Editing Northumbrian rocks and landscape: a field guide

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'''sphalerite '''(blende) ZnS Commonly a brown or black mineral with a resinous lustre and variable form. Most common ore of zinc.
 
'''sphalerite '''(blende) ZnS Commonly a brown or black mineral with a resinous lustre and variable form. Most common ore of zinc.
  
'''spillway''' 1. General term for glacial '''''meltwater '''''or '''''overflow channels. '''''2. Overflow channel constructed on a dam.
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'''spillway 1. '''General term for glacial '''''meltwater '''''or '''''overflow channels. '''''2. Overflow channel constructed on a dam.
  
 
'''sponge '''Primitive invertebrates with an asymmetrical body supported by spongin and/or siliceous or calcareous spicules. Some may have a massive calcareous basal skeleton.
 
'''sponge '''Primitive invertebrates with an asymmetrical body supported by spongin and/or siliceous or calcareous spicules. Some may have a massive calcareous basal skeleton.
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'''stope '''Underground excavation in a '''''vein.'''''
 
'''stope '''Underground excavation in a '''''vein.'''''
  
'''strike '''Intersection of a bedding plane, or other planar surface, with the horizontal.
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'''strike '''Intersection ofa bedding plane, or other planar surface, with the horizontal.
  
'''strike-slip''' See '''''fault.'''''
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'''strike-slip ''See fault.'''''
  
'''stromatolite '''A carbonate rock with a fine horizontal, domal or columnar banding, reflecting the control of deposition by an '''''algal '''''mat or microbial community living on the surface of the sediment.
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'''stromatolite '''A carbonate rock with a fine horizontal, domal or columnar banding, reflecting the control ofdeposition by an '''''algal '''''mat or microbial community living on the surface of the sediment.
  
 
'''stylolite '''An irregular, suture like contact, most common in limestones, produced by solution of the rock under high pressure.
 
'''stylolite '''An irregular, suture like contact, most common in limestones, produced by solution of the rock under high pressure.
  
'''subduction '''The process whereby oceanic crust descends into the interior of the Earth beneath oceanic or continental crust at a convergent '''''plate ''''' margin.
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'''subduction '''The process whereby oceanic crust descends into the interior of the Earth beneath oceanic or continental crust at a convergent ''plate ''margin.
  
'''suture''' 1. A linear zone of continental collision, marking the site of a former ocean. 2. Line of junction of septum with conch wall in cephalopods.
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'''suture 1. '''A linear zone ofcontinental collision, marking the site ofa former ocean. 2. Line ofjunction of septum with conch wall in cephalopods.
  
'''syncline''' See '''''fold.'''''
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'''syncline ''See fold.'''''
  
 
'''tachylite '''Black, glassy rock formed by chilling of a '''''basaltic '''''lava or shallow '''''igneous '''''intrusion.
 
'''tachylite '''Black, glassy rock formed by chilling of a '''''basaltic '''''lava or shallow '''''igneous '''''intrusion.
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'''tholeiitic basalt/dolerite '''A type of '''''basalt/ dolerite '''''oversaturated in silica, so that small amounts of '''''quartz '''''are present.
 
'''tholeiitic basalt/dolerite '''A type of '''''basalt/ dolerite '''''oversaturated in silica, so that small amounts of '''''quartz '''''are present.
  
'''throw '''Description of vertical component of movement on a '''''fault '''''plane. '''Downthrow '''emphasises the relative downward displacement of a block on one side of the fault, '''upthrow '''(less commonly used) emphasises the relative upward displacement of a block.
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'''throw '''Description of vertical component of movement on ''afault ''plane. '''Downthrow '''emphasises the relative downward displacement ofa block on one side of the fault, '''upthrow '''(less commonly used) emphasises the relative upward displacement of a block.
  
'''thrust''' See '''''fault.'''''
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'''thrust ''See fault.'''''
  
 
'''till '''(boulder clay) Collective term for the group of unsorted sediments laid down by direct action ofice.
 
'''till '''(boulder clay) Collective term for the group of unsorted sediments laid down by direct action ofice.
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'''tuff '''Lithified volcanic ash-fall.
 
'''tuff '''Lithified volcanic ash-fall.
  
'''turbidite '''Rock deposited from a '''turbidity current/flow, '''a fast flowing turbulent current charged with a high sediment load, commonly initiated by the disturbance of soft sediment on a slope. A turbidite is poorly sorted but may show grading and '''''sole structures '''''on its base.
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'''turbidite '''Rock deposited from a '''turbidity current/flow, '''a fast flowing turbulent current charged with a high sediment load, commonly initiated by the disturbance ofsoft sediment on a slope. A turbidite is poorly sorted but may show grading and '''''sole structures '''''on its base.
  
 
'''unconformity '''Surface of contact between two groups of rocks resulting from the tilting or folding and erosion of the lower group (often in an '''''orogenic '''''event) before the deposition of the upper group.
 
'''unconformity '''Surface of contact between two groups of rocks resulting from the tilting or folding and erosion of the lower group (often in an '''''orogenic '''''event) before the deposition of the upper group.
  
'''Variscan Orogeny '''See '''''orogeny.'''''
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'''Variscan Orogeny '''''See '''orogeny.'''''
  
 
'''vein/veinlet '''A fracture, usually sub-vertical, which is mineralized, often with '''''quartz '''''or '''''calcite. '''''Crystals may grow from the walls towards the centre. A '''mineral vein '''normally implies the presence of ore minerals.
 
'''vein/veinlet '''A fracture, usually sub-vertical, which is mineralized, often with '''''quartz '''''or '''''calcite. '''''Crystals may grow from the walls towards the centre. A '''mineral vein '''normally implies the presence of ore minerals.
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'''xenolith '''An inclusion of country rock within an '''''igneous '''''body.
 
'''xenolith '''An inclusion of country rock within an '''''igneous '''''body.
  
'''Yoredale '''Name applied to repeat cycles of limestone-shale-sandstone (-seatearth-coal) '''''(cyclothems) '''''in the Carboniferous (Dinantian, early Namurian), derived from the old name for Wensleydale, where they are typically developed.
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'''Yoredale '''Name applied to repeat cycles oflimestone-shale-sandstone (-seatearth-coal) '''''(cyclothems) '''''in the Carboniferous (Dinantian, early Namurian), derived from the old name for Wensleydale, where they are typically developed.
  
 
== Bibliography ==
 
== Bibliography ==

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