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WOLSELEY, P A, JAMES, P A, THEOBALD, M R, and SUTTON, M. A. 2006. Detecting changes in epiphytic lichen communities at sites affected by atmospheric ammonia from agricultural sources. The Lichenologist. 38: 161–176</ref>; Mitchell et al., 2005<ref name="Mitchell  2005">MITCHELL, R J, TRUSCOT, A M, LEITH, I D, CAPE, J N, VAN DIJK, N, TANG, Y S, FOWLER, D, and SUTTON, M A. 2005. A study of the epiphytic communities of Atlantic oak woods along an atmospheric nitrogen deposition gradient. Journal of Ecology 93/3: 482–492</ref>; Stevens et al, 2012<ref name="Stevens 2012">STEVENS, C J, SMART, S M, HENRYS, P A, MASKELL, L C, CROWE, A, SIMKIN, J, CHEFFINGS, C M, WHITEFORD, C, GOWING, D J G, and ROWE, E C. 2012. Terricolous lichens as indicators of nitrogen deposition: Evidence from national records. Ecological Indicators 20: 196–203.</ref>).
 
WOLSELEY, P A, JAMES, P A, THEOBALD, M R, and SUTTON, M. A. 2006. Detecting changes in epiphytic lichen communities at sites affected by atmospheric ammonia from agricultural sources. The Lichenologist. 38: 161–176</ref>; Mitchell et al., 2005<ref name="Mitchell  2005">MITCHELL, R J, TRUSCOT, A M, LEITH, I D, CAPE, J N, VAN DIJK, N, TANG, Y S, FOWLER, D, and SUTTON, M A. 2005. A study of the epiphytic communities of Atlantic oak woods along an atmospheric nitrogen deposition gradient. Journal of Ecology 93/3: 482–492</ref>; Stevens et al, 2012<ref name="Stevens 2012">STEVENS, C J, SMART, S M, HENRYS, P A, MASKELL, L C, CROWE, A, SIMKIN, J, CHEFFINGS, C M, WHITEFORD, C, GOWING, D J G, and ROWE, E C. 2012. Terricolous lichens as indicators of nitrogen deposition: Evidence from national records. Ecological Indicators 20: 196–203.</ref>).
  
A recent analysis of groundwater dependent terrestrial ecosystems (GWDTEs) in England and Wales (Farr and Hall, 2014<ref name="Farr 2014"></ref> which includes the Petrifying Springs Habitat H7220, found that nitrogen deposition exceeded the critical loads for a least one habitat features in 64% of GWDTEs (which also includes the H7220 habitat). However, the multiple potential sources of nitrogen (source), its fate within wetlands (pathway) and the impact on habitats (receptor) is not simple to unravel. Coupled with the need to consider the combined effects of multiple sources of nitrogen (atmospheric, surface water, groundwater) that may result in detrimental pressures to a habitat we also need to consider the potential effect of poor site management, under&nbsp;—&nbsp;over grazing and succession may have on habitat condition.
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A recent analysis of groundwater dependent terrestrial ecosystems (GWDTEs) in England and Wales (Farr and Hall, 2014<ref name="Farr 2014">FARR and HALL. 2014. Atmospheric deposition at groundwater dependent wetlands: i mplications for effective catchment management and Water Framework Directive groundwater classification in England and Wales. Nottingham, UK, British Geological Survey, 62pp (OR/14/047) http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/510750/.</ref> which includes the Petrifying Springs Habitat H7220, found that nitrogen deposition exceeded the critical loads for a least one habitat features in 64% of GWDTEs (which also includes the H7220 habitat). However, the multiple potential sources of nitrogen (source), its fate within wetlands (pathway) and the impact on habitats (receptor) is not simple to unravel. Coupled with the need to consider the combined effects of multiple sources of nitrogen (atmospheric, surface water, groundwater) that may result in detrimental pressures to a habitat we also need to consider the potential effect of poor site management, under&nbsp;—&nbsp;over grazing and succession may have on habitat condition.
  
 
Critical Loads for the petrifying springs habitat have not been defined specifically in the UK, however a recommended critical load is available and this is based upon based upon the corresponding EUNIS class (Hall et al., 2015<ref name="Hall 2015">HALL, J, CURTIS, C, DORE, T, and SMITH, R. 2015. Methods for the calculation of critical loads and their exceedances in the UK. Report to DEFRA, prepared under contract AQ0826. http://www.cldm.ceh.ac.uk/sites/cldm.ceh.ac.uk/files/MethodsReport_Updated_July2015_WEB.pdf</ref>). In England and Wales, or the current Annex 1 assessments, the EUNIS class D4.2 critical loads are applied. The current critical load range for this habitat is 15–25 kg N/ha/yr, with a recommended critical load of 15&nbsp;kg N/ha/year which we have applied to the petrifying springs habitats in this study. The results (Table&nbsp;7) show that all but three of the sites have modelled total nitrogen deposition that exceeds the recommended critical load. Only the coastal sites, Aust and Lydney are significantly below the critical load, and one island site Strawberry Banks has an average annual deposition just less than 15&nbsp;kg N/ha/year.
 
Critical Loads for the petrifying springs habitat have not been defined specifically in the UK, however a recommended critical load is available and this is based upon based upon the corresponding EUNIS class (Hall et al., 2015<ref name="Hall 2015">HALL, J, CURTIS, C, DORE, T, and SMITH, R. 2015. Methods for the calculation of critical loads and their exceedances in the UK. Report to DEFRA, prepared under contract AQ0826. http://www.cldm.ceh.ac.uk/sites/cldm.ceh.ac.uk/files/MethodsReport_Updated_July2015_WEB.pdf</ref>). In England and Wales, or the current Annex 1 assessments, the EUNIS class D4.2 critical loads are applied. The current critical load range for this habitat is 15–25 kg N/ha/yr, with a recommended critical load of 15&nbsp;kg N/ha/year which we have applied to the petrifying springs habitats in this study. The results (Table&nbsp;7) show that all but three of the sites have modelled total nitrogen deposition that exceeds the recommended critical load. Only the coastal sites, Aust and Lydney are significantly below the critical load, and one island site Strawberry Banks has an average annual deposition just less than 15&nbsp;kg N/ha/year.

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