Editing Permian and Carboniferous rocks of Knaresborough - an excursion

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=== Locality 7 [SE 361 570] ===
 
=== Locality 7 [SE 361 570] ===
  
Continue along the riverside road to the north-northeast for about 500 m where St Robert's Cave is situated in the river bank below the road; entry is through a gap in the wall and down a flight of steps. This cave was the former abode of the pious monk Robert Flower of York from Fountains Abbey, AD 1160–1218. He took refuge in the cave and turned another cave into St Robert's Chapel (Locality 3). The cave also gained notoriety as the scene in 1745 of the murder of Daniel Clark, for which crime Eugene Aram, a scholar of considerable ability, was hanged at York in 1759. At St Robert's Cave thin sub-horizontal beds of cross-bedded, oolitic dolomite are exposed with a channel structure to the south of the cave entrance. These beds are sparsely fossiliferous and probably represent the Wetherby Member (lower subdivision) of the Cadeby Formation. The member must, however, wedge out rapidly southwards because it is not present at Grimbald Crag (Locality 8) only 300 m to the south. From St Robert's Cave proceed northwards along the road, cross the River Nidd by the Wetherby Road, and head southwards on the riverside footpath to Grimbald Crag.
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Continue along the riverside road to the north-northeast for about 500 m where St Robert's Cave is situated in the river bank below the road; entry is through a gap in the wall and down a flight of steps. This cave was the former abode of the pious monk Robert Flower of York from Fountains Abbey, AD 1160–1218. He took refuge in the cave and turned another cave into St Robert's Chapel (Locality 3). The cave also gained notoriety as the scene in 1745 of the murder of Daniel Clark, for which crime Eugene Aram, a scholar of considerable ability, was hanged at York in 1759. At St Robert's Cave thin sub-horizontal beds of cross-bedded, oolitic dolomite are exposed with a channel structure to the south of the cave entrance. These beds are sparsely fossiliferous and probably represent the Wetherby Member (lower subdivision) of the Cadeby Formation. The member must, however, wedge out rapidly southwards because it is not present at Grimbald Crag (Locality 8) only 300 m to the south. From St Robert's Cave proceed northwards along the road, cross the River Nidd by the Wetherby Road, and head southwards on the riverside footpath to Grimbald Crag.
  
 
=== Locality 8 [SE 361 558] ===
 
=== Locality 8 [SE 361 558] ===
  
Grimbald Crag exposes a sequence similiar to that found at Abbey Crags and reveals another hill in the pre-Permian topography. About 16 m of massive, cross-bedded dolomite rest unconformably on reddened Lower Plompton Grit with one footpath running along the unconformity. The unconformity was formerly exposed overlain by about 2 m of evenly bedded dolomitic limestone; then by massive cross-bedded units typical of the area (Dr D. B. Smith, pers. comm.). The unconformity is now obscured, but the lowest Permian beds seen contain abundant derived quartz grains. South of Grimbald Crag a '''fault, downthrowing''' to the south, brings the Brotherton Formation limestone outcrop against that of the Lower Plompton Grit.
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Grimbald Crag exposes a sequence similiar to that found at Abbey Crags and reveals another hill in the pre-Permian topography. About 16 m of massive, cross-bedded dolomite rest unconformably on reddened Lower Plompton Grit with one footpath running along the unconformity. The unconformity was formerly exposed overlain by about 2 m of evenly bedded dolomitic limestone; then by massive cross-bedded units typical of the area (Dr D. B. Smith, pers. comm.). The unconformity is now obscured, but the lowest Permian beds seen contain abundant derived quartz grains. South of Grimbald Crag a fault, downthrowing to the south, brings the Brotherton Formation limestone outcrop against that of the Lower Plompton Grit.
  
 
=== Locality 9 [SE 3567 5552] ===
 
=== Locality 9 [SE 3567 5552] ===
  
The Brotherton Formation limestone is poorly exposed at the top of the bank west of Birkham Wood. This poor exposure comprises 1.5 m of white and pale grey, thin-bedded, porcellanous, dolomitic limestone which contains fossils. These include small tube-like '''algal''' threads of ''Calcinema permiana ''which commonly occur in drifts and other concentrations, as well as the '''bivalves''' ''Schizodus obscurus ''and ''Liebea.''
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The Brotherton Formation limestone is poorly exposed at the top of the bank west of Birkham Wood. This poor exposure comprises 1.5 m of white and pale grey, thin-bedded, porcellanous, dolomitic limestone which contains fossils. These include small tube- like algal threads of ''Calcinema permiana ''which commonly occur in drifts and other concentrations, as well as the bivalves ''Schizodus obscurus ''and ''Liebea.''
  
 
=== Locality 10 [SE 356 556] ===
 
=== Locality 10 [SE 356 556] ===

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