Editing Northumbrian rocks and landscape: a field guide

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'''pyrrhotite '''(magnetic pyrites) FeS Bronze-yellow, reddish-brown weathering, usually massive or granular mineral; magnetic.
 
'''pyrrhotite '''(magnetic pyrites) FeS Bronze-yellow, reddish-brown weathering, usually massive or granular mineral; magnetic.
  
'''quartz '''SiO<sub>2</sub> Very common mineral, usually transparent or white but may be variously coloured. Occurs in many '''''igneous '''''and '''''metamorphic''''' rocks, is the main constituent of sandstones and siltstones and a common '''''gangue '''''mineral in '''''veins''''' when prismatic crystals with a six-faced pyramidal termination may be found.
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'''quartz '''SiO<sub>2</sub> Very common mineral, usually transparent or white but may be variously coloured. Occurs in many '''''igneous '''''and '''''metamorphic''''' rocks, is the main constituent of sandstones and siltstones and a common '''''gangue '''''mineral in '''''veins'''''when prismatic crystals with a six-faced pyramidal termination may be found.
  
 
'''regression '''Withdrawal of the sea from the land area due to a relative fall in sea level.
 
'''regression '''Withdrawal of the sea from the land area due to a relative fall in sea level.
  
'''rhyolite '''Fine-grained acid '''''igneous '''''extrusive rock; volcanic equivalent of granite.
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'''rhyolite '''Fine-grained acid ''igneous ''extrusive rock; volcanic equivalent ofgranite.
  
'''rock-salt '''See '''''halite.'''''
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'''rock-salt '''''See halite.''
  
'''schist '''A metamorphic rock with a strong, platy fabric, caused by the parallel alignment of '''''micas.'''''
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'''schist '''A metamorphic rock with a strong, platy fabric, caused by the parallel alignment of ''micas.''
  
 
'''seafloor spreading '''Process whereby volcanic activity at mid-ocean ridges causes igneous rock material to be accreted to '''plate '''margins resulting in the growth of oceanic crust.
 
'''seafloor spreading '''Process whereby volcanic activity at mid-ocean ridges causes igneous rock material to be accreted to '''plate '''margins resulting in the growth of oceanic crust.
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'''seatearth '''A fossil soil with root traces found immediately below a coal seam. A '''fireclay '''is a pure clay seatearth, whilst a '''ganister '''is a pure quartz sand seatearth.
 
'''seatearth '''A fossil soil with root traces found immediately below a coal seam. A '''fireclay '''is a pure clay seatearth, whilst a '''ganister '''is a pure quartz sand seatearth.
  
'''septarian '''Nodules or '''''concretions '''''with a series of internal mineral-filled (usually '''''calcite''''') cracks. Results from the formation of a hardened exterior shell before desiccation and shrinkage of the material inside the nodule.
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'''septarian '''Nodules or ''concretions ''with a series of internal mineral-filled (usually ''calcite) ''cracks. Results from the formation of a hardened exterior shell before desiccation and shrinkage of the material inside the nodule.
  
'''serpulid '''A group of polychaete worms with calcareous tubes.  
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'''serpulid '''A group of polychaete worms with calcareous tubes. '''sheath fold '''A highly deformed fold form with a strongly curved fold axis, produced in shear zones.
  
'''sheath fold '''A highly deformed fold form with a strongly curved fold axis, produced in shear zones.
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'''siderite '''FeCO<sub>3</sub> Grey to grey-brown mineral widespread in certain sedimentary rocks, particularly sedimentary ironstone deposits and Coal Measures sequences. Also common in many Pennine ''veins.''
  
'''siderite '''FeCO<sub>3</sub> Grey to grey-brown mineral widespread in certain sedimentary rocks, particularly sedimentary ironstone deposits and Coal Measures sequences. Also common in many Pennine '''''veins.'''''
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'''siliciclastic '''''Clastic ''rocks formed predominantly of ''quartz, ''other silicate mineral and rock fragments.
  
'''siliciclastic''' '''''Clastic''''' rocks formed predominantly of '''''quartz''''', other silicate mineral and rock fragments.
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'''sill''' A tabular ''igneous ''intrusion, mainly concordant with bedding, although it may cut across beds from one level to another. slickensides A lineation on a ''fault ''or bedding plane caused by the relative movement of rock masses on either side. The surface is often coated by fibrous crystals, usually of '''''quartz '''''or '''''calcite, '''''aligned in the direction of movement.
 
 
'''sill''' A tabular '''''igneous '''''intrusion, mainly concordant with bedding, although it may cut across beds from one level to another.  
 
 
 
'''slickensides''' A lineation on a '''''fault '''''or bedding plane caused by the relative movement of rock masses on either side. The surface is often coated by fibrous crystals, usually of '''''quartz '''''or '''''calcite, '''''aligned in the direction of movement.
 
  
 
'''sole mark/structure '''Sedimentary structure cut into an underlying mud by a turbidity current and infilled by the overlying '''''turbidite '''''bed. Preserved as a cast on the base of the turbidite. '''Flute cast (mark): '''ovoid scoop-shaped structure caused by turbulent water flow, preserved as a tapered lobe on the base of the turbidite. Sole marks may also occur less typically in fluvial sediments, etc.
 
'''sole mark/structure '''Sedimentary structure cut into an underlying mud by a turbidity current and infilled by the overlying '''''turbidite '''''bed. Preserved as a cast on the base of the turbidite. '''Flute cast (mark): '''ovoid scoop-shaped structure caused by turbulent water flow, preserved as a tapered lobe on the base of the turbidite. Sole marks may also occur less typically in fluvial sediments, etc.
  
'''solifluction '''Downhill movement of surface layer of unconsolidated weathered material when saturated by water.
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'''solifluction '''Downhill movement of surface layer ofunconsolidated weathered material when saturated by water.
  
 
'''sphalerite '''(blende) ZnS Commonly a brown or black mineral with a resinous lustre and variable form. Most common ore of zinc.
 
'''sphalerite '''(blende) ZnS Commonly a brown or black mineral with a resinous lustre and variable form. Most common ore of zinc.
  
'''spillway''' 1. General term for glacial '''''meltwater '''''or '''''overflow channels. '''''2. Overflow channel constructed on a dam.
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'''spillway 1. '''General term for glacial '''''meltwater '''''or '''''overflow channels. '''''2. Overflow channel constructed on a dam.
  
 
'''sponge '''Primitive invertebrates with an asymmetrical body supported by spongin and/or siliceous or calcareous spicules. Some may have a massive calcareous basal skeleton.
 
'''sponge '''Primitive invertebrates with an asymmetrical body supported by spongin and/or siliceous or calcareous spicules. Some may have a massive calcareous basal skeleton.
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'''stope '''Underground excavation in a '''''vein.'''''
 
'''stope '''Underground excavation in a '''''vein.'''''
  
'''strike '''Intersection of a bedding plane, or other planar surface, with the horizontal.
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'''strike '''Intersection ofa bedding plane, or other planar surface, with the horizontal.
  
'''strike-slip''' See '''''fault.'''''
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'''strike-slip ''See fault.'''''
  
'''stromatolite '''A carbonate rock with a fine horizontal, domal or columnar banding, reflecting the control of deposition by an '''''algal '''''mat or microbial community living on the surface of the sediment.
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'''stromatolite '''A carbonate rock with a fine horizontal, domal or columnar banding, reflecting the control ofdeposition by an '''''algal '''''mat or microbial community living on the surface of the sediment.
  
 
'''stylolite '''An irregular, suture like contact, most common in limestones, produced by solution of the rock under high pressure.
 
'''stylolite '''An irregular, suture like contact, most common in limestones, produced by solution of the rock under high pressure.
  
'''subduction '''The process whereby oceanic crust descends into the interior of the Earth beneath oceanic or continental crust at a convergent '''''plate ''''' margin.
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'''subduction '''The process whereby oceanic crust descends into the interior of the Earth beneath oceanic or continental crust at a convergent ''plate ''margin.
  
'''suture''' 1. A linear zone of continental collision, marking the site of a former ocean. 2. Line of junction of septum with conch wall in cephalopods.
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'''suture 1. '''A linear zone ofcontinental collision, marking the site ofa former ocean. 2. Line ofjunction of septum with conch wall in cephalopods.
  
'''syncline''' See '''''fold.'''''
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'''syncline ''See fold.'''''
  
 
'''tachylite '''Black, glassy rock formed by chilling of a '''''basaltic '''''lava or shallow '''''igneous '''''intrusion.
 
'''tachylite '''Black, glassy rock formed by chilling of a '''''basaltic '''''lava or shallow '''''igneous '''''intrusion.
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'''tholeiitic basalt/dolerite '''A type of '''''basalt/ dolerite '''''oversaturated in silica, so that small amounts of '''''quartz '''''are present.
 
'''tholeiitic basalt/dolerite '''A type of '''''basalt/ dolerite '''''oversaturated in silica, so that small amounts of '''''quartz '''''are present.
  
'''throw '''Description of vertical component of movement on a '''''fault '''''plane. '''Downthrow '''emphasises the relative downward displacement of a block on one side of the fault, '''upthrow '''(less commonly used) emphasises the relative upward displacement of a block.
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'''throw '''Description of vertical component of movement on ''afault ''plane. '''Downthrow '''emphasises the relative downward displacement ofa block on one side of the fault, '''upthrow '''(less commonly used) emphasises the relative upward displacement of a block.
  
'''thrust''' See '''''fault.'''''
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'''thrust ''See fault.'''''
  
 
'''till '''(boulder clay) Collective term for the group of unsorted sediments laid down by direct action ofice.
 
'''till '''(boulder clay) Collective term for the group of unsorted sediments laid down by direct action ofice.
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'''tuff '''Lithified volcanic ash-fall.
 
'''tuff '''Lithified volcanic ash-fall.
  
'''turbidite '''Rock deposited from a '''turbidity current/flow, '''a fast flowing turbulent current charged with a high sediment load, commonly initiated by the disturbance of soft sediment on a slope. A turbidite is poorly sorted but may show grading and '''''sole structures '''''on its base.
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'''turbidite '''Rock deposited from a '''turbidity current/flow, '''a fast flowing turbulent current charged with a high sediment load, commonly initiated by the disturbance ofsoft sediment on a slope. A turbidite is poorly sorted but may show grading and '''''sole structures '''''on its base.
  
 
'''unconformity '''Surface of contact between two groups of rocks resulting from the tilting or folding and erosion of the lower group (often in an '''''orogenic '''''event) before the deposition of the upper group.
 
'''unconformity '''Surface of contact between two groups of rocks resulting from the tilting or folding and erosion of the lower group (often in an '''''orogenic '''''event) before the deposition of the upper group.
  
'''Variscan Orogeny '''See '''''orogeny.'''''
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'''Variscan Orogeny '''''See '''orogeny.'''''
  
 
'''vein/veinlet '''A fracture, usually sub-vertical, which is mineralized, often with '''''quartz '''''or '''''calcite. '''''Crystals may grow from the walls towards the centre. A '''mineral vein '''normally implies the presence of ore minerals.
 
'''vein/veinlet '''A fracture, usually sub-vertical, which is mineralized, often with '''''quartz '''''or '''''calcite. '''''Crystals may grow from the walls towards the centre. A '''mineral vein '''normally implies the presence of ore minerals.
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'''xenolith '''An inclusion of country rock within an '''''igneous '''''body.
 
'''xenolith '''An inclusion of country rock within an '''''igneous '''''body.
  
'''Yoredale '''Name applied to repeat cycles of limestone-shale-sandstone (-seatearth-coal) '''''(cyclothems) '''''in the Carboniferous (Dinantian, early Namurian), derived from the old name for Wensleydale, where they are typically developed.
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'''Yoredale '''Name applied to repeat cycles oflimestone-shale-sandstone (-seatearth-coal) '''''(cyclothems) '''''in the Carboniferous (Dinantian, early Namurian), derived from the old name for Wensleydale, where they are typically developed.
  
 
== Bibliography ==
 
== Bibliography ==
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Johnson, G. A. L. (compiler), in press. ''The geology of North East England. ''Special publication, Natural History Society of Northumbria. Newcastle upon Tyne.
 
Johnson, G. A. L. (compiler), in press. ''The geology of North East England. ''Special publication, Natural History Society of Northumbria. Newcastle upon Tyne.
  
Robson, D.A. (ed.). ''The geology of North East England. ''pp. iv+113. Special publication, Natural History Society of Northumbria. Newcastle upon Tyne.
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Robson, D.A. (ed.). ''The geology of North East England. ''pp. iv+t13. Special publication, Natural History Society of Northumbria. Newcastle upon Tyne.
  
Taylor, B. J., Burgess, I. C., Land, D. H., Mills, D. A. C., Smith, D. B. and Warren, P. T. 1971. ''Northern England. ''British Regional Geology. 4th edn, pp. x + 125. H.M.S.O., London.
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Taylor, B. J., Burgess, I. C., Land, D. H., Mills, D. A. C., Smith, D. B. and Warren, P. T. 1971. ''Northern England. ''British Regional Geology. 4th edn, pp. x+125. H.M.S.O., London.
  
 
=== Reference works ===
 
=== Reference works ===
  
Allaby, A. and Allaby, M. 1990. ''The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Earth Sciences. pp. xxi + 410. ''O.U.P., Oxford.
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Allaby, A. and Allaby, M. 1990. ''The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Earth Sciences. xxi+410pp. ''O.U.P., Oxford.
  
British Museum (Natural History). 1975. ''British Palaeozoic Fossils. ''4th edn. 203pp. London.
+
British Museum (Natural History) 1975. ''British Palaeozoic Fossils. ''4th edn. 203pp. London.
  
 
Hamilton, W. R., Woolley, A. R. & Bishop, A. C. 1992. ''Minerals, rocks and fossils. ''320pp. Hamlyn, London.
 
Hamilton, W. R., Woolley, A. R. & Bishop, A. C. 1992. ''Minerals, rocks and fossils. ''320pp. Hamlyn, London.
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=== Specific ===
 
=== Specific ===
  
Only works quoted in the text are listed here. Further articles on various aspects of the geology and geomorphology of Northumbria may be found particularly in the ''Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society ''as well as many other journals, British Geological Survey Memoirs, and Geologists' Association guides.
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Only works quoted in the text are listed here. Further articles on various aspects of the geology and geomorphology of Northumbria may be found particularly in the ''Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society ''as well as many other journals, British Geological Survey Memoirs, and Geologists Association guides.
  
Aspinall, I. J., Macklin, M. G. & Brewis, T. 1986. Metal mining and floodplain sedimentation at Garrigill, and their influence on terrace and floodplain soil development. ''In ''Macklin, M. G. & Rose, J. (eds). ''Quaternary river landforms and sediments in the northern Pennines: field guide, ''35–45. British Geomorphological Research Group and Quaternary Research Association.
+
Aspinall, I. J.; Macklin, M. G. & Brewis, T. 1986. Metal mining and floodpilaiti sedimentation at Garrigill, and their influence on terrace and floodplain soil development. ''In ''Macklin, M. G. & Rose, J. (ells). ''Quaternary river landforms and sediments in the northern Pennines: field guide, ''35-45. British Geomorphological Research Group and Quaternary Research Association.
  
Carruthers, R. G., Dinham, C. H., Burnett, G. A. & Maden, J. 1927. The Geology of Belford, Holy Island, and the Fame Islands. ''Memoir of the British Geological Survey, ''Sheet 4, pp. x + 195. H.M.S.O., London.
+
Carruthers, R. G., Dinham, C. H., Burnett, G. A. & Maden, J. 1927. The Geology of Belford, Holy Island, and the Fame Islands. ''Memoir of the British Geological Survey, ''Sheet 4, pp. x+195. H.M.S.O., London.
  
Cope, J. C. W., Ingham, J. K. & Rawson, P. F. (eds). 1992. Atlas of palaeogeography and lithofacies. Geological Society Memoir No. 13, 153pp, 106 maps.
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Cope, J. C. W., Ingham, J. K. & Rawson, P. F. (eds) 1992. Atlas of palaeogeography and lithofacies. Geological Society Memoir No. 13, 153pp, 106 maps.
  
Day, J. B. W. 1970. Geology of the country around Bewcastle. ''Memoir of the British Geological Survey, ''Sheet 12 (England and Wales), pp. xi + 357. H.M.S.O., London.
+
Day, J. B. W. 1970. Geology of the country around Bewcastle. ''Memoir of the British Geological Survey, ''Sheet 12 (England and Wales), pp. xi+357. H.M.S.O., London.
  
Dunham, K. C. 1990. Geology of the Northern Pennine Orefield, Volume 1. Tyne to Stainmore. 2nd edn., pp. x + 299. ''Memoir of the British Geological Survey, ''H.M.S.O., London.
+
Dunham, K. C. 1990. Geology of the Northern Pennine Orefield, Volume 1. Tyne to Stainmore. 2nd edn., pp x + 299. ''Memoir of the British Geological Survey, ''H.M.S.O., London.
  
Elliott, T. 1976. Sedimentary sequences from the Upper Limestone Group of Northumberland. ''Scottish Journal of Geology, '''''12''', 115–124.
+
Elliott, T. 1976. Sedimentary sequences from the Upper Limestone Group of Northumberland. ''Scottish Journal of Geology, ''12, 115-124.
  
Farmer, N. & Jones, J. M. 1969. The Carboniferous, Namurian rocks of the coast section from Howick Bay to Foxton Hall, Northumberland. ''Transactions of the Natural History Society of Northumberland, Durham and Newcastle upon Tyne, '''''17''', 1–27.
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Farmer, N. & Jones, J. M. 1969. The Carboniferous, Namurian rocks of the coast section from Howick Bay to Foxton Hall, Northumberland. ''Transactions of the Natural History Society of Northumberland, Durham and Newcastle upon Tyne, ''17, 1-27.
  
Frost, D. V. & Holliday, D. W. 1980. Geology of the country around Bellingham. ''Memoir of the British Geological Survey, ''Sheet 13, pp. x + 112. H.M.S.O., London.
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Frost, D. V. & Holliday, D. W. 1980. Geology of the country around Bellingham. ''Memoir of the British Geological Survey, ''Sheet 13, pp. x+ 112. H.M.S.O., London.
  
Fullerton, B. & Sharp, J. (eds.). 1980. ''Excursions in North-East England. ''102 pp. Department of Geography, University of Newcastle upon Tyne for the Geographical Association, Tyneside Branch.
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Fullerton, B. & Sharp, J. (Eds.) I980. ''Excursions in North-East England. ''102 pp. Department ofGeography, University of Newcastle upon Tyne for the Geographical Association, Tyneside Branch.
  
Grieg, D. C. 1988. Geology of the Eyemouth district. ''Memoir of the British Geological Survey, ''Sheet 34 (Scotland), pp. viii + 78. H.M.S.O., London.
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Grieg, D. C. 1988. Geology of the Eyemouth district. ''Memoir of the British Geological Survey, ''Sheet 34 (Scotland), pp. viii+ 78. H.M.S.O., London.
  
Hollingworth, N. T. J. & Pettigrew, T. H. 1988. ''Zechstein reef fossils and their palaeoecology. ''Palaeontological Association Guides to Fossils, No. 3, pp. iv + 75. London.
+
Hollingworth, N. T. J. & Pettigrew, T. H. 1988. ''Zechstein reeffossils and their palaeoecology. ''Palaeontological Association Guides to Fossils, No. 3, pp. iv+ 75. London.
  
 
Hunt, C. J. 1984. ''The lead miners of the northern Pennines in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. ''282pp. Davis, Newcastle upon Tyne.
 
Hunt, C. J. 1984. ''The lead miners of the northern Pennines in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. ''282pp. Davis, Newcastle upon Tyne.
  
Jhingran, A. G. 1943. The Cheviot Granite. ''Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, '''''98''', 241–254.
+
Jhingran, A. G. 1943. The Cheviot Granite. ''Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London, ''98, 241-254.
  
Johnson, G. A. L. 1952. A glacial erratic boulder of Shap Granite in South Northumberland. ''Geological Magazine '''''89''', 361–364.
+
Johnson, G. A. L. 1952. A glacial erratic boulder of Shap Granite in South Northumberland. ''Geological Magazine ''89, 361-364.
  
Johnson, G. A. L. 1959. The Carboniferous stratigraphy of the Roman Wall district in western Northumberland. ''Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society '''''32''', 83–130.
+
Johnson, G. A. L. 1959. The Carboniferous stratigraphy of the Roman Wall district in western Northumberland. ''Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society ''32, 83-130.
  
Johnson, G. A. L. & Richardson, G. 1990. Coal Measures of the River Wear Gorge at Durham, England. ''Transactions of the Natural History Society of Northumbria '''''55''', pt. 2, 84–96.
+
Johnson, G. A. L. & Richardson, G. 1990. Coal Measures of the River Wear Gorge at Durham, England. ''Transactions of the Natural History Society of Northumbria ''vol.55, pt. 2, 84-96.
  
Lumsden, G. I., Tulloch, W., Howells, M. F. & Davies, A. 1967. The Geology of the neighbourhood of Langholm. ''Memoir of the British Geological Survey, ''Sheet II (Scotland), pp. viii + 255. H.M.S.O., London.
+
Lumsden, G. I., Tulloch, W., Howells, M. F. & Davies, A. 1967. The Geology of the neighbourhood of Langholm. ''Memoir of the British Geological Survey, ''Sheet II (Scotland), pp. viii+255. H.M.S.O., London.
  
Lunn, A. G. 1980. Quaternary. ''In ''Robson, D.A. (ed.). ''The geology of North East England, ''48–60. Special Publication, Natural History Society of Northumbria. Newcastle upon Tyne.
+
Lunn, A. G. 1980. Quaternary. ''In ''Robson, D.A. (ed.). ''The geology of North East England, ''pp.48-60. Special Publication, Natural History Society of Northumbria. Newcastle upon Tyne.
  
 
McAdam, A. D., Clarkson, E. N. K. & Stone, P. 1992. ''Scottish Borders geology: an excursion guide. ''pp. x + 220. Scottish Academic Press.
 
McAdam, A. D., Clarkson, E. N. K. & Stone, P. 1992. ''Scottish Borders geology: an excursion guide. ''pp. x + 220. Scottish Academic Press.
  
Mills, D. A. C. & Hull, J. H. 1976. Geology of the country around Barnard Castle. ''Memoir of the British Geological Survey, ''Sheet 32, pp. xii + 385. H.M.S.O., London.
+
Mills, D. A. C. & Hull, J. H. 1976. Geology of the country around Barnard Castle. ''Memoir of the British Geological Survey, ''Sheet 32, pp. xii+ 385. H.M.S.O., London.
  
 
Raistrick, A. R. & Jennings, B. 1965. ''A history of lead mining in the Pennines. ''347 pp. Longmans, London.
 
Raistrick, A. R. & Jennings, B. 1965. ''A history of lead mining in the Pennines. ''347 pp. Longmans, London.
  
Randall, B. A. O. & Farmer, N. 1970. The Holy Island Dyke. ''Transactions of the Natural History Society of Northumberland, Durham and Newcastle upon Tyne, '''17''' , ''79–91.
+
Randall, B. A. ). & Farmer, N. 1970. The Holy Island Dyke. ''Transactions of the Natural History Society of Northumberland, Durham and Newcastle upon Tyne,17 , ''79-91.
 
 
Reynolds, A. D. 1992. Storm, wave and tide-dominated sedimentation in the Dinantian Middle Limestone Group, Northumbrian Basin. ''Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, '''49''', 1''35–148.
 
  
Scarboro, D. & Tucker, M. E. 1995. Amphibian footprints from the mid-Carboniferous of Northumberland, England. ''Palaeoecology, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeogeography, '''113''', ''335–349.
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Reynolds, A. D. 1992. Storm, wave and tide-dominated sedimentation in the Dinantian Middle Limestone Group, Northumbrian Basin. ''Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 49, 1''35-148.
  
Scotese, C. R. & McKerrow, W. S. 1990. Revised World maps and introduction. ''In ''McKerrow, W. S. & Scotese, C. R. (eds), ''Palaeozoic palaeogeography and biogeography. ''Geological Society Memoir No. 12, 1–21.
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Scarboro, D. & Tucker, M. E. 1995. Amphibian footprints from the mid-Carboniferous ofNorthumberland, England. ''Palaeoecology, Palaeoclimatology,Palaeogeography,113, ''335-349.
  
Smith, D. B., 1994. ''The geology of the Sunderland district. ''Memoir of the British Geological Survey, Sheet 21, pp. xii + 161. H.M.S.O., London.
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Scotese, C. R. & McKerrow, W. S. 1990. Revised World maps and introduction. ''In ''McKerrow, W. S. & Scotese, C. R. (eds) ''Palaeozoic palaeogeography and biogeography. ''Geological Society Memoir No. 12, I21.
  
Turnbull, L. 1975. ''The history of lead mining in the north east of England. ''80pp. Harold Hill and Son, Newcastle upon Tyne.
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Smith, D. B., 1994. ''The geology of the Sunderland district. ''Memoir of the British Geological Survey, Sheet 21, pp. xii+ 161. H.M.S.O., London. Turnbull, L. 1975. ''The history of lead mining in the north east of England. ''80pp. Harold Hill and Son, Newcastle upon Tyne.
  
 
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