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Field experiments (Gradsinski, 2010<ref name="Gradsinski 2010">GRADZINSKI, M. 2010. Factors controlling growth rather of modern tufa: results of a field experiment. In: Pedley, H M, and Rogerson, M (eds), Tufa and speleothems: unravelling the Microbial and Physical Controls. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 336, pages, 119–142.</ref>; Arenas et al, 2010) record the growth rate of tufa in active streams, by installing small limestone ‘tablets’ into the flowing water. Sedimentation rates (tufa formation) were variable with a maximum of 13.1&nbsp;mm/year (Arenas et al, 2010) however Gradzinski (2010) note there was no common seasonal trend in tufa growth rates. Although growth rates were variable, both studies suggest that tufa formation will occur within relatively short time frames on suitable material introduced into the water courses. This has promising implications for restoration and suggests that if the correct materials are used (possibly local stones) that tufa formation and the establishment of an associated bryophyte flora will follow.
 
Field experiments (Gradsinski, 2010<ref name="Gradsinski 2010">GRADZINSKI, M. 2010. Factors controlling growth rather of modern tufa: results of a field experiment. In: Pedley, H M, and Rogerson, M (eds), Tufa and speleothems: unravelling the Microbial and Physical Controls. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 336, pages, 119–142.</ref>; Arenas et al, 2010) record the growth rate of tufa in active streams, by installing small limestone ‘tablets’ into the flowing water. Sedimentation rates (tufa formation) were variable with a maximum of 13.1&nbsp;mm/year (Arenas et al, 2010) however Gradzinski (2010) note there was no common seasonal trend in tufa growth rates. Although growth rates were variable, both studies suggest that tufa formation will occur within relatively short time frames on suitable material introduced into the water courses. This has promising implications for restoration and suggests that if the correct materials are used (possibly local stones) that tufa formation and the establishment of an associated bryophyte flora will follow.
  
Several EU LIFE projects have focused on the restoration of petrifying springs , including: LIFE03<ref name="LIFE 03"></ref> ‘Kalktuffquellen Frankenalb’; LIFE 12 ‘Springday’<ref name="LIFE 12"></ref> and LIFE14 ‘RigKilde’<ref name="LIFE 14">LIFE14 NAT/DK/000606 RigKilde-LIFE&nbsp;—&nbsp;Restoration and conservation of petrifying springs (*7220), calcareous fens (*7210) and alkaline fens (7230) in Denmark 2015 to 2020. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/life/project/Projects</ref> (Full details of these restoration projects can be found on the EU LIFE website [http://www.ec.europa.eu/environment/life/project/Projects/ www.ec.europa.eu/environment/life/project/Projects]. Removal of spruce, the shade from which caused tufa mosses to die off, and replacement with deciduous woodland has proved successful in (LIFE03<ref name="LIFE 03"></ref>), as has the removal of organic material, which has negative effects on tufa springs (LIFE03<ref name="LIFE 03">LIFE03 NAT/D/000002 Kalktuffquellen Frankenalb&nbsp;—&nbsp;Measures of optimisation of petrifying springs with tufa formation (Cratoneurion) and their surroundings in the Franconian Alb (2003–2007). http://ec.europa.eu/environment/life/project/Projects</ref>). LIFE12<ref name="LIFE 12">LIFE 12 NAT/EE/000860 LIFE Springday&nbsp;—&nbsp;Conservation and restoration of petrifying spring habitats (code *7220) in Estonia 2013–2018. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/life/project/Projects</ref> project is investigating the design of rapids by using local stone in the watercourses. We contacted the project team but the project is not due to be completed until next year (2018) so they did not have any publications that illustrated their in stream engineering. LIFE14<ref name="LIFE 14"></ref> is still in progress and is focusing on restoring the hydrology and increasing the area of favourable H7220 habitat.
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Several EU LIFE projects have focused on the restoration of petrifying springs , including: LIFE03<ref name="LIFE 03"></ref> ‘Kalktuffquellen Frankenalb’; LIFE 12 ‘Springday’<ref name="LIFE 12">LIFE 12 NAT/EE/000860 LIFE Springday&nbsp;—&nbsp;Conservation and restoration of petrifying spring habitats (code*7220) in Estonia 2013–2018. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/life/project/Projects      </ref> and LIFE14 ‘RigKilde’<ref name="LIFE 14">LIFE14 NAT/DK/000606 RigKilde-LIFE&nbsp;—&nbsp;Restoration and conservation of petrifying springs (*7220), calcareous fens (*7210) and alkaline fens (7230) in Denmark 2015 to 2020. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/life/project/Projects</ref> (Full details of these restoration projects can be found on the EU LIFE website [http://www.ec.europa.eu/environment/life/project/Projects/ www.ec.europa.eu/environment/life/project/Projects]. Removal of spruce, the shade from which caused tufa mosses to die off, and replacement with deciduous woodland has proved successful in (LIFE03<ref name="LIFE 03"></ref>), as has the removal of organic material, which has negative effects on tufa springs (LIFE03<ref name="LIFE 03">LIFE03 NAT/D/000002 Kalktuffquellen Frankenalb&nbsp;—&nbsp;Measures of optimisation of petrifying springs with tufa formation (Cratoneurion) and their surroundings in the Franconian Alb (2003–2007). http://ec.europa.eu/environment/life/project/Projects</ref>). LIFE12<ref name="LIFE 12">LIFE 12 NAT/EE/000860 LIFE Springday&nbsp;—&nbsp;Conservation and restoration of petrifying spring habitats (code *7220) in Estonia 2013–2018. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/life/project/Projects</ref> project is investigating the design of rapids by using local stone in the watercourses. We contacted the project team but the project is not due to be completed until next year (2018) so they did not have any publications that illustrated their in stream engineering. LIFE14<ref name="LIFE 14"></ref> is still in progress and is focusing on restoring the hydrology and increasing the area of favourable H7220 habitat.
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
 
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[[Category: OR/17/020 Survey, characterisation and condition assessment of Palustriella dominated springs 'H7220 Petrifying springs with tufa formation (Cratoneurion)' in Gloucestershire, England  | 08]]
 
[[Category: OR/17/020 Survey, characterisation and condition assessment of Palustriella dominated springs 'H7220 Petrifying springs with tufa formation (Cratoneurion)' in Gloucestershire, England  | 08]]

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