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These results demonstrate that in this short study, the injection of ''P. aeruginosa'' into the biotic experiment does not appear to impact on the physical transport properties of the Sherwood Sandstone. However, in other work which utilised the same organism and rock type but with no introduction of CO<sub>2</sub> saturated fluid, post-inoculation injection changes were observed. These included short but rapid saw-tooth like changes in the pressure profile (Wragg et al, 2012<ref name="Wragg 2012">WRAGG, J, HARRISON, H, WEST, J M, and YOSHIKAWA, H. 2012. Comparison of microbiological influences on the transport properties of intact mudstone and sandstone and its relevance to the geological disposal of radioactive waste. ''Mineralogical Magazine'' 76, 3251–3259.      </ref>). These impacts were not observed in the current study which suggests that the CO<sub>2</sub> saturated fluid was reducing the tendency for the microbes to alter permeability.
 
These results demonstrate that in this short study, the injection of ''P. aeruginosa'' into the biotic experiment does not appear to impact on the physical transport properties of the Sherwood Sandstone. However, in other work which utilised the same organism and rock type but with no introduction of CO<sub>2</sub> saturated fluid, post-inoculation injection changes were observed. These included short but rapid saw-tooth like changes in the pressure profile (Wragg et al, 2012<ref name="Wragg 2012">WRAGG, J, HARRISON, H, WEST, J M, and YOSHIKAWA, H. 2012. Comparison of microbiological influences on the transport properties of intact mudstone and sandstone and its relevance to the geological disposal of radioactive waste. ''Mineralogical Magazine'' 76, 3251–3259.      </ref>). These impacts were not observed in the current study which suggests that the CO<sub>2</sub> saturated fluid was reducing the tendency for the microbes to alter permeability.
  
After CO<sub>2</sub> injection, microbial numbers in the biotic experiment rapidly drop from ~1.16&nbsp;x&nbsp;107 ml<sup>-1</sup> (SE 8.01x105 ml<sup>-1</sup>) at 354 hours to approximately 105 organism’s ml<sup>-1</sup> at the end of the experiment ([[Media:OR12023fig5.jpg |Figure 5]]). In the control experiment, numbers in the outflow fluids drop from approximately 2.0&nbsp;x&nbsp;106 (SE 104 ml<sup>-1</sup>) to approximately 2.6&nbsp;x&nbsp;104 ml<sup>-1</sup> (SE 3&nbsp;x&nbsp;104 ml<sup>-1</sup>) at the end of the experiment. Thus, an indigenous population is present in the host rock. Other work (Harrison et al, 2011<ref name="Harrison 2011">HARRISON, H, WAGNER, D, YOSHIKAWA, H, WEST, J M, MILODOWSKI, A E, SASAKI, Y, TURNER, G, LACINSKA, A, HOLYOAKE, S, HARRINGTON, J, NOY, D, COOMBS, P, BATEMAN, K, and AOKI, K. 2011. Microbiological influences on fracture surfaces of intact mudstone and the implications for geological disposal of radioactive waste. ''Mineralogical Magazine'', 75, pp.2449–2466. [http://doi:10.1180/minmag.2011.075.4.2449 doi:10.1180/minmag.2011.075.4.2449].</ref>) has shown that such populations can impact on fluid transport in rocks because of the formation of biofilms that then impact on rock transport properties. In this study, such a build-up of pressure does not appear to occur in the biotic experiment where indigenous populations and injected ''P. aeruginosa'' appear to be impacted by the presence of CO<sub>2</sub>. However, a microbial
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After CO<sub>2</sub> injection, microbial numbers in the biotic experiment rapidly drop from ~1.16&nbsp;x&nbsp;107 ml<sup>-1</sup> (SE 8.01x105 ml<sup>-1</sup>) at 354 hours to approximately 105 organism’s ml<sup>-1</sup> at the end of the experiment ([[Media:OR12023fig5.jpg |Figure 5]]). In the control experiment, numbers in the outflow fluids drop from approximately 2.0&nbsp;x&nbsp;106 (SE 104 ml<sup>-1</sup>) to approximately 2.6&nbsp;x&nbsp;104 ml<sup>-1</sup> (SE 3&nbsp;x&nbsp;104 ml<sup>-1</sup>) at the end of the experiment. Thus, an indigenous population is present in the host rock. Other work (Harrison et al, 2011<ref name="Harrison 2011">HARRISON, H, WAGNER, D, YOSHIKAWA, H, WEST, J M, MILODOWSKI, A E, SASAKI, Y, TURNER, G, LACINSKA, A, HOLYOAKE, S, HARRINGTON, J, NOY, D, COOMBS, P, BATEMAN, K, and AOKI, K. 2011. Microbiological influences on fracture surfaces of intact mudstone and the implications for geological disposal of radioactive waste. ''Mineralogical Magazine'', 75, pp.2449–2466. doi: 10.1180/minmag.2011.075.4.2449.</ref>) has shown that such populations can impact on fluid transport in rocks because of the formation of biofilms that then impact on rock transport properties. In this study, such a build-up of pressure does not appear to occur in the biotic experiment where indigenous populations and injected ''P. aeruginosa'' appear to be impacted by the presence of CO<sub>2</sub>. However, a microbial
  
 
population still exists in the biotic experiments demonstrating that, despite the extreme environmental conditions generated by the presence of CO<sub>2</sub>, microorganisms are able to survive. It is possible that the impacts of these microbes on fluid flow will take longer to observe because a period of acclimatisation may be necessary. Consequently, it is important to carry out longer term experiments in order to determine the significance of microbial activity on transport of CO<sub>2</sub> in host rocks relevant to carbon capture and storage.
 
population still exists in the biotic experiments demonstrating that, despite the extreme environmental conditions generated by the presence of CO<sub>2</sub>, microorganisms are able to survive. It is possible that the impacts of these microbes on fluid flow will take longer to observe because a period of acclimatisation may be necessary. Consequently, it is important to carry out longer term experiments in order to determine the significance of microbial activity on transport of CO<sub>2</sub> in host rocks relevant to carbon capture and storage.

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