metallic mineral, common as bladed or laminated crystalline masses in Pennine '''''veins'''''.  
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'''marcasite '''FeS<sub>2</sub> Pale brass-yellow or greyish metallic mineral, common as bladed or laminated crystalline masses in Pennine '''veins'''.  
  
'''marl '''A calcareous clay with 35–65% soft calcium carbonate.  
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'''marl '''A calcareous clay with 35-65% soft calcium carbonate.  
  
 
'''meltwater channel '''Channel cut by the action of meltwater from a glacier or from snow. Usually unrelated to the present drainage pattern.
 
'''meltwater channel '''Channel cut by the action of meltwater from a glacier or from snow. Usually unrelated to the present drainage pattern.
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'''micrite '''Microcrystalline calcite (lime mud).
 
'''micrite '''Microcrystalline calcite (lime mud).
  
'''microgranite '''A medium-grained (1–5 mm) rock of granitic composition.
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'''microgranite '''A medium-grained (1-5 mm) rock ofgranitic composition.
  
'''mineral veins '''See '''''veins.'''''
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'''mineral veins '''''See '''veins.'''''
  
'''mollusc '''One of a very diverse invertebrate group including the '''''bivalves, gastropods, '''''and cephalopods '''''(nautiloids, '''''etc.)
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'''''mollusc '''''One of a very diverse invertebrate group including the '''''bivalves, gastropods, '''''and cephalopods '''''(nautiloids, '''''etc.)
  
 
'''monocline '''See '''''fold.'''''
 
'''monocline '''See '''''fold.'''''
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'''moraine '''An unsorted deposit of rock debris associated with the actions of a glacier.
 
'''moraine '''An unsorted deposit of rock debris associated with the actions of a glacier.
  
'''nautiloid '''Cephalopod '''''mollusc '''''with a curved or straight, tapering, chambered shell; '''''suture '''''simple, siphuncular tube central in chambers.
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'''nautiloid '''Cephalopod ''mollusc ''with a curved or straight, tapering, chambered shell; '''''suture '''''simple, siphuncular tube central in chambers.
  
'''olivine '''A group of olive green to brown or black rock-forming Mg, Fe silicate minerals, characteristic of silica-poor '''igneous '''rocks.
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'''olivine '''A group of olive green to brown or black rock-forming Mg, Fe silicate minerals, characteristic ofsilica-poor '''igneous '''rocks.
  
'''oncolite '''Spherical or sub-spherical particle up to 50&nbsp;mm diameter formed by the action of '''''algae '''''in trapping sediment on the surface of a mobile grain.
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'''oncolite '''Spherical or sub-spherical particle up to 50 mm diameter formed by the action of '''''algae '''''in trapping sediment on the surface ofa mobile grain.
  
'''oolite '''Rock formed largely of '''''ooliths. '''''Characteristic of high-energy, shallow-water environments.
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'''oolite '''Rock formed largely of '''''ooliths. '''''Characteristic ofhigh-energy, shallow-water environments.
  
'''oolith '''Spherical or sub-spherical particle less than 2&nbsp;mm diameter formed by the concentric deposition of rings of (usually) calcium carbonate around a mobile grain.
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'''oolith '''Spherical or sub-spherical particle less than 2 mm diameter formed by the concentric deposition ofrings of (usually) calcium carbonate around a mobile grain.
  
 
'''orogeny '''Process of mountain building by the lateral compression of thick rock sequences. The '''Caledonian Orogenic Cycle '''refers to a series of orogenic events in the Lower Palaeozoic culminating in the late Silurian/early Devonian. The '''Variscan Orogeny, '''whose main effects are seen in southwest England and Central Europe, spanned the late Devonian to late Carboniferous.
 
'''orogeny '''Process of mountain building by the lateral compression of thick rock sequences. The '''Caledonian Orogenic Cycle '''refers to a series of orogenic events in the Lower Palaeozoic culminating in the late Silurian/early Devonian. The '''Variscan Orogeny, '''whose main effects are seen in southwest England and Central Europe, spanned the late Devonian to late Carboniferous.
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'''ostracode '''Small to microscopic, marine to fresh-water crustacean with calcitic bivalved shell.
 
'''ostracode '''Small to microscopic, marine to fresh-water crustacean with calcitic bivalved shell.
  
'''outlier '''Area of younger rocks surrounded by older rocks.
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'''outlier '''Area ofyounger rocks surrounded by older rocks.
  
 
'''overflow channel, spillway '''Channel carved by the overflow from an ice-dammed lake. Usually unrelated to the present drainage pattern.  
 
'''overflow channel, spillway '''Channel carved by the overflow from an ice-dammed lake. Usually unrelated to the present drainage pattern.  
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'''pedogenic''' Associated with soil formation.
 
'''pedogenic''' Associated with soil formation.
  
'''pegmatite''' Exceptionally coarse-grained variety of an '''''igneous '''''rock.  
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'''pegmatite''' Exceptionally coarse-grained variety of an '''''igneous '''''rock. '''pelagic '''Organisms living in the body of the water, either floating (planktonic) or swimming (nektonic).
 
 
'''pelagic '''Organisms living in the body of the water, either floating (planktonic) or swimming (nektonic).
 
 
 
'''pericline '''See '''''fold.'''''
 
 
 
'''phenocryst '''Larger, usually well-formed crystal in a finer groundmass.  
 
  
'''phonolite '''Fine grained, porphyritic, Na-rich volcanic rock.  
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'''pericline '''See '''fold.'''
  
'''phytoplankton '''See '''''plankton.'''''
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'''phenocryst '''Larger, usually well-formed crystal in a finer groundmass. '''phonolite '''Fine grained, porphyritic, Na-rich volcanic rock. '''phytoplankton '''See '''''plankton.'''''
  
 
'''plankton '''Mainly small to microscopic organisms that float in near-surface oceanic waters; divided into '''phytoplankton '''(photosynthetic) and '''zooplankton '''(animals).
 
'''plankton '''Mainly small to microscopic organisms that float in near-surface oceanic waters; divided into '''phytoplankton '''(photosynthetic) and '''zooplankton '''(animals).
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'''plate '''A part of the Earth's rigid outer shell (lithosphere), internally relatively free of earthquakes and volcanic activity but bounded by more or less continuous zones of earthquakes and volcanoes where the plates move against each other. '''Plate tectonics '''describes the processes and effects of plate motions and interactions.
 
'''plate '''A part of the Earth's rigid outer shell (lithosphere), internally relatively free of earthquakes and volcanic activity but bounded by more or less continuous zones of earthquakes and volcanoes where the plates move against each other. '''Plate tectonics '''describes the processes and effects of plate motions and interactions.
  
'''plunge '''See '''''fold.'''''
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'''plunge ''See fold.'''''
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 +
'''pluton '''A large '''''igneous '''''intrusion (excluding '''''dykes '''''and ''sills). ''
  
'''pluton '''A large '''''igneous '''''intrusion (excluding '''''dykes '''''and '''''sills''''').
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'''porphyrite''' Medium grained, intrusive '''''igneous '''''rock with many
  
'''porphyrite''' Medium grained, intrusive '''''igneous '''''rock with many conspicuous '''''feldspar phenocrysts; '''''hence '''porphyritic''' = containing phenocrysts.
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conspicuous '''''feldspar phenocrysts; '''''hence '''porphyritic = '''containing phenocrysts.
  
 
'''post '''A bed of rock, often applied to limestones.
 
'''post '''A bed of rock, often applied to limestones.
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'''pyrite '''FeS<sub>2</sub> (fools gold) Common pale brass-yellow mineral, often crystallising in cubes.
 
'''pyrite '''FeS<sub>2</sub> (fools gold) Common pale brass-yellow mineral, often crystallising in cubes.
  
'''pyroclastic '''A '''''clastic '''''rock of volcanic origin.
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'''pyroclastic '''A ''clastic ''rock of volcanic origin.
  
'''pyroxene''' Important group of dark green, brown or black, rock-forming silicate minerals, characterised by two cleavages at right-angles; crystals prismatic.
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'''pyroxene Important '''group of dark green, brown or black, rock-forming silicate minerals, characterised by two cleavages at right-angles; crystals prismatic.
  
 
'''pyrrhotite '''(magnetic pyrites) FeS Bronze-yellow, reddish-brown weathering, usually massive or granular mineral; magnetic.
 
'''pyrrhotite '''(magnetic pyrites) FeS Bronze-yellow, reddish-brown weathering, usually massive or granular mineral; magnetic.
  
'''quartz '''SiO<sub>2</sub> Very common mineral, usually transparent or white but may be variously coloured. Occurs in many '''''igneous '''''and '''''metamorphic''''' rocks, is the main constituent of sandstones and siltstones and a common '''''gangue '''''mineral in '''''veins''''' when prismatic crystals with a six-faced pyramidal termination may be found.
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'''quartz '''SiO<sub>2</sub> Very common mineral, usually transparent or white but may be variously coloured. Occurs in many ''igneous ''and ''metamorphic ''rocks, is the main constituent of sandstones and siltstones and a common ''gangue ''mineral in ''veins ''when prismatic crystals with a six-faced pyramidal termination may be found.
  
 
'''regression '''Withdrawal of the sea from the land area due to a relative fall in sea level.
 
'''regression '''Withdrawal of the sea from the land area due to a relative fall in sea level.
  
'''rhyolite '''Fine-grained acid '''''igneous '''''extrusive rock; volcanic equivalent of granite.
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'''rhyolite '''Fine-grained acid ''igneous ''extrusive rock; volcanic equivalent ofgranite.
  
'''rock-salt '''See '''''halite.'''''
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'''rock-salt '''''See halite.''
  
'''schist '''A metamorphic rock with a strong, platy fabric, caused by the parallel alignment of '''''micas.'''''
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'''schist '''A metamorphic rock with a strong, platy fabric, caused by the parallel alignment of ''micas.''
  
 
'''seafloor spreading '''Process whereby volcanic activity at mid-ocean ridges causes igneous rock material to be accreted to '''plate '''margins resulting in the growth of oceanic crust.
 
'''seafloor spreading '''Process whereby volcanic activity at mid-ocean ridges causes igneous rock material to be accreted to '''plate '''margins resulting in the growth of oceanic crust.
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'''seatearth '''A fossil soil with root traces found immediately below a coal seam. A '''fireclay '''is a pure clay seatearth, whilst a '''ganister '''is a pure quartz sand seatearth.
 
'''seatearth '''A fossil soil with root traces found immediately below a coal seam. A '''fireclay '''is a pure clay seatearth, whilst a '''ganister '''is a pure quartz sand seatearth.
  
'''septarian '''Nodules or '''''concretions '''''with a series of internal mineral-filled (usually '''''calcite''''') cracks. Results from the formation of a hardened exterior shell before desiccation and shrinkage of the material inside the nodule.
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'''septarian '''Nodules or ''concretions ''with a series of internal mineral-filled (usually ''calcite) ''cracks. Results from the formation of a hardened exterior shell before desiccation and shrinkage of the material inside the nodule.
 
 
'''serpulid '''A group of polychaete worms with calcareous tubes.
 
 
 
'''sheath fold '''A highly deformed fold form with a strongly curved fold axis, produced in shear zones.
 
  
'''siderite '''FeCO<sub>3</sub> Grey to grey-brown mineral widespread in certain sedimentary rocks, particularly sedimentary ironstone deposits and Coal Measures sequences. Also common in many Pennine '''''veins.'''''
+
'''serpulid '''A group of polychaete worms with calcareous tubes. '''sheath fold '''A highly deformed fold form with a strongly curved fold axis, produced in shear zones.
  
'''siliciclastic''' '''''Clastic''''' rocks formed predominantly of '''''quartz''''', other silicate mineral and rock fragments.
+
'''siderite '''FeCO<sub>3</sub> Grey to grey-brown mineral widespread in certain sedimentary rocks, particularly sedimentary ironstone deposits and Coal Measures sequences. Also common in many Pennine ''veins.''
  
'''sill''' A tabular '''''igneous '''''intrusion, mainly concordant with bedding, although it may cut across beds from one level to another.  
+
'''siliciclastic '''''Clastic ''rocks formed predominantly of ''quartz, ''other silicate mineral and rock fragments.
  
'''slickensides''' A lineation on a '''''fault '''''or bedding plane caused by the relative movement of rock masses on either side. The surface is often coated by fibrous crystals, usually of '''''quartz '''''or '''''calcite, '''''aligned in the direction of movement.
+
'''sill''' A tabular ''igneous ''intrusion, mainly concordant with bedding, although it may cut across beds from one level to another. slickensides A lineation on a ''fault ''or bedding plane caused by the relative movement of rock masses on either side. The surface is often coated by fibrous crystals, usually of '''''quartz '''''or '''''calcite, '''''aligned in the direction of movement.
  
 
'''sole mark/structure '''Sedimentary structure cut into an underlying mud by a turbidity current and infilled by the overlying '''''turbidite '''''bed. Preserved as a cast on the base of the turbidite. '''Flute cast (mark): '''ovoid scoop-shaped structure caused by turbulent water flow, preserved as a tapered lobe on the base of the turbidite. Sole marks may also occur less typically in fluvial sediments, etc.
 
'''sole mark/structure '''Sedimentary structure cut into an underlying mud by a turbidity current and infilled by the overlying '''''turbidite '''''bed. Preserved as a cast on the base of the turbidite. '''Flute cast (mark): '''ovoid scoop-shaped structure caused by turbulent water flow, preserved as a tapered lobe on the base of the turbidite. Sole marks may also occur less typically in fluvial sediments, etc.
  
'''solifluction '''Downhill movement of surface layer of unconsolidated weathered material when saturated by water.
+
'''solifluction '''Downhill movement of surface layer ofunconsolidated weathered material when saturated by water.
  
 
'''sphalerite '''(blende) ZnS Commonly a brown or black mineral with a resinous lustre and variable form. Most common ore of zinc.
 
'''sphalerite '''(blende) ZnS Commonly a brown or black mineral with a resinous lustre and variable form. Most common ore of zinc.
  
'''spillway''' 1. General term for glacial '''''meltwater '''''or '''''overflow channels. '''''2. Overflow channel constructed on a dam.
+
'''spillway 1. '''General term for glacial '''''meltwater '''''or '''''overflow channels. '''''2. Overflow channel constructed on a dam.
  
 
'''sponge '''Primitive invertebrates with an asymmetrical body supported by spongin and/or siliceous or calcareous spicules. Some may have a massive calcareous basal skeleton.
 
'''sponge '''Primitive invertebrates with an asymmetrical body supported by spongin and/or siliceous or calcareous spicules. Some may have a massive calcareous basal skeleton.
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'''stope '''Underground excavation in a '''''vein.'''''
 
'''stope '''Underground excavation in a '''''vein.'''''
  
'''strike '''Intersection of a bedding plane, or other planar surface, with the horizontal.
+
'''strike '''Intersection ofa bedding plane, or other planar surface, with the horizontal.
  
'''strike-slip''' See '''''fault.'''''
+
'''strike-slip ''See fault.'''''
  
'''stromatolite '''A carbonate rock with a fine horizontal, domal or columnar banding, reflecting the control of deposition by an '''''algal '''''mat or microbial community living on the surface of the sediment.
+
'''stromatolite '''A carbonate rock with a fine horizontal, domal or columnar banding, reflecting the control ofdeposition by an '''''algal '''''mat or microbial community living on the surface of the sediment.
  
 
'''stylolite '''An irregular, suture like contact, most common in limestones, produced by solution of the rock under high pressure.
 
'''stylolite '''An irregular, suture like contact, most common in limestones, produced by solution of the rock under high pressure.
  
'''subduction '''The process whereby oceanic crust descends into the interior of the Earth beneath oceanic or continental crust at a convergent '''''plate ''''' margin.
+
'''subduction '''The process whereby oceanic crust descends into the interior of the Earth beneath oceanic or continental crust at a convergent ''plate ''margin.
  
'''suture''' 1. A linear zone of continental collision, marking the site of a former ocean. 2. Line of junction of septum with conch wall in cephalopods.
+
'''suture 1. '''A linear zone ofcontinental collision, marking the site ofa former ocean. 2. Line ofjunction of septum with conch wall in cephalopods.
  
'''syncline''' See '''''fold.'''''
+
'''syncline ''See fold.'''''
  
 
'''tachylite '''Black, glassy rock formed by chilling of a '''''basaltic '''''lava or shallow '''''igneous '''''intrusion.
 
'''tachylite '''Black, glassy rock formed by chilling of a '''''basaltic '''''lava or shallow '''''igneous '''''intrusion.
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'''tholeiitic basalt/dolerite '''A type of '''''basalt/ dolerite '''''oversaturated in silica, so that small amounts of '''''quartz '''''are present.
 
'''tholeiitic basalt/dolerite '''A type of '''''basalt/ dolerite '''''oversaturated in silica, so that small amounts of '''''quartz '''''are present.
  
'''throw '''Description of vertical component of movement on a '''''fault '''''plane. '''Downthrow '''emphasises the relative downward displacement of a block on one side of the fault, '''upthrow '''(less commonly used) emphasises the relative upward displacement of a block.
+
'''throw '''Description of vertical component of movement on ''afault ''plane. '''Downthrow '''emphasises the relative downward displacement ofa block on one side of the fault, '''upthrow '''(less commonly used) emphasises the relative upward displacement of a block.
  
'''thrust''' See '''''fault.'''''
+
'''thrust ''See fault.'''''
  
 
'''till '''(boulder clay) Collective term for the group of unsorted sediments laid down by direct action ofice.
 
'''till '''(boulder clay) Collective term for the group of unsorted sediments laid down by direct action ofice.
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'''tuff '''Lithified volcanic ash-fall.
 
'''tuff '''Lithified volcanic ash-fall.
  
'''turbidite '''Rock deposited from a '''turbidity current/flow, '''a fast flowing turbulent current charged with a high sediment load, commonly initiated by the disturbance of soft sediment on a slope. A turbidite is poorly sorted but may show grading and '''''sole structures '''''on its base.
+
'''turbidite '''Rock deposited from a '''turbidity current/flow, '''a fast flowing turbulent current charged with a high sediment load, commonly initiated by the disturbance ofsoft sediment on a slope. A turbidite is poorly sorted but may show grading and '''''sole structures '''''on its base.
  
 
'''unconformity '''Surface of contact between two groups of rocks resulting from the tilting or folding and erosion of the lower group (often in an '''''orogenic '''''event) before the deposition of the upper group.
 
'''unconformity '''Surface of contact between two groups of rocks resulting from the tilting or folding and erosion of the lower group (often in an '''''orogenic '''''event) before the deposition of the upper group.
  
'''Variscan Orogeny '''See '''''orogeny.'''''
+
'''Variscan Orogeny '''''See '''orogeny.'''''
  
 
'''vein/veinlet '''A fracture, usually sub-vertical, which is mineralized, often with '''''quartz '''''or '''''calcite. '''''Crystals may grow from the walls towards the centre. A '''mineral vein '''normally implies the presence of ore minerals.
 
'''vein/veinlet '''A fracture, usually sub-vertical, which is mineralized, often with '''''quartz '''''or '''''calcite. '''''Crystals may grow from the walls towards the centre. A '''mineral vein '''normally implies the presence of ore minerals.
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'''xenolith '''An inclusion of country rock within an '''''igneous '''''body.
 
'''xenolith '''An inclusion of country rock within an '''''igneous '''''body.
  
'''Yoredale '''Name applied to repeat cycles of limestone-shale-sandstone (-seatearth-coal) '''''(cyclothems) '''''in the Carboniferous (Dinantian, early Namurian), derived from the old name for Wensleydale, where they are typically developed.
+
'''Yoredale '''Name applied to repeat cycles oflimestone-shale-sandstone (-seatearth-coal) '''''(cyclothems) '''''in the Carboniferous (Dinantian, early Namurian), derived from the old name for Wensleydale, where they are typically developed.
  
 
== Bibliography ==
 
== Bibliography ==
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Johnson, G. A. L. (compiler), in press. ''The geology of North East England. ''Special publication, Natural History Society of Northumbria. Newcastle upon Tyne.
 
Johnson, G. A. L. (compiler), in press. ''The geology of North East England. ''Special publication, Natural History Society of Northumbria. Newcastle upon Tyne.
  
Robson, D.A. (ed.). ''The geology of North East England. ''pp. iv+113. Special publication, Natural History Society of Northumbria. Newcastle upon Tyne.
+
Robson, D.A. (ed.). ''The geology of North East England. ''pp. iv+t13. Special publication, Natural History Society of Northumbria. Newcastle upon Tyne.
  
Taylor, B. J., Burgess, I. C., Land, D. H., Mills, D. A. C., Smith, D. B. and Warren, P. T. 1971. ''Northern England. ''British Regional Geology. 4th edn, pp. x + 125. H.M.S.O., London.
+
Taylor, B. J., Burgess, I. C., Land, D. H., Mills, D. A. C., Smith, D. B. and Warren, P. T. 1971. ''Northern England. ''British Regional Geology. 4th edn, pp. x+125. H.M.S.O., London.
  
 
=== Reference works ===
 
=== Reference works ===
  
Allaby, A. and Allaby, M. 1990. ''The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Earth Sciences. pp. xxi + 410. ''O.U.P., Oxford.
+
Allaby, A. and Allaby, M. 1990. ''The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Earth Sciences. xxi+410pp. ''O.U.P., Oxford.
  
British Museum (Natural History). 1975. ''British Palaeozoic Fossils. ''4th edn. 203pp. London.
+
British Museum (Natural History) 1975. ''British Palaeozoic Fossils. ''4th edn. 203pp. London.
  
 
Hamilton, W. R., Woolley, A. R. & Bishop, A. C. 1992. ''Minerals, rocks and fossils. ''320pp. Hamlyn, London.
 
Hamilton, W. R., Woolley, A. R. & Bishop, A. C. 1992. ''Minerals, rocks and fossils. ''320pp. Hamlyn, London.
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=== Specific ===
 
=== Specific ===
  
Only works quoted in the text are listed here. Further articles on various aspects of the geology and geomorphology of Northumbria may be found particularly in the ''Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society ''as well as many other journals, British Geological Survey Memoirs, and Geologists' Association guides.
+
Only works quoted in the text are listed here. Further articles on various aspects of the geology and geomorphology of Northumbria may be found particularly in the ''Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society ''as well as many other journals, British Geological Survey Memoirs, and Geologists Association guides.
  
Aspinall, I. J., Macklin, M. G. & Brewis, T. 1986. Metal mining and floodplain sedimentation at Garrigill, and their influence on terrace and floodplain soil development. ''In ''Macklin, M. G. & Rose, J. (eds). ''Quaternary river landforms and sediments in the northern Pennines: field guide, ''35–45. British Geomorphological Research Group and Quaternary Research Association.
+
Aspinall, I. J.; Macklin, M. G. & Brewis, T. 1986. Metal mining and floodpilaiti sedimentation at Garrigill, and their influence on terrace and floodplain soil development. ''In ''Macklin, M. G. & Rose, J. (ells). ''Quaternary river landforms and sediments in the northern Pennines: field guide, ''35-45. British Geomorphological Research Group and Quaternary Research Association.
  
Carruthers, R. G., Dinham, C. H., Burnett, G. A. & Maden, J. 1927. The Geology of Belford, Holy Island, and the Fame Islands. ''Memoir of the British Geological Survey, ''Sheet 4, pp. x + 195. H.M.S.O., London.
+
Carruthers, R. G., Dinham, C. H., Burnett, G. A. & Maden, J. 1927. The Geology of Belford, Holy Island, and the Fame Islands. ''Memoir of the British Geological Survey, ''Sheet 4, pp. x+195. H.M.S.O., London.
  
Cope, J. C. W., Ingham, J. K. & Rawson, P. F. (eds). 1992. Atlas of palaeogeography and lithofacies. Geological Society Memoir No. 13, 153pp, 106 maps.
+
Cope, J. C. W., Ingham, J. K. & Rawson, P. F. (eds) 1992. Atlas of palaeogeography and lithofacies. Geological Society Memoir No. 13, 153pp, 106 maps.
  
Day, J. B. W. 1970. Geology of the country around Bewcastle. ''Memoir of the British Geological Survey, ''Sheet 12 (England and Wales), pp. xi + 357. H.M.S.O., London.
+
Day, J. B. W. 1970. Geology of the country around Bewcastle. ''Memoir of the British Geological Survey, ''Sheet 12 (England and Wales), pp. xi+357. H.M.S.O., London.
  
Dunham, K. C. 1990. Geology of the Northern Pennine Orefield, Volume 1. Tyne to Stainmore. 2nd edn., pp. x + 299. ''Memoir of the British Geological Survey, ''H.M.S.O., London.
+
Dunham, K. C. 1990. Geology of the Northern Pennine Orefield, Volume 1. Tyne to Stainmore. 2nd edn., pp x + 299. ''Memoir of the British Geological Survey, ''H.M.S.O., London.
  
Elliott, T. 1976. Sedimentary sequences from the Upper Limestone Group of Northumberland. ''Scottish Journal of Geology, '''''12''', 115–124.
+
Elliott, T. 1976. Sedimentary sequences from the Upper Limestone Group of Northumberland. ''Scottish Journal of Geology, ''12, 115-124.
  
Farmer, N. & Jones, J. M. 1969. The Carboniferous, Namurian rocks of the coast section from Howick Bay to Foxton Hall, Northumberland. ''Transactions of the Natural History Society of Northumberland, Durham and Newcastle upon Tyne, '''''17''', 1–27.
+
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