Editing Piltdown Man forgery

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| style="vertical-align:top;" | 1908
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | 1908
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | The Piltdown discovery
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | The Piltdown discovery
| style="vertical-align:top;" | Charles Dawson was steward of Barkham Manor, near Piltdown, East Sussex and it was while attending a manorial court that he noticed workmen digging gravel for road-mending beside the driveway to the house. The gravel was not depicted on the Geological Survey map of the time, but the deposit appeared to be the remnant of an old river-bed. Dawson asked the workmen to keep a look out for any interesting fossils, and it was during one of his periodic visits, in about 1908, that the first Piltdown skull fragment was handed to him. According to Dawson, it was not until the autumn of 1911 that further fragments of the skull were recovered.
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| style="vertical-align:top;" | Charles Dawson was steward of Barkham Manor, near Piltdown, and it was while attending a manorial court that he noticed workmen digging gravel for road-mending beside the driveway to the house. The gravel was not shown on the Geological Survey map of the time, and the deposit appeared to be the remnant of an old river-bed. He asked the workmen to keep a look out for any interesting fossils, and it was during one of his periodic visits, in about 1908, that the first Piltdown skull fragment was handed to him. According to Dawson, it was not until the autumn of 1911 that further fragments of the skull were recovered.
| style="vertical-align:top;" | [[File:Piltdown 006.jpg|150px| Old Series one-inch to the mile Geological Survey map covering East Sussex, sheet 5, 1893 edition. The location of Piltdown is shown in the inset map. © NERC]]
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| style="vertical-align:top;" | [[File:Piltdown 006.jpg|150px|A NERC Reproduction of an Ordnance Survey of England and Wales map. Old Series one-inch to the mile Geological Survey map covering East Sussex, sheet 5, 1893 edition. The location of Piltdown is shown in the inset map]]
 
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| style="vertical-align:top;" | 14 February, 1912
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | 14 February, 1912
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | How’s that for Heidelberg?
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | How’s that for Heidelberg?
| style="vertical-align:top;" | On 14 February 1912 Dawson wrote to the Keeper of Geology at the Natural History Museum, Arthur Smith Woodward, and mentioned his discovery of a portion of a human skull in a gravel pit at Barkham Manor, near Piltdown in Sussex. Dawson said that it would ‘rival ''H. heidelbergensis'' in solidity.’ On 24 May 1912, Woodward received the Piltdown finds from Dawson‘s hands with the words ‘How’s that for Heidelberg?’
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| style="vertical-align:top;" | On 14 February 1912 Dawson wrote to the Keeper of Geology at the Natural History Museum, Arthur Smith Woodward, and mentioned a portion of a human skull that he had found in a gravel pit at Barkham Manor, near Piltdown in Sussex. Dawson said that it would ‘rival ''H. heidelbergensis'' in solidity.’ On 24 May 1912, Woodward received the Piltdown finds from Dawson‘s hands with the words ‘How’s that for Heidelberg?’
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | [[File:Piltdown 007.png|150px|The letter that Charles Dawson wrote to Smith Woodward announcing the discovery of Piltdown; 14 February 1912. Highlighted is the sentence ‘I think portion of a human (?) skull which will rival H. heidelbergensis in solidity’ © Natural History Museum (DF PAL/100/53/220)]]
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | [[File:Piltdown 007.png|150px|The letter that Charles Dawson wrote to Smith Woodward announcing the discovery of Piltdown; 14 February 1912. Highlighted is the sentence ‘I think portion of a human (?) skull which will rival H. heidelbergensis in solidity’ © Natural History Museum (DF PAL/100/53/220)]]
 
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| style="vertical-align:top;" | June, 1912
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | June, 1912
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | Further discoveries
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | Further discoveries
| style="vertical-align:top;" | On 2 June 1912, Smith Woodward, Dawson and Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, a French Jesuit priest and avid fossil collector, arrived at Barkham Manor to begin excavation of the gravel. They were assisted by a labourer, probably Venus Hargreaves. Dawson discovered another fragment of the skull, while Teilhard found a flint implement and part of a molar tooth of a primitive elephant identified at the time as ''Stegodon''.
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| style="vertical-align:top;" | On 2 June, Smith Woodward, Dawson and Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, a French Jesuit priest and avid fossil collector, arrived at Barkham Manor to begin excavation of the gravel. They were assisted by a labourer, probably ‘Venus’ Hargreaves. Dawson discovered another fragment of the skull, while Teilhard de Chardin found a flint implement and part of a molar tooth of a primitive elephant identified at the time as ''Stegodon''.
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | [[File:Piltdown 008.png|150px|Piltdown skull fragments. © Natural History Museum (Image: 039919)]]
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | [[File:Piltdown 008.png|150px|Piltdown skull fragments. © Natural History Museum (Image: 039919)]]
 
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| style="vertical-align:top;" | June, 1912
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | June, 1912
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | Ape-like lower jaw
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | Ape-like lower jaw
| style="vertical-align:top;" | Dawson and Smith Woodward continued digging through June, July and August 1912 (Teilhard returned to France in early July). Three further skull fragments were discovered and more significantly a portion of an ape-like lower jaw. During the remainder of the season further flint implements, teeth of beaver, a mastodon (an extinct relative of the elephant) and a horse, along with a fragment of red deer antler were recovered.
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| style="vertical-align:top;" | Dawson and Smith Woodward continued digging through June, July and August (Teilhard returned to France in early July). Three further skull fragments were discovered and more significantly a portion of an ape-like lower jaw. During the remainder of the season further flint implements, teeth of beaver, a mastodon (an extinct relative of the elephant) and a horse, along with a fragment of red deer antler were recovered.
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | [[File:Piltdown 009.jpg|150px|Piltdown lower jaw. © Natural History Museum (Image:039920)]]
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | [[File:Piltdown 009.jpg|150px|Piltdown lower jaw. © Natural History Museum (Image:039920)]]
 
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| style="vertical-align:top;" | 1913
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | 1913
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | Canine tooth
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | Canine tooth
| style="vertical-align:top;" | The most significant find in the summer of 1913 was made by Teilhard de Chardin, who had returned to England in early August. On 30 August, Dawson, Smith Woodward and Teilhard were making an intensive search for the missing teeth of the lower jaw when Teilhard found an ape-like canine tooth, which proved to be of crucial importance in supporting Woodward’s conjectural restoration of ''Eoanthropus''.
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| style="vertical-align:top;" | The most significant find in the summer of 1913 was made by Teilhard de Chardin, who had returned to England in early August. On 30 August, Dawson, Smith Woodward and Teilhard de Chardin were making an intensive search for the missing teeth of the lower jaw when Teilhard de Chardin found an ape-like canine tooth, which proved to be of crucial importance in supporting Woodward’s conjectural restoration of ''Eoanthropus''.
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | [[File:Piltdown 014.jpg|150px|The canine tooth with the jaw. © Natural History Museum (Image: 040463)]]
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | [[File:Piltdown 014.jpg|150px|The canine tooth with the jaw. © Natural History Museum (Image: 040463)]]
 
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| style="vertical-align:top;" | Discovery at Barcombe Mills
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | Discovery at Barcombe Mills
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | In a letter to Smith Woodward, dated 3 July 1913, Dawson claimed to have ‘picked up the frontal part of a human skull this evening on a ploughed field covered with flint gravel’. He would only say that the location was a long way from Piltdown, but he thought that the skull, although not thick, might be a descendant of ''Eoanthropus''. The unnamed location is believed to be a hill above Barcombe Mills railway station, about six kilometres south of Barkham Manor. Nothing more would be heard of this ‘find’ until 1949!  
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | In a letter to Smith Woodward, dated 3 July 1913, Dawson claimed to have ‘picked up the frontal part of a human skull this evening on a ploughed field covered with flint gravel’. He would only say that the location was a long way from Piltdown, but he thought that the skull, although not thick, might be a descendant of ''Eoanthropus''. The unnamed location is believed to be a hill above Barcombe Mills railway station, about six kilometres south of Barkham Manor. Nothing more would be heard of this ‘find’ until 1949!  
| style="vertical-align:top;" | [[File:Piltdown 015.jpg|150px|Part of gravel-capped plateau at Crink Hill, just north of Barcombe Mills Station (photo taken in 1925). © BGS/NERC (Image: P202894)]]
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| style="vertical-align:top;" | [[File:Piltdown 015.jpg|150px|Part of gravel-capped plateau at Crink Hill, just north of Barcombe Mills Station © BGS/NERC (Image: P202894)]]
 
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| style="vertical-align:top;" | 1914
 
| style="vertical-align:top;" | 1914

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